The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (November 2012) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
|Part of a series on|
|lesbian ∙ gay ∙ bisexual ∙ transgender|
Coming out of the closet, often shortened to coming out, is a metaphor for LGBT people's self-disclosure of their sexual orientation or of their gender identity. The term coming out can also be used in various non-LGBT applications (e.g. atheists).
Framed and debated as a privacy issue, coming out of the closet is described and experienced variously as a psychological process or journey; decision-making or risk-taking; a strategy or plan; a mass or public event; a speech act and a matter of personal identity; a rite of passage; liberation or emancipation from oppression; an ordeal; a means toward feeling gay pride instead of shame and social stigma; or even career suicide. Author Steven Seidman writes that "it is the power of the closet to shape the core of an individual's life that has made homosexuality into a significant personal, social, and political drama in twentieth-century America".
American gender theorist Judith Butler argues that the process of "coming out" does not free gay people from oppression. Although they may feel free to act as themselves, the opacity involved in entering a non-heterosexual territory insinuates judgment upon their identity, she argues in Imitation and Gender Insubordination (1991).
Coming out of the closet is the source of other gay slang expressions related to voluntary disclosure or lack thereof. LGBT people who have already revealed or no longer conceal their sexual orientation or gender identity are out, i.e. openly LGBT. Oppositely, LGBT people who have yet to come out or have opted not to do so are labelled as closeted or being in the closet. Outing is the deliberate or accidental disclosure of an LGBT person's sexual orientation or gender identity, without their consent. By extension, outing oneself is self-disclosure. Glass closet means the open secret of when public figures' being LGBT is considered a widely accepted fact even though they have not officially come out.
- 1 History
- 2 Sociolinguistic origin
- 3 Identity issues
- 4 Legal issues
- 5 Effects
- 6 In/out metaphors
- 7 National Coming Out Day
- 8 Media
- 9 Extended use in LGBT media, publishing and activism
- 10 Non-LGBT applications
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
In 1869, one hundred years before the Stonewall riots, the German homosexual rights advocate Karl Heinrich Ulrichs introduced the idea of self-disclosure as a means of emancipation. Claiming that invisibility was a major obstacle toward changing public opinion, he urged homosexual people to reveal their same-sex attractions. In his 1906 work, Das Sexualleben unserer Zeit in seinen Beziehungen zur modernen Kultur (The Sexual Life of Our Time in its Relation to Modern Civilization), Iwan Bloch, a German-Jewish physician, entreated elderly homosexuals to self-disclose to their family members and acquaintances. In 1914, Magnus Hirschfeld revisited the topic in his major work The Homosexuality of Men and Women, discussing the social and legal potentials of several thousand homosexual men and women of rank revealing their sexual orientation to the police in order to influence legislators and public opinion.
The first prominent American to reveal his homosexuality was the poet Robert Duncan. In 1944, using his own name in the anarchist magazine Politics, he wrote that homosexuals were an oppressed minority. The decidedly clandestine Mattachine Society, founded by Harry Hay and other veterans of the Wallace for President campaign in Los Angeles in 1950, moved into the public eye after Hal Call took over the group in San Francisco in 1953, with many gays emerging from the closet.
In 1951, Donald Webster Cory published his landmark The Homosexual in America, exclaiming, "Society has handed me a mask to wear...Everywhere I go, at all times and before all sections of society, I pretend." Cory was a pseudonym, but his frank and openly subjective descriptions served as a stimulus to the emerging homosexual self-awareness and the nascent homophile movement.
In the 1960s, Frank Kameny came to the forefront of the struggle. Having been fired from his job as an astronomer for the Army Map service in 1957 for homosexual behavior, Kameny refused to go quietly. He openly fought his dismissal, eventually appealing it all the way to the U.S. Supreme Court. As a vocal leader of the growing movement, Kameny argued for unapologetic public actions. The cornerstone of his conviction was that, "we must instill in the homosexual community a sense of worth to the individual homosexual", which could only be achieved through campaigns openly led by homosexuals themselves. With the spread of consciousness raising (CR) in the late 1960s, coming out became a key strategy of the gay liberation movement to raise political consciousness to counter heterosexism and homophobia. At the same time and continuing into the 1980s, gay and lesbian social support discussion groups, some of which were called "coming-out groups", focused on sharing coming-out "stories" (experiences) with the goal of reducing isolation and increasing LGBT visibility and pride.
