|Other names||Musical comedy|
Comedy music or musical comedy is a genre of music that is comic or humorous in nature. Its history can be traced back to the first century in ancient Greece and Rome, moving forward in time to the Medieval Period, Classical and Romantic eras, and the 20th century. Artists in the 20th century include Allan Sherman, Frank Zappa, Tiny Tim, Randy Newman, and "Weird Al" Yankovic.
Comedy music is often associated with counterculture, due to the subversive messages it displays. This informative nature of comedy music also contributes to the improvement of learning inside and outside the classroom. Forms of entertainment like musical theatre often incorporates comedy music as well.
To create comic effects in music, Composers have developed several principal compositional techniques, including the use of comic text, musical parody, and unexpected juxtapositions of syntactical elements among others. Comedy music can be further categorized into several types, such as parody music, novelty song, comedy rock, and comedy hip hop. Awards dedicated to comedy music include the Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album, the Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy, and the Musical Comedy Awards.
Comedy is a form of art that addresses comic or humorous situations, or even serious ones with a light or satirical approach. Music is also a form of art, and it is concerned with the rhythm, melody, and harmony of vocal, instrumental, or mechanical sounds.
One similarity between comedy and music is the way they both evoke psychological and emotional effects in their listeners, without them fully understanding the specific reason for their emotions of hilarity. Comedy in entertainment is also established as musical codes set up and confirm the audience's understanding of the symbolic meaning of a scene, before subverting that understanding to play with the audience's response. Thus, a multi-faceted musical experience has the ability to elicit emotions such as humor and comedy in its listeners. This type of musical experience can be identified as comedy music.
Ancient Greece and Rome
The origins of comedy play in ancient Greece are first recorded on pottery in the 6th century BCE, on which illustrations of actors dressed as horses, Satyrs, and dancers in exaggerated costumes are painted on. Another early origin are the explicit sexually humorous poems of Hipponax in the 6th century BCE and Archilocus in the 7th century BCE. The third origin are the phallic songs sung during Dionysiac festivals, as mentioned by Aristotle.
In the Medieval Period, Minstrels, Troubadours, and court jesters would continue performing comedic music, some satirical, accompanied by musical instruments. Court jesters in particular would display their wit and humor through songs, jokes, and physical comedy as a way to offer critique on society and authority, working in public squares or officially hired as licensed fools to work directly under the King or Queen.
Classical and Romantic eras
In the Classical and Romantic eras, composers like Haydn, Beethoven, and Schumann would place comic passages side by side with the more serious sections to bring out the contrast between them. This technique is called juxtaposition, which is a basic element of comedy.
Progress in comedy music continued over years, until vaudeville entertainers of the early 20th century added lyrics to musical numbers. In 1922, one of the first comedy music hits ‘Yes! We Have No Bananas’ sung by Eddie Cantor was released.
In the 1940s, Spike Jones created songs with a comedy technique of replacing several musical notes with humorous sound effects. Followed in 1951, Stan Freberg released a series of cover songs that addressed the issue of commercialism in that age.
The 1960s and 1970s saw the rise of numerous comedy music artists whose careers went on for decades. These artists include: Allan Sherman, Frank Zappa, Tiny Tim, and Randy Newman. Particularly in 1970, the radio host Barret Hansen – better known as Dr. Demento – appeared. He played tracks sent in by amateur artists, one of which was a 16-year-old 'Weird Al' Yankovic.
Yankovic released his first album in 1983, which eventually led to a 14-album contract that he did not complete until 2014. For over four decades, he released multiple hit parodies and originals, which made him a major player in the genre of comedy music and the counterculture associated with it.
Counterculture is associated with comedy music due to the individual natures of comedy and music. Comedy often contains progressive and subversive messages that intend to provide listeners with information about issues, Injustices, and other topics that are important to the artist. Music has the ability to explain political issues in a way that is easily acceptable for a wide range of listeners. Both comedy and music have the power to create movements and spread ideas, allowing them to effectively advocate counterculture through the ages, one of them being the challenge of authority.
