Combined Charging System

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Combo2 (left), compared to the normal IEC Type 2 (right). Two large direct current (DC) pins are added below, and the four alternating current (AC) pins for neutral and three-phase are removed.

The Combined Charging System is a quick charging method for battery electric vehicles delivering high-voltage direct current via a special electrical connector derived from the SAE J1772 (IEC Type 1) or IEC Type 2 connector. As the plug is a combination of an AC connector with a DC option the resulting connector is also called Combo Coupler and the variant with Type 2 is abbreviated as Combo2.

Automobile manufactures that support CCS include: Jaguar, Volkswagen, General Motors, BMW, Daimler, Ford, FCA, Tesla and Hyundai.[1][2] The CharIN consortium that controls the CCS standard[3][4] is working on a charging rate of 350 kW[5][6] beginning in 2017.

In the United States, BMW and VW claim that the East Coast and West Coast corridors have complete CCS networks.[7]

Competing standards include CHAdeMO and Tesla Supercharger.

History[edit]

The revival of interest in electric cars spurred deployment of charging stations. Initially, these accessed the abundant AC mains electricity using a variety of plugs around the world. The standardization in the IEC 62196 for higher current charging connectors brought about various systems; Type 1 was used primarily in North America and Japan, while Type 2 variants elsewhere. For DC charging, the SAE and European Automobile Manufacturers Association (ACEA) made a plan to add common DC wires to the existing AC connector types such that there is only one "global envelope" that fits all DC charging stations.[8]

Combo plug for DC charging (using only the signal pins of Type2) and the Combo inlet on the vehicle (allowing also AC charging).

The proposal for a "Combined Charging System" (CCS) was published at the 15th International VDI-Congress of the Association of German Engineers on 12 October 2011 in Baden-Baden. CCS defines a single connector pattern on the vehicle side that offers enough space for a Type 1 or Type 2 connector along with space for a two-pin DC connector allowing up to 200 A. Seven car makers (Audi, BMW, Daimler, Ford, General Motors, Porsche and Volkswagen) agreed to introduce CCS in mid-2012.[9][10] The prototype implementations for up to 100 kW were shown on the EVS26 in Los Angeles in May 2012.[11] DC charging specifications in the IEC 62196-3 draft give a range up to 125 A with up to 850 V.[12]

The seven auto makers also agreed to use HomePlug GreenPHY as the communication protocol.[13] The prototype for the matching plug was developed by Phoenix Contact with the goal to withstand 10,000 connect cycles.[14] The standardization proposal was sent to the IEC in January 2011.[15] The request to use a PLC protocol for the Vehicle2Grid communication was flagged back in September 2009 in a joint presentation of BMW, Daimler and VW on California Air Resource Board ZEV Technology Symposium.[16] This competes with the CAN Bus proposal from Japan (including CHAdeMO) and China (a separate DC connector proposal), and none of their car manufacturers has signed up to CCS. However, China had been involved in early stages of the development of the extra DC pins.[14]

Volkswagen built the first public CCS quick charge station with 50 kW DC in Wolfsburg in June 2013 to test drive the upcoming VW E-Up that is to be delivered with a DC rapid charger connector for the CCS.[17] Two weeks later, BMW opened its first CCS rapid charge station to support the upcoming BMW i3.[18] Since at least the second EV World Summit in June 2013, the CHAdeMO association, Volkswagen and Nissan all advocate multi-standard DC chargers, as the additional cost of a dual-protocol station is only 5%.[19]

In Germany, the Charging Interface Initiative e. V. (CharIN) was founded by car makers and suppliers (Audi, BMW, Daimler, Mennekes, Opel, Phoenix Contact, Porsche, TÜV SÜD and Volkswagen) to promote the adoption of CCS. They noted in a press release that most cars cannot charge with more than 50 kW, so that was the first common power output of CCS stations to be built during 2015. The next step was the standardization of stations with 150 kW output that they showed in October 2015, looking to a future system with 350 kW output.[20] Volvo joined CharIN in 2016;[21] Tesla in March 2016;[22] Lucid Motors (previously Atieva) June 2016;[23] Faraday Future June 2016; Toyota March 2017.[24]

The Chevrolet Bolt/Opel Ampera-e uses this CCS standard for 50 kW quick charging.

As part of the settlement of the Volkswagen emissions scandal, VW is to spend $2 billion in the U.S. over the next 10 years on CCS and other charging infrastructure.[25]

In November 2016, Ford, Mercedes, Audi, Porsche and BMW announced building a 350 kW charge network with 400 stations in Europe, beginning in 2017,[26] and priced at €200,000 ($233,000) each.[27]

Versions[28][edit]

CCS 1.0[edit]

Unveiled on 12 October 2011[29]

  • Charging 80 kW at max 400 V and 200 A.
  • Load Balancing
  • Charge Authorization Mode
  • Charging stations communication compliant to DIN SPEC 70121:2014.

CCS 2.0[edit]

  • Charging up to 350 kW in the range 200 - 1000 V.
  • Charging stations communication supports 0-350 kW with ISO 15118-2:2014 and ISO 15118-3:2015, and 0-80 kW with DIN SPEC 70121:2014.

