Comboios de Portugal

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Comboios de Portugal
TypeIncorporation
IndustryRail transport
Founded1856
Headquarters,
Key people
Nuno Pinho da Cruz Leite de Freitas,
Pedro Miguel Sousa Pereira Guedes Moreira,
Ana Maria dos Santos Malhó,
Maria Isabel de Magalhães Ribeiro,
Pedro Manuel Franco Ribeiro
ProductsRail Transport (Passenger)
RevenueGreen Arrow Up.svg 288.559 million (2018)[1]
Green Arrow Down.svg -36.9 million (2018)[1]
Green Arrow Down.svg -105,6 million (2018)[1]
OwnerGovernment of Portugal (100%)
Number of employees
2,658 (2018)[1]
Websitewww.cp.pt
Comboios de Portugal
Rede Ferroviária Portuguesa - 2007.png
Map showing the railway lines in Portugal operated by CP in 2007. Some closures have been held since then.
Flickr - nmorao - Areia, Lousal, 2009.05.19.jpg
A CP freight train in 2009
Technical
Track gauge1,668 mm (5 ft 5+2132 in) Iberian gauge and
1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in) metre gauge
Share of the Companhia dos Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses, issued 1. July 1932
CP's Alfa Pendular tilting train.
CP suburban trains at São Bento Station in Porto.

CP — Comboios de Portugal, EPE (CP; English: Trains of Portugal) is a state-owned company which operates passenger trains in Portugal. Before June 2009, CP stood for Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses (English: Portuguese Railways) although the company has been using its current designation as a brand name since 2004.

In 2019, CP transported 145 million passengers, 19 million more than in 2018.[2][3]

History[edit]

On 28 October 1856, the first railway line was inaugurated in Portugal, between Lisbon and Carregado: the Companhia dos Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses was born. The network was gradually expanded both south of the Tagus and to the north of the country, as well as in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon and Porto and to Spain. During the second half of the 20th century, much of CP's rolling stock was built in Portugal by Sorefame - notably carriages with stainless steel bodywork.

Gradually, electrification was put in place for a little less than half the network. In 1975, the company was nationalised, and its name was shortened to CP, A plan to finally connect all the district capitals by a fully electrified double line was to be implemented from 2010. Part of this plan is based on the Swiss Rail 2000 model.[4]

Manuel Antunes Frasquilho served as Chairman of the Board of directors between 1996 and 1997.[5]

The Vouga line is now the only narrow gauge line left in operation.

Infrastructure[edit]

The infrastructure of the Portuguese network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal, usually abbreviated to IP

Portuguese railway network extent:

  • Broad gauge (1,668 mm (5 ft 5+2132 in)): 2,603 km (1,617 mi), 1,351 km (839 mi) electrified at 25 kV 50 Hz AC and 25 km (16 mi) at 1.5 kV DC.
  • Narrow gauge (metre gauge) 1,000 mm (3 ft 3+38 in): 188 km (117 mi) not electrified.
  • The maximum extent of 3,592 km (2,232 mi) was reached in 1949, but in the late 1980s and early 1990s some lines were shortened and some totally closed.

Organisation[edit]

CP is split into three divisions:

  • CP Longo Curso, long-distance mainline services (Alfa Pendular, Intercidades and International trains).
  • CP Regional, regional services (Interregional and Regional).
  • CP Urban Services

Services[edit]

CP offers the following types of trains:

