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Comac C919

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C919
The first C919 delivered to China Eastern Airlines, the type's launch operator
Role Narrow-body airliner
National origin China
Manufacturer Commercial Aircraft Corporation of China, Ltd.
Designer Wu Guanghui
First flight 5 May 2017; 7 years ago (2017-05-05)[1]
Introduction 28 May 2023 with China Eastern Airlines[2]
Status 6 in service
Primary user China Eastern Airlines
Produced 2015–present
Number built 12[a][3][4][5]

The Comac C919 is a narrow-body airliner developed by Chinese aircraft manufacturer Comac. The development program was launched in 2008. Production began in December 2011, with the first prototype being rolled out on 2 November 2015; the maiden flight took place on 5 May 2017. On 29 September 2022 the C919 received its CAAC type certificate. The first production airframe was delivered to China Eastern Airlines on 9 December 2022 and was put into commercial passenger service on 28 May 2023.

The aircraft, primarily constructed with aluminium alloys, is powered by CFM International LEAP turbofan engines and carries 156 to 168 passengers in a normal operating configuration up to 5,555 km (3000 nmi; 3,500 mi). In 2023, COMAC announced that it would develop both a shortened and a stretched version of the passenger jet – similar to the sub-variants offered for the competing Boeing 737 MAX and Airbus A320neo family.

Naming[edit]

In the model number, the C stands for "Comac" and "China".[6] The C also forms an "ABC" parallel situation with Airbus and Boeing.[7]

Development[edit]

Model of the C919 from 2010.

The 2008 program launch initially targeted a maiden flight in 2014.[8] Comac applied for a type certificate for the aircraft from the Civil Aviation Authority of China on 28 October 2010.[9] At that time the company intended to manufacture up to 2,300 aircraft of the type.[10] In June 2011, COMAC and Irish low-cost airline Ryanair signed an agreement to co-operate on the development of the C919.[11] In 2012 Airbus' chief strategist Marwan Lahoud assumed that the aircraft would offer competition to Airbus by 2020.[12]

Preliminary design[edit]

On 24 November 2011, Comac announced the completion of the joint definition phase, marking the end of the preliminary design phase for the C919, with estimated completion of the detailed design phase in 2012.[13] Production of the first C919 prototype began on 9 December 2011.[14] The C919's aerodynamics were designed with the help of the Tianhe-2 supercomputer.[15] The annual production was targeted at 150 planes by 2020.[16] Canada's Bombardier Aerospace started collaborating in March 2012 on supply chain services, electrical systems, human interface, cockpit, flight training, flight-test support, sales, and marketing.[17]

Prototyping[edit]

Its announced development budget was CN¥58 billion (US$9.5 billion) but its actual cost was estimated at well over CN¥125 billion (US$20 billion).[18] The first prototype was expected to complete final assembly in 2014 and perform its first flight in 2015;[19] however, delivery was delayed again until 2018 due to technical difficulties and supply issues.[20] At the November 2014 Zhuhai Airshow, it was announced that the first flight would be delayed to 2017.[21] On 2 November 2015, Comac rolled out its first C919 aircraft.[22][23][24]

In May 2018, the development of a composite wing completed in 2012 was revealed years after abandoning it for a metallic one, as static and damage tolerance tests were completed, verifying the structural design and strength before full-size composite wingbox tests.[25] On 12 July, the static test aircraft simulated a 2.5g manoeuvre with a 150% ultimate load, bending the wings at the tips by nearly three metres for three seconds.[26]

US espionage allegations[edit]

According to a report from cybersecurity firm Crowdstrike and a US Justice Department indictment, from 2010 to 2015 the Chinese cyberthreat actor Turbine Panda, linked to the Ministry of State Security's Jiangsu Bureau, penetrated a number of the C919's foreign components manufacturers including Ametek, Capstone Turbine, GE Aviation, Honeywell, Safran, and others and stole intellectual property and industrial process data with the aim of transitioning component manufacturing to Chinese companies.[27][28][29][30] The report stated that the operations involved both cyber intrusion and theft as well as HUMINT operations, in most cases using a piece of code custom written for this industrial espionage operation.[27][28][29][30] As of 2019, four people have been arrested in the US as a result of investigations into this economic espionage and theft of trade secrets.[30]