The present-day expression "coming out" is understood to have originated in the early 20th century from an analogy that likens homosexuals' introduction into gay subculture to a débutante's coming-out party. This is a celebration for a young upper-class woman who is making her début – her formal presentation to society – because she has reached adult age or has become eligible for marriage. As historian George Chauncey points out:
Gay people in the pre-war years [pre-WWI]... did not speak of coming out of what we call the gay closet but rather of coming out into what they called homosexual society or the gay world, a world neither so small, nor so isolated, nor... so hidden as closet implies
An article on coming out in the online encyclopedia glbtq.com states that sexologist Evelyn Hooker's observations introduced the use of "coming out" to the academic community in the 1950s. The article continues by echoing Chauncey's observation that a subsequent shift in connotation occurred later on. The pre-1950s focus was on entrance into "a new world of hope and communal solidarity" whereas the post-Stonewall Riots overtone was an exit from the oppression of the closet. This change in focus suggests that "coming out of the closet" is a mixed metaphor that joins "coming out" with the closet metaphor: an evolution of "skeleton in the closet" specifically referring to living a life of denial and secrecy by concealing one's sexual orientation. The closet metaphor, in turn, is extended to the forces and pressures of heterosexist society and its institutions.
When coming out is described as a gradual process or a journey, it is meant to include becoming aware of and acknowledging one's gender identity or non-heteronormative sexual orientation. This preliminary stage, which involves soul-searching or a personal epiphany, is often called "coming out to oneself" and constitutes the start of self-acceptance. Many LGBT people say that this stage began for them during adolescence or childhood, when they first became aware of their sexual orientation toward members of the same sex. Coming out has also been described as a process because of a recurring need or desire to come out in new situations in which LGBT people are assumed to be heterosexual or cisgender, such as at a new job or with new acquaintances. As Diana Fuss (1991) explains, "the problem of course with the inside/outside rhetoric...is that such polemics disguise the fact that most of us are both inside and outside at the same time".
LGBT identity development
Every coming out story is the person trying to come to terms with who they are and their sexual orientation. Several models have been created to describe coming out as a process for gay and lesbian identity development, e.g. Dank, 1971; Cass, 1984; Coleman, 1989; Troiden, 1989. Of these models, the most widely accepted is the Cass identity model established by Vivienne Cass. This model outlines six discrete stages transited by individuals who successfully come out: identity confusion, identity comparison, identity tolerance, identity acceptance, identity pride, and identity synthesis. However, not every LGBT person follows such a model. For example, some LGBT youth become aware of and accept their same-sex desires or gender identity at puberty in a way similar to which heterosexual teens become aware of their sexuality, i.e. free of any notion of difference, stigma or shame in terms of the gender of the people to whom they are attracted. Regardless of whether LGBT youth develop their identity based on a model, the typical age at which youth in the United States come out has been dropping. High school students and even middle school students are coming out.
Emerging research suggests that gay men from religious backgrounds are likely to come out online via Facebook and Blogs as it offers a protective interpersonal distance. This largely contradicts the growing movement in social media research indicating that online use, particularly Facebook, can lead to negative mental health outcomes such as increased levels of anxiety. While further research is needed to assess whether these results generalize to a larger sample, these recent findings open the door to the possibility that gay men's online experiences may differ from heterosexuals' in that it may be more likely to provide mental health benefits than consequences.
Transgender and transsexual communities
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (May 2017)
In areas of the world where homosexual acts are penalized or prohibited, gay men, lesbians, and bisexual people can suffer negative legal consequences for coming out. In particular, where homosexuality is a crime, coming out may constitute self-incrimination. These laws still exist in 76 countries worldwide, including Egypt, Iran, Singapore, and Afghanistan.