  • International (IN) is the service that connects Portugal with Spain and France. These are the Sud-Express (Lisbon-Hendaye), Lusitânia (Lisbon-Madrid) and Celta (Porto-Vigo). Both Sud Express and Lusitânia are night trains that run under Renfe's Trenhotel (Hotel Train) brand.
  • Alfa Pendular (AP) is the fastest service, whose speeds can reach 220 km/h. This service runs from Lisbon to either Porto, Braga or Guimarães (passing through Coimbra, Aveiro and Porto) or between Porto and Faro.
  • Intercidades (IC) is a fast long-distance service whose speeds can reach 200 km/h. All IC services (apart from the Beja Shuttle) run from Lisbon to either Porto, Braga, Guimarães, Guarda, Covilhã or Évora (with connection at Casa Branca to Beja), serving the majority of the Portuguese regions. Service to southern Portugal runs to cities including Tunes, Faro, and Albufeira.[6]
  • Inter-Regional (IR) is a medium distance service which stops only at the main stations. Runs mainly on the routes Porto-Viana do Castelo-Valença (Minho Line), Porto-Régua-Pocinho (Douro Line), Lisbon-Caldas da Rainha-Leiria-Coimbra (West Line) and Lisbon-Tomar (North Line). Services are operated by the same trains as Regional service.
  • Regional (R) is CP's local service, stopping at all stations, out of the Lisbon and Porto suburban areas.
  • Urbano (U) is the CP's urban service, in the regions of Lisbon and Porto and in the Coimbra-Figueira da Foz Line.

The network[edit]

CP's flagship service, introduced in 1999, is the Alfa Pendular which operates between Braga - Porto - Lisbon - Faro, with a maximum operating speed of 220km/h (138mph) with FIAT/Siemens tilting trains. As of 2006, CP's network reaches most of the country.[7]

CP inaugurated new trains in suburban service in the 1990s for Lisbon's Suburban service, and in 2001 in Porto's Suburban service.

Lines/Routes[edit]

The lines are no longer maintained by CP, due to EU regulations, so the infrastructure is now handled by the public company Infraestruturas de Portugal.

Line Gauge Status Notes
Linha do Alentejo Iberian current closed between Beja and Ourique; freight only from Ourique to Funcheira
Ramal de Alfarelos Iberian current
Linha do Algarve Iberian current
Linha da Beira Alta Iberian current
Linha da Beira Baixa Iberian current
Ramal de Braga Iberian current
Ramal de Cáceres Iberian former closed in 2012
Linha de Cascais Iberian current
Linha de Cintura Iberian current
Corgo line metre former closed in 1990 between Vila Real and Chaves; remaining section closed in 2009
Dão line metre former closed in 1989
Linha do Douro Iberian current closed in 1988 between Pocinho and Barca d'Alva
Ramal do Estádio Nacional Iberian former closed in 1979
Linha de Évora Iberian current closed in 1990 between Estremoz and Vila Viçosa; closed in 2009 between Évora and Estremoz
Évora–Elvas high-speed rail line Iberian future
Ramal da Figueira da Foz Iberian former closed in 2009
Guimarães line metre former closed in 1986 between Guimarães and Fafe; closed in 2001 between ISMAI and Trofa; converted to Iberian gauge between Trofa and Guimarães in 2004; converted to Porto Metro between Senhora da Hora and ISMAI in 2005
Linha de Guimarães Iberian current
Linha de Leixões Iberian current freight only
Linha do Leste Iberian current passenger service restored in 2017[8]
Lisbon–Porto high-speed rail line Iberian future
Ramal do Louriçal Iberian current freight only
Ramal da Lousã Iberian former closed in 2010 for construction of Metro Mondego; work halted due to lack of funds
Linha da Matinha Iberian current freight only
Linha do Minho Iberian current closed in 1990 between Valença and Monção
Ramal de Montemor Iberian former closed in 1989
Ramal do Montijo Iberian former closed in 1989
Ramal de Mora Iberian former closed in 1990
Ramal de Moura Iberian former closed in 1990
Linha do Norte Iberian current
Linha do Oeste Iberian current
Ramal de Portalegre Iberian former closed in 1990
Póvoa line metre former closed in 1995 between Póvoa de Varzim and Famalicão; converted to Porto Metro between Porto and Póvoa de Varzim between 2002 and 2006
Porto-Vigo high-speed rail line Iberian future
Ramal Neves Corvo Iberian current freight only
Sabor line metre former closed in 1988
Linha de Sines Iberian current freight only
Linha de Sintra Iberian current
Linha do Sul Iberian current
Tâmega line metre former closed in 1990 between Amarante and Arco de Baúlhe; remaining section closed in 2009; there are efforts to partially reopen the line
Ramal de Tomar Iberian current
Tua line metre former closed in 1992 between Mirandela and Bragança; closed in 2008 between Tua and Cachão; Mirandela–Carvalhais section reopened 1995 to 2019 as Metro de Mirandela
Linha de Vendas Novas Iberian current freight only
Ramal de Viseu metre former closed in 1990
Linha do Vale do Vouga metre current partially closed; last metre gauge line