In November 2022, a federal jury in Cincinnati convicted Yanjun Xu, 42, on counts of conspiracy to commit economic espionage, conspiracy to commit trade secret theft, attempted economic espionage and attempted trade secret theft. The US court found that Xu played a key role in a plot to steal trade secrets from western aerospace firms, for the purpose of helping the C919 commercial airliner program. He was sentenced to 20 years in prison.[31]

Flight testing[edit]

The first prototype ground tested

2017[edit]

The C919 during its maiden flight on 5 May 2017

High-speed taxi tests by the first C919 prototype were completed in April 2017[32] and the first flight took place on 5 May 2017.[33][34] At the time, Comac had a planned test programme of 4,200 flight hours and introduction to service in 2020.[1] It was estimated that this could be delayed into 2021.[35] The European Aviation Safety Agency is intended to validate the Chinese type certificate.[36] The 4,200 hours of testing planned were higher than the 3,000 hours typically required for the Airbus or Boeing narrowbodies, but lower than the 5,000 hours needed for the ARJ21.[37]

Comac had its second prototype ready on 28 July 2017, aiming to fly it within the year for engine, APU, fuel system and extreme weather tests. The flight-test plan included six aircraft.[38] On 28 September, it made its second flight at 10,000 ft (3,000 m), which lasted 2 hours 46 minutes, although it was supposed to last one more hour.[39] The five-month delay between first and second flights, while the second prototype was being ground-tested, was extraordinary: in 2013 the Airbus A350 flew again after five days and in 2015 the troubled Mitsubishi MRJ flew again after eight days.[40]

On 3 November, it made its third flight in 3h 45min, reaching 3,000 m (9,800 ft).[41] It was transferred on 10 November from Shanghai to Xi'an to continue its flight test program, a 2h 24min, 1,300 km (700 nmi; 810 mi) flight reaching 7,800 m (25,600 ft) and Mach 0.74 (825 km/h; 445 kn).[42]

The second prototype first flight on 17 December 2017

The second prototype made its first flight on 17 December 2017. The flight test program allocated the first three prototypes for aircraft performance and engine and power systems testing, the fourth prototype for avionics and electrical system, and the fifth and sixth prototypes for passenger facilities, including the cabin and information system.[citation needed]

2018[edit]

The delay between first and subsequent flights underlined the program immaturity by maiden flight: flying early at low speed and altitude is possible but faster and higher is limited by aeroelastic flutter needing ground vibration testing and aircraft instrumentation which were not ready in May.[43] Due to flight testing problems, the 2020 introduction previously scheduled was delayed to 2021, for China Eastern Airlines.[44] In February 2018, the first prototype was flying more than once a week.[45]

In June 2018, Aviation Week reported flight-test aircraft grounding for modifications, extending the schedule by three months but maintaining a 2020 certification target. The two prototypes needed their flaps and tailplanes modified, due to delamination of the carbon-fiber reinforced plastic elevators.[46] The third test aircraft was also being modified and maximum-rate pressurization was tested. As three other planes were available in 2019, Comac maintained first deliveries for 2021.[47]

Comac denied any grounding and highlighted that modifications were part of the flight test process, stating the two first aircraft were flying stability tests and checking systems. The first was calibrated and had its counterweight and trailing cone systems modified while the second had its functions and systems checked. The third was in final assembly with its wing and fuselage joined, cables and systems were being installed for a first flight target by the end of the year.[48] On 12 July, the second prototype flew from Shanghai-Pudong to Dongying Airport in 1h 46min to allow for various meteorological conditions testing.[26] In September, Comac expected to conduct 1,500 test flights for over 2,000 flying hours before the first delivery and planned to fly the third prototype before the end of 2018.[49]