‘Weird Al’ Yankovic spread his message about the privilege of the upper class through his comedy music song, titled ‘First World Problems’:
My maid is cleaning the bathroom, so I can't take a shower / When I do, the water starts getting cold after an hour / I couldn't order off the breakfast menu, cause I slept in till two / Then I filled up on bread, didn't leave any room for tiramisu / Oh no, there's a pixel out in the corner of my laptop screen / I don't have any bills in my wallet small enough for the vending machine / Some idiot just called me up on the phone, what!? Don't they know how to text? OMG! / I got first world, first world problems.
They came down from Meekatharra / In a burned-out blue FJ / That farted and just shit itself in Jutland Parade / Right next door to Bondy's / When the smoke had cleared a voice said: / 'Eh .. this place look all right / We'll tell the government it's a sacred site / Dead fuckin' easy' / 'Good day Mr Alan Bond, how you goin' bloke? / Hey, I'm your brand-new neighbour ... hey, mate you got a smoke? / And I think I'm gonna like it here / Livin' next door to Alan'.
Comedy and music have both been found to improve the effectiveness of learning inside and outside the classroom. Comedy improves short-term issue recognition, and can improve a student's learning by attracting and holding their attention for a longer duration of the class, also ensuring their continued motivation and engagement. Music improves a student's vocabulary and comprehensive skills, simultaneously encouraging them to think creatively. An example of the implementation of comedy music in education is the incorporation of parody songs to learn the English language.
In the 1920s and 1930s, musical theatre is a form of entertainment that often incorporates comedy. In a musical setting, rhetorico-musical techniques contribute in creating comedic effect, and an example of this is aposiopesis, which is the device of suddenly breaking off in musical speech for dramatic or emotional effect. Another contributing aspect to it is dance – particularly tap dance. Musical comedies differ from book musicals as they focus more on comedy and dance rather than on drama and character development. This era's musical comedies include works created by brothers George and Ira Gershwin, and these musicals are: ‘Strike Up the Band’, ‘Lady, Be Good’, ‘Oh, Kay!’, ‘Girl Crazy’, ‘Crazy for You’, and ‘Of Thee I Sing’.
To create comic effects in music, composers have developed the following principal compositional techniques.
The use of comic text or funny words immediately conveys humor. This can be traced back to 13th century Motets, but it is the 18th century opera buffa that first explored deeply all the aspects of verbal comedy. An example of this is Mozart’s Le nozze di Figaro composed in 1786.
Musical parodies satirize certain styles or particular works of music. An example of this is Mozart's Ein musikalischer Spass composed in 1787, which parodies the style of incompetent composers and Siegfried Ochs’s variations on ‘Kommt ein Vogel geflogen’ that models the style of particular composers for each variation.
Juxtapositions of syntactical elements
The use of unexpected juxtapositions of syntactical elements include changing the lengths of phrases, startling turns of melody and dynamics, and contrasting textures. An example of this is a minuet from Haydn's Symphony No. 104 composed in 1796, where rests and a crescendo of the timpani interrupt the regular flow of music.
Musical description includes animal or even nonsensical sound effects that illustrate certain events or situations within the music piece. Examples of this are the bird calls in Beethoven's Pastoral Symphony composed in 1808, the bleating of sheep in Strauss’s Don Quixote composed in 1897, and sound effects that illustrate hunting or market scenes in Medieval Italian caccie.
References to particular styles
Inclusion of folk or popular music techniques in certain passages creates humorous effect. Examples of this are the clumsy folk-like dance technique incorporated in the last movement of Haydn's Symphony No. 82 – nicknamed The Bear – composed in 1786 and Hindemith’s use of the Shimmy in his Suite 1922 for Piano.
The use of incongruency creates contrasts between music styles and techniques, and this is done with parodistic intent. An example of this is Haydn's Symphony No. 60 – nicknamed Il Distratto – composed in 1774.
The use of unusual orchestral devices creates the element of surprise. Examples of this are the tuning of violins in the last movement of Haydn's Symphony No. 60 composed in 1774 and the use of col legno in the last movement of Berlioz’s Symphonie fantastique composed in 1830.
Allusions to a famous comic character
The descriptive use of music can be used to allude to famous comic characters. Examples of this are Elgar’s symphonic poem on Falstaff composed in 1913 and Strauss's depiction of Till Eulenspiegel composed in 1895.
