Unified combatant command
|Military service branches|
A unified combatant command (CCMD), also referred to as a combatant command, is a joint military command of the United States Department of Defense that is composed of units from two or more service branches of the United States Armed Forces, and conducts broad and continuing missions. There are currently 11 unified combatant commands and each are established as the highest echelons of military commands, in order to provide effective command and control of all U.S. military forces, regardless of branch of service, during peace or during war time. Unified combatant commands are organized either on a geographical basis (known as an "area of responsibility", AOR) or on a functional basis, e.g. special operations, force projection, transport, and cybersecurity. Currently, seven combatant commands are designated as geographical, and four are designated as functional. Unified combatant commands are "joint" commands and have specific badges denoting their affiliation.
The Unified Command Plan (UCP) establishes the missions, command responsibilities, and geographic areas of responsibility of the combatant commands.[a] Each time the Unified Command Plan is updated, the organization of the combatant commands is reviewed for military efficiency and efficacy, as well as alignment with national policy.
Each unified combatant command is led by a combatant commander (CCDR), who is a four-star general or admiral. The combatant commanders are entrusted with a specific type of nontransferable operational command authority over assigned forces, regardless of branch of service. The chain of command for operational purposes (per the Goldwater–Nichols Act) goes from the president of the United States through the secretary of defense to the combatant commanders.
- COCOM – combatant command: unitary control not further delegatable by the combatant commander (CCDR)
- ADCON - administrative control of the command function of "obtaining resources, direction for training, methods of morale and discipline"
- OPCON - operational control of a command function, e.g. sustainment. In that case, OPCON is embodied in the Army Field Support Brigades (AFSBs)
- TACON - tactical control of sustainment, for example as embodied in a Contracting Support Brigade
List of combatant commands
‡ Currently, four geographic combatant commands have their headquarters located outside their geographic area of responsibility.
The current system of unified commands in the U.S. military emerged during World War II with the establishment of geographic theaters of operation composed of forces from multiple service branches that reported to a single commander who was supported by a joint staff. A unified command structure also existed to coordinate British and U.S. military forces operating under the Combined Chiefs of Staff, which was composed of the British Chiefs of Staff Committee and the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff.
World War II era
In the European Theater, Allied military forces fell under the command of the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF). After SHAEF was dissolved at the end of the war, the American forces were unified under a single command, the US Forces, European Theater (USFET), commanded by General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower. A truly unified command for the Pacific War proved more difficult to organize as neither General of the Army Douglas MacArthur nor Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz was willing to be subordinate to the other, for reasons of interservice rivalry.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff continued to advocate in favor of establishing permanent unified commands, and President Harry S. Truman approved the first plan on 14 December 1946. Known as the "Outline Command Plan," it would become the first in a series of Unified Command Plans. The original "Outline Command Plan" of 1946 established seven unified commands: Far East Command, Pacific Command, Alaskan Command, Northeast Command, the U.S. Atlantic Fleet, Caribbean Command, and European Command. However, on 5 August 1947, the CNO recommended instead that CINCLANTFLT be established as a fully unified commander under the broader title of Commander in Chief, Atlantic (CINCLANT). The Army and Air Force objected, and CINCLANTFLT was activated as a unified command on 1 November 1947. A few days later, the CNO renewed his suggestion for the establishment of a unified Atlantic Command. This time his colleagues withdrew their objections, and on 1 December 1947, the U.S. Atlantic Command (LANTCOM) was created under the Commander in Chief, Atlantic (CINCLANT).
Under the original plan, each of the unified commands operated with one of the service chiefs (the Chief of Staff of the Army or Air Force, or the Chief of Naval Operations) serving as an executive agent representing the Joint Chiefs of Staff. This arrangement was formalized on 21 April 1948 as part of a policy paper titled the "Function of the Armed Forces and the Joint Chiefs of Staff" (informally known as the "Key West Agreement"). The responsibilities of the unified commands were further expanded on 7 September 1948 when the commanders' authority was extended to include the coordination of the administrative and logistical functions in addition to their combat responsibilities.