In October 2018, the flight-deck design was re-evaluated to comply with US FAR Part 25.1302, which is not required by CAAC but would be needed for FAA certification in order to sell the aircraft outside China. Developing a Chinese engine to replace the CFM Leap-1C would take at least another 15 years.[50] At that time the two prototypes had flown less than 150 h, averaging less than 5 h per month each. To achieve certification in December 2020 and first delivery in 2021, the planned 4,200 h of flight tests would need 33 hours a month each if the last four prototypes are evenly spaced before year-end-2019. Newest airliner designs like the Airbus A350 needed a 2,600 hour test program, and the Mitsubishi MRJ is expected to need 3,000 h.[51]

On 15 October 2018, ten Chinese nationals, including intelligence officials, were indicted by the US for allegedly working with COMAC to allegedly steal the secrets of thirteen foreign aerospace companies working on the C919.[52]

By the end of 2018, the first prototype was to enter flutter flight tests after having completed ground tests.[53] The third prototype made its maiden flight on 28 December for 1h 38 min.[54]

2019[edit]

A fourth prototype conducted its maiden flight on 1 August 2019 from Shanghai Pudong International Airport.[55][34] A fifth prototype conducted its first flight on 24 October 2019, also from Shanghai airport; the fifth prototype was expected to test for extreme weather conditions, the environmental control system, drainage systems and electrical supplies.[56] Comac rescheduled its certification target from 2020 to 2021, with the first delivery the following year.[57][34]

The sixth and final prototype, intended for the flight certification program, completed its maiden flight on 27 December 2019. Reports at the time indicated that the C919 was expected to commence commercial service with China Eastern Airlines in either 2021 or 2022.[58]

2020[edit]

Air display at Nanchang in 2020 (0:50–1:50)

On 27 November 2020, the C919 received its type inspection authorization from the CAAC, meaning that "the aircraft design has been finalised and verified, and that no major changes can be made to its structure."[59]

2021[edit]

After completing cold-weather testing in China's Inner Mongolia, the C919 was slated to conduct flight tests in natural icing conditions from London International Airport in Ontario, Canada during March 2021. However, these tests may have been delayed due to the COVID-19 pandemic.[60][needs update]

Commercial introduction[edit]

2022[edit]

The C919 completed its first pre-delivery flight test at Shanghai Pudong International Airport. Comac reported that the aircraft (B-001J, MSN107) successfully completed a 3-hour test session on 14 May 2022.[61] The aircraft, bearing the livery of China Eastern Airlines, was set to be delivered in 2022.[62] In May 2022, the heavily modified jet was listed for a price of 653 million yuan (US$101 million), almost matching the Airbus A320neo and the Boeing 737 MAX competitors, and twice the US$50 million price initially anticipated, albeit with composite wings.[63]

The airline flew a number of route-proving flights throughout 2022 to reinforce its viability on important segments. Many of the flights were flown between different Chinese cities. Around the same time, the first production aircraft, bound for China Eastern Airlines, started performing flight tests to ensure its preparation for commercial service. COMAC reported after the first flight that all pre-set tasks were accomplished successfully.[64] Plans foresaw that one C919 was to be delivered to China Eastern Airlines in 2022,[needs update] while the remaining four aircraft in the first batch of orders would be delivered in 2023.[65]

The aircraft received its airworthiness certification from the Civil Aviation Administration of China on 29 September 2022[66] and the first operational airframe intended for commercial service was delivered to launch customer China Eastern Airlines on 9 December 2022 in Shanghai.[67]

2023[edit]

The first C919 commercial flight departed from Shanghai Hongqiao Airport on 28 May 2023

