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A combined authority is a type of local government institution introduced in England outside Greater London by the Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009. There are currently five such authorities, with the Greater Manchester Combined Authority established on 1 April 2011, and four others established in April 2014. Combined authorities are created in areas where they are considered likely to improve transport, economic development and regeneration. Combined authorities are created voluntarily and allow a group of local authorities to pool appropriate responsibility and receive certain delegated functions from central government in order to deliver transport and economic policy more effectively over a wider area.
Following the abolition of metropolitan county councils, and the Greater London Council, in 1986, England had no local government bodies with strategic authority over the major urban areas of the country. In 1999, following a successful referendum, the Labour government created a strategic authority for London (the Greater London Authority), but no bodies were established to replace the metropolitan county councils outside London. The Blair government instead pursued the idea of elected Regional Assemblies, although following an unsuccessful referendum in the most positive region of the North East, this idea now has few proponents. The idea of city regions was proposed subsequently.
Out of the Lisbon Treaty (the European Constitution) the European Commission developed its "Europe 2020" ten year strategy to implement European headline social and environmental policies and further EU socio-economic and territorial cohesion at regional level. The Committee of the Regions was tasked to “develop a culture of ‘multi-level’ and ‘multi-actor’ governance in Europe”.
The Coalition Government introduced "carrot and stick" measures to devolve power to the regions and implement "Europe 2020" strategy. The Localism Act 2011 was passed. Part 2 gives the European Commission powers to fine local and regional authorities for non-compliance with EU policies and objectives.
Deputy Prime Minister Nick Clegg was tasked to replace former Regional development Agencies with EU compliant Local Enterprise Partnerships in order to “maximise value and take the opportunity to look again at key European funding for economic development””.
In 2010 the Government accepted a proposal from the Association of Greater Manchester Authorities to establish a Greater Manchester Combined Authority as an indirectly elected, top tier, strategic authority for Greater Manchester. Following the unsuccessful English mayoral referendums in 2012 combined authorities have been used as an alternative means to receive additional powers and funding as part of 'city deals' to metropolitan areas. In 2014 indirectly elected combined authorities were established for the metropolitan counties of South Yorkshire and West Yorkshire, and two combined authorities were established which each covered a metropolitan county and adjacent non-metropolitan districts: the Liverpool City Region Combined Authority for Merseyside and the Borough of Halton unitary authority, and the North East Combined Authority for Tyne and Wear and the unitary authorities of County Durham and Northumberland. A further combined authority is proposed for the West Midlands conurbation around Birmingham.
Powers and functions
The combined authority is a legally recognised entity able to assume the role of an integrated transport authority and economic prosperity board. This gives the combined authority the power to exercise any function of its constituent councils that relates to economic development and regeneration, and any of the functions that are available to integrated transport authorities. For transport purposes combined authorities are able to borrow money and can levy constituent authorities.
Combined authorities are encouraged to borrow from European institutions for social and environmental schemes which meet EU objectives. Loans are made with conditions attached which further EU policies. By 2015 Greater Manchester CA had agreed loans from the European Investment Bank which topped £1 billion with similar liabilities to the Treasury and private business.
The Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009 allowed for certain functions over transport to be delegated from central government. The Localism Act 2011 allowed additional transfers of powers from the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government and gave combined authorities a general power of competence. The powers and functions to be shared are agreed by the metropolitan district, non-metropolitan district, non-metropolitan county or unitary authority councils.
Process of creation or amendment
Combined authorities consist of two or more contiguous English local government areas. The creation of a combined authority is voluntary and all local authorities within the area must give their consent before it can be created. The local authority of any district of England outside Greater London can join a combined authority and a county council can become part of a combined authority even if only some of the non-metropolitan districts that make up the county are within the combined authority area. A local authority may only belong to one combined authority.
There are three stages to the creation or amendment of a combined authority. Firstly a review must be undertaken to establish the likelihood that a combined authority would improve:
"...the exercise of statutory functions relating to transport in the area, the effectiveness and efficiency of transport in the area, the exercise of statutory functions relating to economic development and regeneration in the area, and economic conditions in the area."— Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act 2009, Part 6
On completion of the review the local authorities produce and publish a proposed scheme of the combined authority to be created, including the area that will be covered, the constitution and functions. This will include details of membership of the authority, remuneration, and how meetings will be chaired and recorded. Following a period of consultation and subject to the approval of the Secretary of State for Communities and Local Government, the combined authority is formally created, dissolved or altered by a statutory instrument.
The combined authorities that have been created or are planned to be established are as follows. Following the unsuccessful English mayoral referendums in 2012, new combined authorities were encouraged as an alternative structure to receive additional powers and funding as part of 'city deals'.
|Statutory name||Adopted name||Constituent authorities||Status|
|Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham and Sheffield Combined Authority||Sheffield City Region Combined Authority||Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, Sheffield||Established 1 April 2014|
|Durham, Gateshead, Newcastle upon Tyne, North Tyneside, Northumberland, South Tyneside and Sunderland Combined Authority||North East Combined Authority||Durham, Gateshead, Newcastle, North Tyneside, Northumberland, South Tyneside, Sunderland||Established 15 April 2014|
|Greater Manchester Combined Authority||Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Manchester, Rochdale, Salford, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan||Established 1 April 2011|
|Halton, Knowsley, Liverpool, St Helens, Sefton and Wirral Combined Authority||Liverpool City Region Combined Authority||Halton, Knowsley, Liverpool, Sefton, St Helens, Wirral||Established 1 April 2014|
|West Midlands Combined Authority||Birmingham, Coventry, Dudley, Sandwell, Solihull, Walsall, Wolverhampton||To be established 1 April 2016|
|West Yorkshire Combined Authority||Bradford, Calderdale, Kirklees, Leeds, Wakefield||Established 1 April 2014|
It is proposed that the following combined authorities should be created:
|Agreed to bid for a combined authority but do not have agreement of the district councils.|
|Derbyshire||The unitary City of Derby, Derbyshire County Council and the county's district councils have agreed to form a combined authority.|
|Nottinghamshire||The unitary City of Nottingham, Nottinghamshire County Council and the county's district councils have agreed to form a combined authority.|
|Tees Valley||Middlesbrough, Hartlepool, Redcar and Cleveland, Stockton and Darlington councils announced plans for a Tees Valley Combined Authority.|
In 2014 the government consulted on changes to the legislation governing combined authorities. Proposed changes included extending the legislation to Greater London, Wales and Scotland. The Cities and Local Government Devolution Bill 2015–16 is intended to allow the introduction of directly-elected mayors to combined authorities in England and to devolve housing, transport, planning and policing powers to them.
- "Europe 2020: Handbook for Local and Regional Authorities" (PDF).
- "Local Enterprise Partnerships white paper" (PDF).
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Historic plans for the country's first ever Combined Authority covering the whole of Greater Manchester to drive locally the region's economic growth were launched by Communities Secretary John Denham today.
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