In the early stages of the lesbian, gay or bisexual identity development process, people can feel confused and experience turmoil. In 1993, Michelangelo Signorile wrote Queer in America, in which he explored the harm caused both to a closeted person and to society in general by being closeted.
Because LGBT people have historically been marginalized as sexual minorities, coming out of the closet remains a challenge for most of the world's LGBT population and can lead to a backlash of heterosexist discrimination and homophobic violence.
Studies have found that concealing sexual orientation is related to poorer mental health, physical health, and relationship functioning. For example, it has been found that same-sex couples who have not come out are not as satisfied in their relationships as same-sex couples who have. Findings from another study indicate that the fewer people know about a lesbian's sexual orientation, the more anxiety, less positive affectivity, and lower self-esteem she has. Further, Gay.com states that closeted individuals are reported to be at increased risk for suicide.
Depending on the relational bond between parents and children, a child coming out as lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender can be positive or negative. Strong, loving relationships between children and their parents may be strengthened but if a relationship is already strained, those relationships may be further damaged or destroyed by the child coming out. If people coming out are accepted by their parents, this allows open discussions of dating and relationships and allows parents to help their children with coping with discrimination and to make healthier decisions regarding HIV/AIDS. Because parents, families, and close others can reject someone coming out to them, the effects of coming out on LGBT individuals are not always positive. For example, teens who had parents who rejected them when they came out showed more drug use, depression, suicide attempts and risky sexual behaviors later on as young adults. Some studies find that the health effects of coming out depends more on the reactions of parents than on the disclosure itself.
A number of studies have been done on the effect of people coming out to their parents. A 1989 report by Robinson et al. of parents of out gay and lesbian children in the United States found that 21% of fathers and 28% of mothers had suspected that their child was gay or lesbian, largely based on gender atypical behaviour during childhood. The 1989 study found that two-thirds of parents reacted negatively. A 1995 study (that used young people's reactions) found that half of the mothers of gay or bisexual male college students "responded with disbelief, denial or negative comments" while fathers reacted slightly better. 18% of parents reacted "with acts of intolerance, attempts to convert the child to heterosexuality, and verbal threats to cut off financial or emotional support".
Homelessness is a common effect among LGBT youth during the coming out process. LGBT youth are among the largest population of homeless youth; this has typically been caused by the self-identification and acknowledgment of being gay or identifying with the LGBT community. About 20% to 30% of homeless youth identify as LGBT. 55% of LGBQ and 67% of transgender youth are forced out of their homes by their parents or run away because of their sexual orientation or gender identity and expression. Homelessness among LGBT youth also impacts many areas of an individual's life, leading to higher rates of victimization, depression, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, risky sexual behavior, and participation in more illegal and dangerous activities. A 2016 study on homelessness pathways among Latino LGBT youth found that homelessness among LGBT individuals can also be attributed to structural issues like systems of care and sociocultural and economic factors.
Jimmie Manning performed a study in 2015 on positive and negative behavior performed during the coming out conversation. During his study, he learned that almost all of his participants would only attribute negative behaviors with themselves during the coming out conversations and positive behaviors with the recipient of the conversation. Manning suggests further research into this to figure out a way for positive behaviors to be seen and performed equally by both the recipient and the individual coming out.
The closet narrative sets up an implicit dualism between being "in" or being "out" wherein those who are "in" are often stigmatized as living false, unhappy lives. Likewise, philosopher and critical analyst Judith Butler (1991) states that the in/out metaphor creates a binary opposition which pretends that the closet is dark, marginal, and false and that being out in the "light of illumination" reveals a true (or essential) identity. Nonetheless, Butler is willing to appear at events as a lesbian and maintains that "it is possible to argue that...there remains a political imperative to use these necessary errors or category mistakes...to rally and represent an oppressed political constituency".