Current Rolling Stock[edit]

Locomotives[edit]

Image Class (Nickname) In Service

since

Numbers Traction Gauge Max Speed Services
In Service Total
CP 0186 (27931236236).jpg 0180 1924 1 2 Steam Iberian

1668 mm

Seasonal

Heritage

CP1179EJPVL.JPG 1150 (Sentinel) 1967 4 36 Diesel Iberian 1668mm 56km/h Shunting
CP 1400 English Electric (4452625248).jpg 1400 (English Electric/EE) 1967 11 67 Diesel Iberian

1668 mm

105 km/h InterRegional

Shunting

Flickr - nmorao - Locomotivas 1550, Poceirão, 2009.11.12.jpg 1550 (MLW) 1973 1 20 Diesel Iberian

1668 mm

120 km/h Rescue

Shunting

CP 2601 (49497677598).jpg 2600 (Alstom) 1974 5 12 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

160 km/h InterRegional
CP 2601 (50438985137).jpg 2620 (Alstom) 1987 4 9 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

160 km/h InterRegional
CP 5600 - Entroncamento (7687618476).jpg 5600 1993 19 24 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

220 km/h InterCidades
CP E214 (50923344792).jpg E200 1911 - 1923 1 6 Steam Meter

1000 mm

50 Km/h Seasonal

Heritage

CP 9004 (49367637298).jpg 9000 1975 1 3 Diesel Meter

1000 mm

70 Km/h Seasonal

Heritage

Multiple Units[edit]

Image Class Type In Service

since

Built in Numbers Traction Gauge Max Operational

Speed

Services
In Service Total
CP 0371 (9738376728).jpg 0350 (Allan) 1 Car DMU 2000 2000 3 18 Diesel Iberian

1668 mm

100 km/h Regional
Flickr - nmorao - InterRegional 806, Estação de Caldas da Rainha, 2009.01.24.jpg 0450 (UDD) 2 Car DMU 1998 1998 19 19 Diesel Iberian

1668 mm

120 km/h Regional

InterRegional

CP 592 (23362485559).jpg 592 3 Car DMU 2011 1984

(Refurbished in 2001)

20 24 Diesel Iberian

1668 mm

140 km/h Regional

InterRegional

International

(Celta)

CP 9635 (8661061668).jpg 9630 2 Car DMU 1991 1991 7 7 Diesel Meter

1000 mm

90 km/h Regional
CP 2240 - Ermesinde (8162791542).jpg 2240 3 Car EMU 2004 2003 55 55 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

120 km/h Urban

Regional InterRegional

Flickr - nmorao - Urbano, Estação de Sete Rios, 2008.07.09.jpg 2300 4 Car EMU 1992 1992 42 42 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

120 km/h Urban
Automotora-CP-LinhadeSintra-Rossio.jpg 2400 4 Car EMU 1997 1997 14 14 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

120 km/h Urban
CP 3261 + CP 3150 (8244916739).jpg 3150 3 Car EMU 1998 1998 13 13 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

90 km/h Urban
CP 3260 + CP 3150 (8245980466).jpg 3250 4 Car EMU 1998 1998 18 21 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

90 km/h Urban
CP 3400 - Porto Campanhã (14297433683).jpg 3400 4 Car EMU 2002 2002 34 34 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

140 km/h Urban
3500 CP - Lisboa Rossio - 2014-03-18 - dominique Bernardini.jpg 3500 4 Car 2-floor EMU 1999 1999 12 12 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