The C919 aircraft delivered to China Eastern Airlines continued flying short test flights for most of January 2023, with a break from 20 to 28 January for the Lunar New Year celebrations.[citation needed] In February 2023, China Eastern Airlines' C919 flight-test verification program was delayed due to a malfunction in the jet's CFM International LEAP-1C engine's thrust reverser.[citation needed] On 7 May 2023, test flights resumed after a three-month break that had grounded the entire fleet of C919s; the airline continued to plan for passenger revenue-service to commence in spring 2023.[citation needed]

On 28 May 2023, COMAC C919 commercial service began with China Eastern Airlines flight MU9191 departing from Shanghai Hongqiao Airport and arriving at Beijing Capital Airport.[2]

On 29 May 2023, the C919 began routine flights MU9197 and MU 9198 connecting Shanghai Hongqiao Airport and Chengdu Tianfu Airport on a daily basis.[68][69]

China Eastern Airlines inducted a second C919 aircraft, registered as B-919C, with a formal reception taking place on 14 July 2023 at the flight test complex building of Zhuqiao base.[70]

In July 2023, it was announced that Suparna Airlines, a Chinese airline owned by Hainan Airlines, had signed a framework agreement with SPDB Financial Leasing valued at US $3.6 billion for leasing 30 COMAC C919 aircraft.[71]

On 20 September 2023, Brunei's GallopAir said the C919 aircraft will undergo certification processes by Brunei's Department of Civil Aviation prior to delivery, which is forecasted to begin in the third quarter of 2024. Once certified, GallopAir would be the first operator of C919 outside of China and the first in Southeast Asia.[72]

C919 flight demonstration over Victoria Harbour, Hong Kong

From 12 to 17 December 2023, the C919 and ARJ21 conducted static displays at Hong Kong International Airport for the first time outside the Chinese mainland, and the C919 conducted a flight demonstration over Victoria Harbour on the 16th.[73][74]

2024[edit]

Comac C919 on static display at the Singapore Airshow.

The C919 aircraft made its debut on foreign soil and staged a fly-by at the pre-show of the 2024 Singapore Airshow.[75] Also at the airshow, Comac announced an order from Tibet Airlines for 40 C919s. The high-altitude variant ordered will have a shortened fuselage and strengthened landing gear for short-field performance.[76]

In May 2024, about one year after the commencement of passenger revenue service, B-919A, the first delivered Comac C919 airframe, was subjected to "A-inspection" tests, a series of "deep level" safety inspections lasting four days; the parts tested included the aircraft's engines, landing gear, and cabin equipment. The inspections were conducted by China Eastern Airlines Technology, a subsidary of the group that also owns China Eastern Airlines. The aircraft passed the battery of inspections.[77]

The type's first commercial flight outside of mainland China occurred on 1 June 2024. A C919 operated by China Eastern Airlines was chartered to fly a group of students from Hong Kong to Shanghai for an exchange program.[78][79]

Overseas certificate recognition[edit]

On 4 January 2024, CAAC expressed its intent to work with EASA to validate the C919's airworthiness certificate for Europe.[80]

Variants[edit]

C919-100 standard, shortened fuselage, extended range[edit]

The standard variant of the C919 is designated "C919-100". In September 2023, COMAC Chairman He Dongfeng revealed, however, that shortened and extended variants of the C919 would also be built, covering a range from 130 to 240 seats.

At its maximum, the extended variant would fit nearly 50 more passengers than the current variant, which can seat 156–192 people.[81] The shortened version of the C919 is anticipated to serve routes with high-altitude landing sites. On 17 December 2023, COMAC signed a deal with Tibet Airlines to jointly develop the high-altitude version of the jet in order to serve passengers in the Tibetan-Himalayan plateau.[82]

Design[edit]

Configuration and performance[edit]