Texture, dynamics, rhythm, and melodic design
The use of unusual effects of texture, dynamics, rhythm, and melodic design creates comic features within the music piece. Examples of this are the exaggerated large intervals of the bass voice in 18th century opera buffa and the two Sopranos showing off their high register singing in Mozart's Der Schauspieldirektor composed in 1785.
Keys and modulations
The use of strange keys and distant modulations respectively create dissonance and distant harmonic movements. These musical devices create a subtle humorous effect. Examples of this are Renaissance Madrigals and Motets and Baroque Cantatas.
References to past styles
References to past styles and techniques are presented in a new context, and this is played with the assumption that the audience is familiar with the referenced style and technique. An example of this is the referencing of 18th century forms and instrumentation by Neoclassic composers Stravinsky and Hindemith in the 20th century.
Quotations of musical materials
Musical quotations are blended together in vertical and horizontal orders to form a medley. In the Renaissance era, this type of musical composition is called the quodlibet. In the Romantic era, they are often medleys performed in Operas. Examples of this are C. Hopfner's operetta for men's voices – Das Gastspiel der Lucca – composed in 1875 and Charles Ives’s Holiday Symphony composed in 1913.
Composers like Haydn and Beethoven often use specific movement titles to identify their work as humorous, labeling them as ‘scherzo’, which means ‘joke’. An example of this is the scherzo from Tchaikovsky’s Symphony No. 4 composed in 1878.
Tempo modifications not only sets the pace of music, but also imply mood and style. An example of this is Haydn's symphony finales in the late 18th century, where tempo modifications are used to display character.
The use of visually uncommon notations has been employed in the complex polyphony of the late 14th century, puzzle canons of the Renaissance and Baroque eras, and aleatoric music of the 20th century. An example of this is Baude Cordier’s ‘Belle bonne’ heart-shaped manuscript composed in the late 14th century.
The use of specific terms in genre designations identifies certain types of music as humorous. Obvious designations include opera buffa, while subtler ones include terms like canzonetta, chansonetta, and operetta. An example of this is Schumann's use of the term ‘humoresque’ to designate humorous music, as demonstrated in his own work – Humoreske – composed in 1838.
Composers make fun of certain performance styles through the use of parody. Examples of this are Victor Borge who made fun of conventional classical music by mimicking well-known pieces of music and Anna Russell who satirized Wagner.
Texting of instrumental works
The use of chance to combine phrases in musical composition is known as ars combinatoria. In the 20th century, this genre is called aleatoric music or chance music. An example of this is John Cage’s Music of Changes composed in 1951.
Soggetto cavato is a technique that substitutes syllables from solmization for letters, creating a musical cryptogram. An example of this is the use of the letters ASCH and SCHA Schumann's Carnaval composed in 1835.
I'm dry humping bamboo in a jungle / My butt's so big it's like two gigantic bubbles / And I always show it off 'cause it's my greatest asset / But it's enhanced by surgery, yes, it's made out of plastic / It's not real, real, real.
Bob the builder / Can we fix it? / Bob the builder / Yes we can!
When Grandfather dies / Life will be strange / When Grandfather dies / My whole world will change / When Grandfather dies / I'll scream and I'll yell / 'Cause I'll be fuckin' rich as hell.
Comedy hip hop
The Lonely Island released their first comedy hip hop song – ‘Ka-Blamo!’ – in 2001:
When you're mining for coal and you forget what coal is / And you're sure to be fired, because that's your job! / When a mole's in your ass and you wonder where the mole is / You're screwed man, a mole is in your ass. Job!
Grammy Award for Best Comedy album
The Grammy Award for Best Comedy Album acknowledges both spoken word and musical comedy albums. It is presented by the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences of the United States, and is first awarded in 1959 until the present day.
Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy
The Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy recognizes musical or comedy films. It is presented by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association of the United States, and is first awarded in 1952 until the present day.
Musical Comedy Awards
The Musical Comedy Awards is an annual competition that acknowledges the United Kingdom's up-and-coming as well as established artists in the musical comedy genre. It is first set up in 2008 by founder Ed Chappel.
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