In addition Diana Fuss (1991) explains, "the problem of course with the inside/outside rhetoric...is that such polemics disguise the fact that most of us are both inside and outside at the same time". Further, "To be out, in common gay parlance, is precisely to be no longer out; to be out is to be finally outside of exteriority and all the exclusions and deprivations such outsiderhood imposes. Or, put another way, to be out is really to be in—inside the realm of the visible, the speakable, the culturally intelligible." In other words, coming out constructs the closet it supposedly destroys and the self it supposedly reveals, "the first appearance of the homosexual as a 'species' rather than a 'temporary aberration' also marks the moment of the homosexual's disappearance—into the closet".
Furthermore, Seidman, Meeks, and Traschen (1999) argue that "the closet" may be becoming an antiquated metaphor in the lives of modern-day Americans for two reasons.
- Homosexuality is becoming increasingly normalized and the shame and secrecy often associated with it appears to be in decline.
- The metaphor of the closet hinges upon the notion that stigma management is a way of life. However, stigma management may actually be increasingly done situationally.
National Coming Out Day
Observed annually on October 11, by members of the LGBT communities and their straight allies, National Coming Out Day is a civil awareness day for coming out and discussing LGBT issues among the general populace in an effort to give a familiar face to the LGBT rights movement. This day was the inspiration for holding LGBT History Month in the United States in October. The day was founded in 1988, by Robert Eichberg, his partner William Gamble, and Jean O'Leary to celebrate the Second National March on Washington for Lesbian and Gay Rights one year earlier, in which 500,000 people marched on Washington, DC, United States, for gay and lesbian equality. In the United States, the Human Rights Campaign manages the event under the National Coming Out Project, offering resources to LGBT individuals, couples, parents, and children, as well as straight friends and relatives, to promote awareness of LGBT families living honest and open lives. Candace Gingrich became the spokesperson for the day in April 1995. Although still named "National Coming Out Day", it is observed in Canada, Germany, The Netherlands, and Switzerland also on October 11, and in the United Kingdom on 12 October. To celebrate National Coming Out Day on October 11, 2002, Human Rights Campaign released an album bearing the same title as that year's theme: Being Out Rocks. Participating artists include Kevin Aviance, Janis Ian, k.d. lang, Cyndi Lauper, Sarah McLachlan, and Rufus Wainwright.
Highly publicized comings-out
Government officials and political candidates
In 1987, Barney Frank, the U.S. House Representative for Massachusetts's 4th congressional district, publicly came out as gay, thus becoming the second member of the Massachusetts delegation to the United States Congress to do so. In 1983, U.S. Rep Gerry Studds, D-Mass., came out as a homosexual during the 1983 Congressional page sex scandal. In 1988, Svend Robinson was the first Canadian Member of Parliament to come out. Governor of New Jersey Jim McGreevey announced his decision to resign, publicly came out as "a gay American" and admitted to having had an extramarital affair with a man, Golan Cipel, an Israeli citizen and veteran of the Israeli Defense Forces, whom McGreevey appointed New Jersey homeland security adviser. In 1999, Australian Senator Brian Greig came out as being gay in his maiden speech to parliament, the first Australian politician to do so.
The first US professional team-sport athlete to come out was former NFL running back David Kopay, who played for five teams (San Francisco, Detroit, Washington, New Orleans and Green Bay) between 1964 and 1972. He came out in 1975 in an interview in the Washington Star. The first professional athlete to come out while still playing was Czech-American professional tennis player Martina Navratilova, who came out as a lesbian during an interview with The New York Times in 1981. English footballer Justin Fashanu came out in 1990 and was subject to homophobic taunts from spectators, opponents and teammates for the rest of his career.
In 1995 while at the peak of his playing career, Ian Roberts became the first high-profile Australian sports person and first rugby footballer in the world to come out to the public as gay. John Amaechi, who played in the NBA with the Utah Jazz, Orlando Magic and Cleveland Cavaliers (as well as internationally with Panathinaikos BC of the Greek Basketball League and Kinder Bologna of the Italian Basketball League), came out in February 2007 on ESPN's Outside the Lines program. He also released a book Man in the Middle, published by ESPN Books (ISBN 1-933060-19-0) which talks about his professional and personal life as a closeted basketball player. He was the first NBA player (former or current) to come out.