The dimensions of the C919 are quite similar to those of the Airbus A320; its fuselage is 3.96 metres (13.0 ft) wide and 4.166 metres (13.67 ft) high with a 12.915 square metres (139.02 sq ft) cross-section. This may allow for a common unit load device to be used for both aircraft. It has a 33.6 metres (110 ft) wingspan (35.4 metres (116 ft) with winglets).[83] The aircraft's intended payload capacity will be 20.4 tonnes. The design calls for cruise at Mach 0.785 (450 kn; 834 km/h) with an operating ceiling of 12,200 metres (39,800 feet). There will be two variants: the standard version with a 4,075 km (2,200 nmi; 2,532 mi) range, and a 5,555 km (2,999 nmi; 3,452 mi) extended-range version.[83] The C919 is a conservative design, deemed by analysts to be similar to the 30 year-old A320[43] and less efficient than the A320neo and 737 MAX.[84]

Construction[edit]

The center wing box, outer wing box, wing panels, flaps, and ailerons are planned to be built in Xi'an, China; the center fuselage sections are planned to be built in Hongdu, China.[85] Aluminium-lithium alloys account for 8.8% of the structure and composite materials for 12%.[86] The air frame will be made largely of aluminium alloy. Aircraft design and assembly is performed in Shanghai.[87]

Wings[edit]

The wing is of a supercritical design, increasing aerodynamic efficiency by 20% and reducing drag by 8% compared to a non-supercritical wing.[88] The center wing box was originally intended to use carbon fibre composites.[10] It was changed later to an aluminium design to reduce design complications.[89]

Systems[edit]

The air conditioning made by Liebherr

The engine's nacelle, thrust reverser and exhaust system will be provided by Nexcelle, with such features as an advanced inlet configuration, the extensive use of composites and acoustic treatment and an electrically operated thrust reverser.[90] Michelin will supply Air X radial tyres.[91] Its integrated modular avionics architecture is based on Ethernet.[43] The landing gear is made in China by a joint venture of Germany's Liebherr and Avic's Landing Gear Advanced Manufacturing Corp: Liebherr LAMC Aviation.[49]

While the airframe is entirely made by Chinese Avic, some systems are sourced from a wide variety of international suppliers, similar to Airbus and Boeing. Most such components are sourced from joint-ventures with foreign companies located within China: with UTAS for the electric power, fire protection and lighting; with Rockwell Collins for the cabin systems and avionics, with Thales for the IFE, with Honeywell for the flight controls, APU, wheels and brakes; with Moog for the high lift system; with Parker for the hydraulics, actuators and fuel systems, with Liebherr for the landing gear and air management.

Very few components, such as the CFM engine and Nexcelle nacelle are entirely foreign imported.[92] It has been reported that COMAC is working on a plan to become more self-sufficient in terms of suppliers, with a long-term goal of replacing all US-export controlled components, due to arbitrary American export restrictions affecting their ability to boost jet output.[93]

Engines[edit]

CFM International LEAP-1C[edit]

LEAP-1C engine on the C919

Pratt & Whitney and CFM International each offered an engine for the aircraft in 2009, the PW1000G and the LEAP-1C, respectively;[94] the LEAP-1C was selected.[95]

In February 2020, Reuters reported that the US government was considering blocking GE from selling the LEAP-1C engine to Comac, citing concerns that its technology could be stolen and put into the CJ-1000A engine being developed by the Aero Engine Corporation of China, the competition the C919 could present for Boeing, and military use of technology.[96] Then-President Donald Trump tweeted opposition to blocking sales.[97] The US eventually granted GE a license to sell the engines in April 2020.[98]

However, the -1C has been called a LEAP “in name only” as it reportedly lacks many of the efficiency improvements of the other LEAP models used on the Airbus A320neo and Boeing 737 MAX. Experts believe that the LEAP-1C is actually an upgraded version of the prior-generation CFM56.[99] Compared to the similarly sized LEAP-1A, the -1C is heavier and produces less thrust.[100]

ACAE CJ-1000A[edit]

The Aero Engine Corporation of China was tasked with developing an indigenous engine for the aircraft in 2009.[101] Assembly of the first CJ-1000A engine was completed in 18 months in December 2017. The planned entry into service was 2021.[102] The engine first ran in May 2018 to 6,600 rpm core speed.[103]

