CB90-class fast assault craft
Combat Boat 90
|Preceded by||Tpbs 200|
|Cost||CB90 HSM: SEK 22.22 million (2017) per unit|
|Displacement||13,000 kg (28,660 lbs) Empty, 15,300 kg (33,730 lbs) Standard, 20,500 kg (45,190 lbs) Full load|
|Beam||3.8 m (12 ft 6 in)|
|Draught||0.8 m (2 ft 7 in)|
|Propulsion||2 × 625 bhp Scania DSI14 V8 Diesel; 2 × Kamewa FF water jets|
|Speed||40 knots (74 km/h)|
|Range||240 nmi (440 km) at 20 knots (37 km/h)|
Stridsbåt 90 H(alv) (Strb 90 H; CB90) is a class of fast military assault craft used by several countries after being originally developed for the Swedish Navy by Dockstavarvet. Its name means Combat Boat 90 Half; the 90 refers to the year of acceptance (1990) and Half refers to the fact that it can carry and deploy a half platoon of amphibious infantry (18 men) fully equipped. The CB90 is an exceptionally fast and agile boat that can execute extremely sharp turns at high speed, decelerate from top speed to a full stop in 2.5 boat lengths, and adjust both its pitch and roll angle while under way. Its light weight, shallow draught, and twin water jets allow it to operate at speeds of up to 40 knots (74 km/h) in shallow coastal waters. The water jets are partially ducted, which, along with underwater control surfaces similar to a submarine's diving planes, gives the CB90 its manoeuvrability.
In addition to the many variants in service with the Swedish Navy under the "Stridsbåt 90H" designation, the CB 90 has been adopted by the navies of Norway (as the S90N), Greece, Mexico (as the CB 90 HMN), the United States (as the Riverine Command Boat), and Malaysia.
Development and adoption history
In 1988, Dockstavarvet won a competition to design and manufacture a replacement for the aging Tpbs 200 class. Two prototypes, with pennant number 801 and 802, were delivered in 1989. After completion of field trials, the Swedish Navy signed a purchase order for 120 boats in June 1990.
In 2002, the Swedish Navy ordered an additional 27 boats of a slightly different type, designated Stridsbåt 90 HS - where S refers to Skydd (protected) as the Strb 90 HS is armoured and features CBRN protection (the whole boat can be over-pressurized) - intended for use in international peace-keeping operations. Apart from the addition of armour, it sports air-conditioning for deployment in tropical conditions, fuel cooling system, 230 V generator and more powerful engines. The manufacturer sometimes refers to the model as the CB 90 HI, where the I probably stands for International.
Several of the tasks carried out by the Strb 90 H-variants, were originally intended for the Strb 90 E, which is now almost completely phased out.
The Royal Norwegian Navy evaluated the Strb 90 H in early 1996, and subsequently purchased a total of 20 boats, designated 90 N (for Norsk utgave, literally Norwegian version).
The Mexican Navy acquired 40 units (designated CB 90 HMN) between 1999 and 2001, and obtained a production license in 2002, allowing further units to be manufactured in Mexico. Since then eight additional units have been built.
The German Water Police rented a Combat Boat 90H from the manufacturer Dockstavarvet for the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Germany. This boat was involved in a high-speed chase with three Greenpeace RIBs which were trying to enter the restricted area near the hotel where the meeting was being held. A video clip of the incident was later widely spread around the internet.
In July 2007 The United States Navy Expeditionary Combat Command (NECC) specified the CB90 for testing as its Riverine Command Boat. Safeboat International of Port Orchard, Washington, was given a US$2.8 million contract to produce one prototype. The CB90 was subsequently adopted, and two were involved in an incident with Iran in 2016.
In June 2009 an unknown buyer from Abu Dhabi bought two civilian luxury versions.
In 2010, Dockstavarvet Shipyard modified two CB90's to be carried in the davits of Dutch and UK Navy Landing Platform Docks. During these six months trials, the two boats and a full Swedish boat squadron were embarked on a Royal Netherlands Navy LPD as a fully integrated element of the amphibious forces aboard and successfully deployed.
In 2013 JSC Pella Shipyard near St Petersburg launched the first Russian built Raptor-class patrol boat "Raptor", but while the ships are strikingly similar there is no indication Dockstavarvet has been involved or licensed the design to Pella.