Cold War era
Far East Command and U.S. Northeast Command were disestablished under the Unified Command Plan of 1956–1957.
A 1958 "reorganization in National Command Authority relations with the joint commands" with a "direct channel" to unified commands such as Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) was effected after President Dwight Eisenhower expressed concern[specify] about nuclear command and control. CONAD itself was disestablished in 1975.
Although not part of the original plan, the Joint Chiefs of Staff also created specified commands that had broad and continuing missions but were composed of forces from only one service. Examples include the U.S. Naval Forces, Eastern Atlantic and Mediterranean and the U.S. Air Force's Strategic Air Command. Like the unified commands, the specified commands reported directly to the JCS instead of their respective service chiefs. These commands have not existed since the Strategic Air Command was disestablished in 1992. The relevant section of federal law, however, remains unchanged, and the President retains the power to establish a new specified command.
The Goldwater–Nichols Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 clarified and codified responsibilities that commanders-in-chief (CINCs) undertook, and which were first given legal status in 1947. After that act, CINCs reported directly to the United States Secretary of Defense, and through him to the President of the United States.
Post Soviet era
The U.S. Atlantic Command became the Joint Forces Command in the 1990s after the Soviet threat to the North Atlantic had disappeared and the need rose for an integrating and experimentation command for forces in the continental United States. Joint Forces Command was disbanded on 3 August 2011 and its components placed under the Joint Staff and other combatant commands.
On 24 October 2002, Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld announced that in accordance with Title 10 of the US Code (USC), the title of "Commander-in-Chief" would thereafter be reserved for the President, consistent with the terms of Article II of the United States Constitution. Thereafter, the military CINCs would be known as "combatant commanders", as heads of the unified combatant commands.
A sixth geographical unified command, United States Africa Command (USAFRICOM), was approved and established in 2007 for Africa. It operated under U.S. European Command as a sub-unified command during its first year, and transitioned to independent Unified Command Status in October 2008. In 2009, it focused on synchronizing hundreds of activities inherited from three regional commands that previously coordinated U.S. military relations in Africa.
President Donald Trump announced on 18 August 2017 that the United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) would be elevated to the status of a unified combatant command from a sub-unified command. It was also announced that the separation of the command from the NSA would be considered. USCYBERCOM was elevated on 4 May 2018.
Vice President Mike Pence announced on 18 December 2018 that President Donald Trump had issued a memorandum ordering the stand-up of a United States Space Command (USSPACECOM). A previous unified combantant command for unified space operations was decommissioned in 2002. The new USSPACECOM will include "(1) all the general responsibilities of a Unified Combatant Command; (2) the space-related responsibilities previously assigned to the Commander, United States Strategic Command; and (3) the responsibilities of Joint Force Provider and Joint Force Trainer for Space Operations Forces". USSPACECOM was re-established on 29 August 2019.
Each combatant command (CCMD) is headed by a four-star general or admiral (the CCDR) recommended by the Secretary of Defense, nominated for appointment by the President of the United States, confirmed by the Senate and commissioned, at the President's order, by the Secretary of Defense. The Goldwater–Nichols Act and its subsequent implementation legislation also resulted in specific Joint Professional Military Education (JPME) requirements for officers before they could attain flag or general officer rank thereby preparing them for duty in Joint assignments such as UCC staff or Joint Chiefs of Staff assignments, which are strictly controlled tour length rotations of duty. However, in the decades following enactment of Goldwater–Nichols, these JPME requirements have yet to come to overall fruition. This is particularly true in the case of senior naval officers, where sea duty / shore duty rotations and the culture of the naval service has often discounted PME and JPME as a measure of professional development for success. Although slowly changing, the JPME requirement still continues to be frequently waived in the case of senior admirals nominated for these positions.