140 km/h Urban
An Alfa Pendular train in new livery entering Devesas station.jpg 4000 6 Car

High

Speed

EMU

1999 (Refurbished

in 2017)

1998 9 10 Electric Iberian

1668 mm

220 km/h Alfa Pendular

Passenger Cars[edit]

Image Name In Service

since

Numbers Gauge Max Speed Services Notes
In Service Total
Stainless Steel Cars with A/C
Corail passenger car in the Portuguese Intercidades version.jpg Corail 1985 58 58 Iberian

1668 mm

200 Km/h

(originally 160)

InterCidades Modernized over

the years, first

used on the

now-extinct

"Alfa service"

CP 5601 (50438985037).jpg Sorefame

Modernizada

1993-1996 45 45 Iberian

1668 mm

200 Km/h InterCidades Modernized for

IC services

Mild Steel Cars with A/C
RENFE Arco - Valencia Nord - 2014-07-31 01.jpg Arco 2021 0 36 Iberian

1668 mm

200 Km/h InterRegional Purchased

from Renfe

in 2020.

4 refurbished cars

ready to enter

InterRegional service

Diurno 280.JPG 9000 N/A 0 4 Iberian

1668 mm

160 Km/h Not in Service Purchased

from Renfe

in 2020

Coche 10000 Renfe.jpg Gran Confort N/A 0 5 Iberian

1668 mm

160 Km/h Not in Service Purchased

from Renfe

in 2020

J21 082 Bww San Andrés Condál, Bc10x-9628.jpg Corail N/A 0 5 Iberian

1668 mm

160 Km/h Not in Service Purchased

from Renfe

in 2020

Stainless Steel Cars without A/C
CP 22-40 (Sorefame) (14147760351).jpg Sorefame

Classic

1963-1984 9 74 Iberian

1668 mm

140 Km/h Regional

InterRegional

Most withdrawn

from service or

modernized for

IC services

Mild Steel Cars without A/C
CP - Comboios de Portugal na linha do Douro, Estação Ferroviária do Pinhão 01.jpg Schindler 1948-1949 17 19 Iberian

1668 mm

120 Km/h Regional

InterRegional

Out of service

between 1996

and 2017.

Refurbished

from 2017 to

2021

Napolitanas 1931 1 5 Meter

1000 mm

Seasonal

Heritage

Used on the

Vouga Historic

Steam Train

Major stations[edit]

Lisbon[edit]

  • Cais do Sodré - for local trains from Lisbon to Cascais. Portugal's busiest interchange station (train/ferry/metro/tram/bus)
  • Oriente - for trains to the north and to the Algarve
  • Rossio - for local trains to Sintra
  • Santa Apolónia - terminus station, for trains to the north and to Spain

Porto[edit]

Other[edit]

Accidents and Incidents[edit]

On the 21st of January 2013, two trains crashed on the Portuguese Northern Line in Alfarelos. 25 people were injured and the line was closed for 3 days.

On the 31st of July 2020, an Alfa Pendular Train collided with a track maintenance vehicle at Soure, Portugal. Two people were killed and 43 were injured, three seriously.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Comboios de Portugal (2018). "Relatório & Contas Consolidado" (PDF) (in Portuguese).
  2. ^ "A Empresa | CP - Comboios de Portugal".
  3. ^ "Passageiros e receitas da CP aumentam em 2019". Sol. 2020-03-08. Retrieved 2020-03-09.
  4. ^ Stohler, Werner. "Modernização do sistema da exploração ferroviária da Região de Coimbra" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 August 2011. Retrieved 7 November 2010.
  5. ^ CEEP Portugal - A Regulação dos Preços Como Instrumento de Regulação Pública dos Serviços de Interesse Geral
  6. ^ See the timetable at www.cp.pt
  7. ^ "CP route map" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 May 2011.
  8. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-08-31. Retrieved 2017-08-31.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

External links[edit]