Several Strb 90 H have been converted by the Swedish Navy to fill various roles:
- The Strb 90 L is outfitted for battalion-level command and control, with computer and communications equipment and an auxiliary generator to provide electrical power when the engines are not running. The L stands for ledning (command or leadership).
- The Strb 90 KompL is a plain Strb 90 H in which portable computer and communications equipment has been installed, allowing it to temporarily provide company-level command and control. Electrical power is provided by a rather loud portable generator installed on deck.
- The Strb 90 HS is designed for overseas peace-keeping and rescue operations. It is modified to keep its crew comfortable in Mediterranean conditions, with air conditioning, an auxiliary generator, a head, and more comfortable crew stations. More importantly, it is armored, and its engines have been upgraded to compensate for the added weight.
- At least one Strb 90 H, pennant number 802, is equipped with a decompression chamber.
- The Swedish Police operate one unarmed Strb 90 H equipped with bunks, a pantry and a crew lounge.
- The Swedish Sea Rescue Society operates two unarmed Strb 90 Hs converted for search and rescue.
- Hellenic Coast Guard operate also since 1998 three CB90 under the CB90HCG which is a slightly different version of the Norwegian Navy Version
The Royal Norwegian Navy operates 20 CB90s under the designation SB90N; the N simply stands for Norsk utgave (Norwegian version). The S90N differs from the Strb 90 H in a few areas:
- It is armed with two M2 Browning heavy machine guns (port and starboard), and a Sea PROTECTOR Remote controlled weapon station.
- The anchor winch is motorized, and the anchor is mounted at the stern, allowing a grounded S90N to tow itself afloat rather than risk damage to its impellers.
- It carries an auxiliary generator which provides electrical power to navigation and communications systems even when the engines are not running.
- The troop compartment has a higher deck height, making it possible for most people to stand without crouching.
- It has two water tight compartments in the bow, having an extra room for toilet and stores.
- It has a much more sophisticated navigation equipment based on GPS-technology delivered by Kongsberg Seatex AS.
In 2004, the Royal Norwegian Navy conducted tests (including a live fire exercise) to evaluate the effectiveness of the SB90N as an aiming and launching platform for the Hellfire missile. One SB90N was equipped with stabilized Hellfire-launcher based on the Protector (RWS), and its machine gun was replaced with a gimbal-mounted sensor package containing visible-light and infrared cameras and a laser designator. Although the tests were successful, there is currently no indication that the Royal Norwegian Navy will actually deploy SB90Ns armed with Hellfire missiles in regular service. The Hellfire can still be carried on the boats without launching platforms and be fired from shore with the Portable Ground Launch System.
The CB90s are used by the Coastal Ranger Commando.
Incidents and accidents involving CB90s
In mid-1999, one CB90 (No. 820) belonging to the Swedish Karlskrona Coastal Artillery Regiment (KA2) crashed into a concrete pier at approximately 30 knots (56 km/h). There were eight soldiers on board; seven of them sustained more or less severe injuries, including fractures, while one soldier who was standing in the machine gun ring-mount on mid-deck remained physically unhurt.
On June 13, 2004, several Strb 90 H from the Swedish First Marine Regiment (AMF1) were sailing at high speed in convoy formation when one of them abruptly reduced speed (allegedly so its wake would not upset a smaller sailboat). The boat immediately behind it failed to react and rammed it. Two soldiers who were above deck at the time of the accident were hit and thrown in the water; both were killed almost instantly.
On the night of October 23, 2006, a CB90 sank off of Hamnudden, east of Utö in the Stockholm archipelago. The boat was traveling at 11 knots (20 km/h) due to the bad weather when it suddenly began to take on water from the bow. It then sank in less than ten minutes. All of the crew of 16 were quickly picked up by other ships that were nearby. No one was physically injured, but the crew suffered from shock and hypothermia when picked up.
On October 5, 2014, a Royal Malaysian Navy CB90 bearing registration number CB204 was reported lost at sea due to storm and high tides. There were seven crewmen on board. The boat was last detected at 1.05pm some 57 nautical miles off Labuan Island. The boat was found on October 6 near Station Lima, after its distress call was heard by KD Paus, a Jerung-class gunboat, with no injuries to all 7 crew. It was reportedly caused by engine and steering problems.
On January 12, 2016, two U.S. Navy riverine command boats were "taken into custody" by Iran's Revolutionary Guards' Navy near Farsi island in Persian Gulf. An Iranian state-run news outlet reported that 10 U.S. sailors had been "arrested" even though Iranian and U.S. officials said that none of the sailors were harmed and that they would be released promptly. Officials have stated that one of the boats broke down very close to Iranian territorial waters and after drifting for a short time both were picked up by Iranian forces. According to Stars and Stripes newspaper, the crews were released a short time later.