In March 2023, reports emerged that the flight test campaign for the CJ-1000A engine had started on a Xi'an Y-20 test aircraft.[104] According to Chinese media reports, AECC has said that it expects the CJ-1000 engine to be certified by 2025.[105]

Market[edit]

In 2012 the C919 order book stood at 380 units worth US$26 billion,[106] and averaging $68.4 million. FlightGlobal's Ascend market values in 2013 were $49.2 million for the Airbus A320neo, 51% less than its $100.2 million list price and $51.4 million for the Boeing 737 MAX-8, 49% less than its $100.5 million list price.[107]

The Chinese airlines that have placed orders for the C919 already have either the Boeing 737 or Airbus A320 in their fleets.[108] In 2013, Chinese state-owned newspaper Global Times complained that an Aviation Week editorial about the bleak prospects for the aircraft "maliciously disparaged the future outlook for the C919".[109]

COMAC aims to take a fifth of the global narrowbody market and a third of the Chinese market by 2035.[8] It expects 2,000 sales in the next 20 years.[110] The Financial Times commented that China considers it as a source of national pride.[111] It also claimed the C919 is outdated by 10–15 years compared to the latest versions of the A320 and Boeing 737, and will probably cost more to operate.[112] Its range of 2,200–3,000 nmi (4,100–5,600 km; 2,500–3,500 mi) falls short of the 3,400 and 3,550 nmi (6,300 and 6,570 km; 3,910 and 4,090 mi) of the A320neo and 737 Max 8, the C919 payload-range and economics are similar to the current single-aisles, but it will compete with the Neo and Max. FlightGlobal forecasts 1,209 deliveries: 687 standard and 522 stretched variants, for 85% in China.[37]

Deliveries and orders[edit]

Deliveries[edit]

The first C919 airframe intended for commercial service was delivered to launch customer China Eastern Airlines on 9 December 2022.[67] The second, third, fourth, and fifth airframes were delivered to China Eastern on 14 July 2023, 9 December 2023, 2 January 2024, and 2 March 2024 respectively, thereby completing China Eastern's initial order. A sixth aircraft was delivered to China Eastern Airlines on 28 May 2024. [113][114][3][115][4][116][5]

Deliveries[117][5]
Airline 2022 2023 2024
China Eastern Airlines 1 2 3
Total 6

In January 2023, COMAC said it wanted to expand its annual production capacity to 150 airliners within five years.[118]

Orders[edit]

At the November 2010 Zhuhai Airshow, Comac announced orders for 55 C919 aircraft from 6 airlines, with an additional 45 options. The purchasing airlines or lessors included China Eastern Airlines, Air China, Hainan Airlines, China Southern Airlines, CDB Leasing Company, and GE Capital Aviation Services.[119] On 19 October 2011, Chinese ICBC Leasing ordered 45 C919s and agreed to be the launch customer.[120] On 11 November 2014, Comac announced at the 2014 Zhuhai Airshow that China Merchants Bank's aircraft leasing division made a firm commitment for 30 C919s, and that total orders were now up to 450 aircraft.[121]

At the June 2015 Paris Air Show, Ping An Leasing signed a letter of intent for 50 C919s, becoming one of Comac's largest customers, and Puren Group signed a letter of intent for seven C919s and seven ARJ21s, intended for the start-up Puren Airlines.[122] In November 2016 COMAC received an order for 20 C919s including 5 firm from Shanghai Pudong Development Bank Financial Leasing and for 36 C919s from CITIC Group Financial Leasing including 18 firm.[123] While no down payments for the order were needed before C919's maiden flight, 500,000 yuan ($76,000) nevertheless were deposited subsequently for each of the firm order.[124] The 5 December 2017 ICBC Leasing order for 55 brought the order book to 785.[125]