The operational chain of command runs from the President to the Secretary of Defense to the combatant commanders of the combatant commands. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff may transmit communications to the Commanders of the combatant commands from the President and Secretary of Defense and advises both on potential courses of action, but the Chairman does not exercise military command over any combatant forces. Under Goldwater–Nichols, the service chiefs (also four stars in rank) are charged with the responsibility of the "strategic direction, unified operation of combatant commands, and the integration of all land, naval, and air forces in an efficient "unified combatant command" force. Furthermore, the Secretaries of the Military Departments (i.e. Secretary of the Army, Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Air Force) are legally responsible to "organize, train and equip" combatant forces and, as directed by the Secretary of Defense, assign their forces for use by the combatant commands. The Secretaries of the Military Departments thus exercise administrative control (ADCON) rather than operational control (OPCON—the prerogative of the combatant commander) over their forces.
A sub-unified command, or, subordinate unified command, may be established by combatant commanders when authorized to do so by the Secretary of Defense or the president. They are created to conduct a portion of the mission or tasking of their parent geographic or functional command. Sub-unified commands may be either functional or geographic, and the commanders of sub-unified commands exercise authority similar to that of combatant commanders.
Examples of current and former sub-unified commands are the Alaskan Command (ALCOM) under USNORTHCOM, the United States Forces Korea (USFK) under USINDOPACOM, and United States Forces—Afghanistan (USFOR-A) under USCENTCOM.
UCC area coverage by country
- United States Air Force
- United States Army
- United States Coast Guard
- United States Marine Corps
- United States Navy
- United States Space Force
- Unified Command Plan (UCP): "The UCP is a classified executive branch document that articulates how DOD assigns responsibility for different missions and areas of the world."
- U.S. Africa Command was established on 1 October 2007 as a sub-unified command under U.S. European Command. It separated from U.S. European Command and was elevated to full unified command status on 1 October 2008.
- The first U.S. Space Command was originally established as a unified combatant command in September 1985. It was disestablished in October 2002. The second U.S. Space Command, which is considered separate from the first, was established on 29 August 2019.
- U.S. Cyber Command was established on 23 June 2009 as a sub-unified command under U.S. Strategic Command. It separated from U.S. Strategic Command and was elevated to full unified command status on 4 May 2018.
- Joint Pub 1, p. GL-11.
- Story, p. 2
- Kathleen J. McInnis, Analyst in International Security, Congressional research servce (Updated February 18, 2020) Defense Primer: Commanding U.S. Military Operations Report IF10542, version 8
- Theresa Hitchens (26 Aug 2020) Exclusive: Milley To Sign New Unified Command Plan; Defines SPACECOM’s Roles
- MARGAUX HOAR, JEREMY SEPINSKY, AND PETER M. SWARTZ (27 Aug 2021) A BETTER APPROACH TO ORGANIZING COMBATANT COMMANDS
- Joint Pub 1-02, p. 37.
- Joint Pub 1, p. IV-4.
- Dr. Christopher R. Paparone Army Logistician COCOM, ADCON, OPCON, TACON Support —Do You Know the Difference?
- (JP-1) Air Force Doctrine, Annex 3-30 - Command and Control (7 January 2020) APPENDIX A: COMMAND AUTHORITIES AND RELATIONSHIPS
- "US Space Command Takes Reins on Space Ops, but Questions Remain". 27 August 2019.
- "US Space Command Establishment Ceremony Launches New Era of Space Superiority".
- JCS (1985), p. 1
- JCS (1977), p. 1
- "History of the Unified Command Plan, 1946–1977" (PDF). 20 December 1977. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
- JCS (1977), p. 2
- Joint History Office, History of the Unified Command Plan 1946–1993, pp. 14–15.
- JCS (1977), p. 3.
- JCS (1977), p. 5.
- JCS (1977), p. 6.