- Hellenic Coast Guard: 3
- Malaysian Navy: 5 unit CB90, 12 unit CB90HEX
- Mexican Navy: 48
- Royal Norwegian Navy: 20
- Royal Swedish Navy: 147 in service, 18 on order
- United Kingdom
- Royal Navy: 4, formerly leased from the Royal Swedish Navy, used to evaluate the option of potential acquisition and returned to the Swedish Navy.
- United States
- US Navy: 6, known as 'Riverine Command Boat'
- Marina de Guerra del Perú: SIMA Peru will build, on behalf of the Peruvian Navy, in agreement with the N.Sundin Dockstavarvet factory, a subsidiary of the Swedish group SAAB, the first 2 ultra-fast combat boats out of a total of 24 that will be used for maritime interdiction work on the Peruvian coast.
- G class landing craft
- Uisko class landing craft
- Jurmo class landing craft
- Jehu-class landing craft
- KMC Komando
- Multi-purpose Attack Craft
- Project 03160 "Raptor" High-Speed Patrol Boat
- Cotecmar LPR-40
- Centaur-class fast assault craft
- Mark V Special Operations Craft
- "Sweden orders additional 18 CB90-class fast assault craft". Naval Today. 10 July 2017. Archived from the original on 11 July 2017. Retrieved 11 July 2017.
- "Stridsbåt 90 H". Forsvarsmakten (in Swedish). 18 September 2013. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Svensk stridsbåt stoppade G8-protest" [Swedish patrol boat stopped G8 protest]. Svenska Dagbladet (in Swedish). 7 June 2007. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007.
- "Greenpeace-Boote dringen in G-8-Sperrzone ein" [Greenpeace boats enter G-8 Exclusion Zone]. Der Spiegel (in German). 7 June 2007.
- "BilMotor". Dagens industri (in Swedish). 29 May 2009. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009.
- "Завершаются испытания быстроходного катера специального назначения РМ-15 проекта 03160 "Раптор"" [Testing of the RM-15 special-purpose high-speed boat of project 03160 "Raptor" is being completed]. Military Observer (in Russian). 25 September 2013. Archived from the original on 9 November 2013.
- Dalløkken, Per Erlien (30 October 2014). "Norske stridsbåter blir åtte knop raskere og treffer med første skudd" [Norwegian patrol boats are eight knots faster and hit with the first shot]. Teknisk Ukeblad (in Norwegian).
- "The Royal Norwegian Navy is acquiring Navigation Equipment Package for Combat Boat 90". Navy Recognition. 23 November 2013.
- Oftedahl, Live (3 July 2019). "Kriseplanen for luftambulanse-overgangen. Forsvaret: Har ingen ekstra beredskap" [The emergency plan for the air ambulance transition. The Armed Forces has no extra readiness]. Ambulanseforum.no (in Norwegian).
- Gibbons-Neff, Thomas (12 January 2016). "These are the U.S. Navy riverine command boats that Iran just 'took into custody'". The Washington Post.
- Copp, Tara (13 January 2016). "Iran releases US sailors one day after detention at Farsi Island". Stars and Stripes. Archived from the original on 26 October 2016.
- "Royal Marines host Swedish colleagues at new amphibious centre". Royal Navy. 20 February 2013. Archived from the original on 17 February 2016. Retrieved 29 December 2016.
- Scutro, Andrew (2 August 2007). "New riverine boats are fast, lethal, flexible". Navy Times. Archived from the original on 16 January 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- "Sailors assigned to Riverine Group 1 conduct maneuver training aboard a riverine command boat at Naval Amphibious Base Little Creek". US Navy News. 25 September 2009. Archived from the original on 5 August 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2010.
- "SIMA recibe los planos de las lanchas CB 90 para su ensamblaje en Perú" [SIMA receives the plans for the CB 90 boats for assembly in Peru]. Infodefensa (in Spanish). 28 November 2020.
- (in Swedish) Stridsbåt 90H at SoldF.com, an unofficial site dedicated to information about Swedish military materiel.
- (in Norwegian) Et fremtidsrettet prosjekt, an article about the Hellfire experiment on the official web site of the Norwegian military.
- (in English) A series of pictures of a Norwegian S90N