CCS 3.0 draft[edit]

  • Wireless communication
  • Inductive charging
  • Reverse Power Transfer
  • Pantograph

Specifications[edit]

Technical specifications[edit]

  • DIN SPEC 70121 (electromobility - Digital communication between a d.c. EV charging station and an electric vehicle for control of d.c. charging in the Combined Charging System) and ISO15118 for > 80 kW.
  • vehicles and charging stations shall support ISO15118 External Identification Means (EIM) mandatory and Plug and Charge (PnC) optional
  • Up to 350 kW charging
  • Lock system to prevent connector from being accidentally removed.
  • Load balancing

Standards[edit]

Communication interface[edit]

Charging[edit]

Vehicle[edit]

supply station[edit]

Charging communication[edit]

The charging standard supports both basic PWM and PLC communication.

PWM is used to start the PLC communication. PWM does not control the charging rate, nor the Voltage.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Tesla Model 3 could set the charging standard for electric vehicles". Electrek. Retrieved 18 July 2017. 
  2. ^ "IONIQ Electric - Complete Hyundai Walkthrough Videos On Its 110 Mile EV". 
  3. ^ "Advantages". 9 November 2016. 
  4. ^ "P3 North America Stewards CharIN Expansion". 
  5. ^ "What is the CCS?". 9 November 2016. 
  6. ^ https://www.allego.eu/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/18102016-Ultra-E-Press-Release-1.pdf
  7. ^ "DC fast-charging in east, west coast corridors done, say VW, BMW". 
  8. ^ "ACEA position and recommendations for the standardization of the charging of electrically chargeable vehicles" (PDF). ACEA – European Automobile Manufacturers Association. 2011-03-02. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-12-02. 
  9. ^ "Universal charging for electric cars". Auto123.com. 2011-11-15. 
  10. ^ "Seven Auto Manufacturers Collaborate on Harmonized Electric Vehicle Fast Charging Solution". Ford. Retrieved 2012-04-09. |
  11. ^ "Weltweit tätige Automobilhersteller zeigen Schnellladen an Elektrofahrzeugen auf der EVS26". Volkswagen AG. 2012-05-03. Retrieved 2012-05-08. 
  12. ^ "Solutions for E-Mobility" (PDF). Phoenix Contact. 2013. Retrieved 2015-10-08. 
  13. ^ "Seven Automakers Agree On Combined EV Charging System". 2011-10-12. Retrieved 2012-04-09. 
  14. ^ a b "E-Mobility "Two In One"". EuE24. April 2012. Interview with Phoenix Contact. Retrieved 2012-04-09. 
  15. ^ "Combined Charging: das universelle Ladesystem für Elektrofahrzeuge wird erstmals an Fahrzeugen deutscher Hersteller gezeigt". BMW Group. 2011-10-11. Retrieved 2012-04-09. 
  16. ^ "BMW, Daimler and VW Propose Global e-mobility Standardization on Vehicle2Grid Communication, Harmonization of Chargers". 2009-09-26. Retrieved 2012-04-09. 
  17. ^ "Erste öffentliche 50 KW DC Schnellladesäule auf der e-Mobility-Station in Wolfsburg eingeweiht". Landesinitiative Elektromobilität Niedersachsen. 2013-06-20. Retrieved 2013-07-09. 
  18. ^ "Schnellladestation an der BMW Welt eröffnet". BMW Group. 2013-07-04. press release. Retrieved 2013-07-09. 
  19. ^ "2013 World EV Summint in Norway – Chademo, Nissan and Volkswagen align on promoting multi-standard fast chargs to accelerate infrastructure deployment and EV adoption" (PDF). Chademo Association Europe. 2013-06-11. Retrieved 2013-07-09. 
  20. ^ "CharIN e. V. demonstrates the next level of electric vehicle fast charging" (PDF). 2015-10-14. Retrieved 2015-12-14. 
  21. ^ "Volvo Cars ger en känga åt Tesla". 
  22. ^ "CharIN e. V. welcomes member Tesla Motors". 2016-11-09. 
  23. ^ "CharIN e. V. welcomes Atieva Inc." 2016-11-09. 
  24. ^ "Toyota Motor Europe joins CharIN e.V." CharIN. Retrieved 31 March 2017. 
  25. ^ "Volkswagen Dieselgate Settlement Includes $2 Billion Investment Towards Electric Cars". 
  26. ^ "5 major automakers join forces to deploy 400 ultra-fast (350 kW) charging stations for electric vehicles in Europe". Electrek. 2016-11-29. Retrieved 2016-11-29. 
  27. ^ "Carmakers plan 400 Europe car charging stations by 2020". Reuters. 2017-03-11. Retrieved 2018-05-04. 
  28. ^ "CCS Specification". www.charinev.org. 2017-09-26. Retrieved 2017-11-17. 
  29. ^ "Seven Automakers Agree On Combined EV Charging System". 2011-10-12. Retrieved 2017-11-17. 

External links[edit]