In February 2018, the total order book for the C919 stood at 815, prior to the order for 200 from HNA Group in June 2018 which also included an order for 100 ARJ-21s.[126] By August 2018, FlightGlobal counted 305 orders plus 45 options and 658 letters of intent: 1008 commitments.[37]

In January 2023, COMAC reported having received more than 1,200 orders.[118] In September 2023, it was reported, however, that C919 orders had reached 1,061.[127]

On 20 September 2023, Brunei GallopAir placed an order worth US$2 billion for 15 units of C919 and 15 units of ARJ21 jets. Once completed, this would make Brunei GallopAir the first non-Chinese & Southeast Asian operator of C919.[128] In a stock exchange filing on 26 April 2024, Air China said that it had ordered 100 C919 aircraft, which would be delivered between 2024 and 2031, thereby adding another high-profile customer for the narrowbody programme.[127]

Orderbook[129]
Customer Orders Options
ABC Financial Leasing 65 10
AerCap 20
Air China 100[130] 15
AVIC International Leasing 15 15
Bank of Communications Financial Leasing 30
BOC Aviation 20
Brunei GallopAir 15
CCB Financial Leasing 50
CDB Leasing 10
China Aircraft Leasing Co. 20
China Eastern Airlines 105[131] 15[132][133]
China Huarong Financial Leasing 30
China Southern Airlines 105 15
Citic Financial Leasing 18
Hainan Airlines 20
Hebei Airlines 20
Huabao Leasing 15 15
ICBC Financial Leasing 100
Industrial Bank 20
Joy Air 20
Nuclear Construction Financial Leasing 20 20
Ping An Leasing 50
Sichuan Airlines 20
SPDB Financial Leasing 5 15
Tibet Airlines 40[76]
Total 933 120

Cancelled orders[edit]

Orders
Customer Firm
orders
Options
LOI/MOU
All Date
Puren Group[134] 7 7 17 June 2015
City Airways[b][136] 10 (MOU) 10 16 September 2015

Operators[edit]

Airline Country Photo -100 Notes Refs
China Eastern Airlines  China 6[5]

Specifications[edit]

Variant C919-100[c][137]
Cockpit crew 2 pilots
Seats 158 ((8J + 150Y)) to 192 (1-class HD)[138]
Cargo capacity 45.2 m3 (1,600 cu ft)
Length 38.9 m (127 ft 7 in)
Wingspan 35.8 m (117 ft 5 in)
Wing area 129.15 m2 (1,390.2 sq ft)
Height 11.95 m (39 ft 2 in)
Fuselage height 4.166 m (13 ft 8.0 in)
Fuselage width 3.96 m (13 ft 0 in)
Maximum payload 18,900 kg (41,700 lb)
OEW 45,700 kg (100,800 lb)
MTOW 75,100 kg (165,600 lb)
ER: 78,900 kg (173,900 lb)
Fuel capacity 24,917 L (6,582 US gal)
Engines (×2) CFM LEAP-1C
Fan diameter 78 in (198 cm)
Max. takeoff thrust 126.63 kN (28,468 lbf)
ER: 130 kN (30,000 lbf)
Cruise Mach .785 (453 kn; 838 km/h; 521 mph)
Range (STD PL) 4,139 km (2,235 nmi; 2,572 mi)
ER: 5,576 km (3,011 nmi; 3,465 mi)
Ceiling 12,100 m (39,800 ft)[139]
Takeoff (MTOW, ISA) 2,052 m (6,732 ft)
ER: 2,125 m (6,972 ft)

See also[edit]

Related development

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration, and era

Related lists

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ This count includes only the number of airframes delivered to customers plus the 6 airframes produced for the program's airworthiness campaign. It does not include test articles and airframes in various stages of production and tests.
  2. ^ City Airways orders looks doubtful as it was shut down in early 2016 by the Thai government[135]
  3. ^ Specifications are for standard range aircraft unless otherwise noted

References[edit]

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