- Wainstein, L. (June 1975). The Evolution of U.S. Strategic Command and Control and Warning: Part One (1945–1953) (Report). Institute for Defense Analyses. pp. 1–138. Study S-467.
- Naval Advancement
- JCS (1977), p. 4
- 10 U.S.C. 161
- Rumsfeld, Donald (24 October 2002). MEMORANDUM FOR SECRETARIES OF THE MILITARY DEPARTMENTS SUBJECT: The Title "Commander-in-Chief" (PDF) (Report). The Rumsfeld Papers. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2020. Retrieved 4 March 2021.
- AFRICOM FAQs
- "Statement by President Donald J. Trump on the Elevation of Cyber Command". Office of the Press Secretary. whitehouse.gov (Press release). 18 August 2017. Retrieved 18 August 2017 – via National Archives.
- Trump, Donald (23 August 2017). "Presidential Documents: Memorandum of August 15, 2017: Elevation of U.S. Cyber Command to a Unified Combatant Command" (PDF). Federal Register. U.S. Government Printing Office. 82 (162): 39953–39954. Retrieved 23 August 2017.
- "Remarks by Vice President Pence at Kennedy Space Center". Office of the White House Press Secretary. whitehouse.gov (Press release). Kennedy Space Center, Florida. 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018 – via National Archives.
- "Text of a Memorandum from the President to the Secretary of Defense Regarding the Establishment of the United States Space Command". Office of the Press Secretary. whitehouse.gov (Press release). 18 December 2018. Retrieved 18 December 2018 – via National Archives.
- Holder & Murray, p. 86.
- Redfern, Justin M., Lt. Col.; Cornett, Aaron M., Maj. (5 April 2018). The challenging world of command and support relationships. United States Army (Report). Department of Defense.
- Joint Pub 1, p. V-9.
- ISO 3166-1 alpha-2
General and cited sources
- Title 10 of the United States Code (10 U.S.C.) "§ 161".
- "AFRICOM FAQs". United States Africa Command. Archived from the original on 21 April 2010. Retrieved 27 August 2010.
- "DefenseLINK — Unified Command Plan". United States Department of Defense. Retrieved 15 January 2009.
- Holder, Leonard; Murray, Williamson (Spring 1998). "Prospects for Military Education". Joint Force Quarterly. Vol. 18.
- "History of the Unified Command Plan, 1946–1977" (PDF). 20 December 1977. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "History of the Unified Command Plan, 1977–1983" (PDF). Joint Chiefs of Staff. United States Department of Defense. July 1985. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 May 2010. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- "Joint Publication 1, Doctrine for the Armed Forces of the United States" (PDF). Joint Chiefs of Staff. United States Department of Defense. 20 March 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 October 2011. Retrieved 22 August 2009.
- "Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms" (PDF). Joint Chiefs of Staff. United States Department of Defense. 31 January 2011. Joint Publication 1-02. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 10, 2010. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- "Joint Warfighting Center History". United States Joint Forces Command. Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 8 December 2006. Retrieved 6 February 2007.
- "Specified Command". Naval Advancement. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
- Story, William C. (21 June 1999). Military Changes to the Unified Command Plan: Background and Issues for Congress (PDF) (Report). Congressional Research Service. Retrieved 22 August 2010.
- "US Creating New Africa Command to Coordinate Military Efforts". United States Department of State. Archived from the original on 21 October 2012. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "U.S. Central Command Area of Responsibility Countries". USCENTCOM. United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 8 August 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "The Region EUCOM, Stronger Together". USEUCOM. United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 23 August 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- USNORTHCOM 101 (Report). SRA. Archived from the original on 13 May 2014. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "ADM Keating's Letter" (PDF). USPACOM. United States Department of Defense. Retrieved 12 August 2013.
- "Area of Responsibility (USSOUTHCOM)". USSOUTHCOM. United States Department of Defense. Archived from the original on 13 August 2013. Retrieved 12 August 2013.