The first Irish county GAA player to come out while still playing was hurler Dónal Óg Cusack in October 2009 in previews of his autobiography. Gareth Thomas, who played international rugby union and rugby league for Wales, came out in a Daily Mail interview in December 2009 near the end of his career.
In 2013, basketball player Jason Collins (a member of the Washington Wizards) came out as gay, becoming the first active male professional athlete in a major North American team sport to publicly come out as gay.
On August 15, 2013, WWE wrestler Darren Young came out, making him the first openly gay active professional wrestler.
On February 9, 2014, former Missouri defensive lineman Michael Sam came out as gay. He was drafted by the St. Louis Rams on May 10, 2014, with the 249th overall pick in the seventh round, making him the first openly gay player to be drafted by an NFL franchise. He was released by St. Louis and waived by the Dallas Cowboys practice squad. Sam was on the roster for the Montreal Alouettes, but has since retired from football.
Artists and entertainers
In 1997 on The Oprah Winfrey Show, actress Ellen DeGeneres came out as a lesbian. Her real-life coming out was echoed in the sitcom Ellen in "The Puppy Episode", in which the eponymous character Ellen Morgan, played by DeGeneres, outs herself over the airport public address system. On March 29, 2010, Puerto Rican pop singer Ricky Martin came out publicly in a post on his official web site by stating, "I am proud to say that I am a fortunate homosexual man. I am very blessed to be who I am." Martin said that "these years in silence and reflection made me stronger and reminded me that acceptance has to come from within and that this kind of truth gives me the power to conquer emotions I didn't even know existed." Singer Adam Lambert came out after pictures of him kissing another man were publicly circulated while he was a participant on American Idol season 8.
In 1975, Leonard Matlovich, while serving in the United States Air Force, came out to challenge the U.S. military's policies banning service by homosexuals. Widespread coverage included a Time magazine cover story and a television movie on NBC.
In 2011, as the U.S. prepared to lift restrictions on service by openly gay people, Senior Airman Randy Phillips conducted a social media campaign to garner support for coming out. The video he posted on YouTube of the conversation in which he told his father he was gay went viral. In one journalist's summation, he "masterfully used social media and good timing to place himself at the centre of a civil rights success story".
In October, 2010, megachurch pastor Bishop Jim Swilley came out to his congregation. The YouTube video of the service went viral. Interviews with People magazine, Joy Behar, Don Lemon ABC News and NPR focused on the bullycides that prompted Bishop Swilley to "come out". One year and five years later,[clarification needed] he confirmed the costs but also the freedom he has experienced. "To be able to have freedom is something that I wouldn't trade anything for." "Being married as yourself, preaching as yourself and living your life as yourself is infinitely better than doing those things as someone else." Bishop Swilley's son, Jared Swilley, bass player and front man of Black Lips said, "It was definitely shocking, but I was actually glad when he told me. I feel closer to him now..." Bishop Swilley's other son, Judah Swilley, a cast member on the Oxygen show Preachers of Atlanta, is confronting homophobia in the church.
Depictions of coming out
In 1996, the acclaimed British film Beautiful Thing had a positive take in its depiction of two teenage boys coming to terms with their sexual identity. In 1987, a two-part episode of the Quebec television series Avec un grand A, “Lise, Pierre et Marcel”, depicted a married closeted man who has to come out when his wife discovers that he has been having an affair with another man. In the Emmy Award-nominated episode "Gay Witch Hunt" of The Office, Michael inadvertently outs Oscar to the whole office.
Ellen DeGeneres's coming out in the media as well as an episode of Ellen, "The Puppy Episode", "ranks, hands down, as the single most public exit in gay history", changing media portrayals of lesbians in Western culture. In 1999, Russell T Davies's Queer as Folk, a popular TV series shown on Channel 4 (UK) debuted and focused primarily on the lives of young gay men; in particular on a 15-year-old going through the processes of revealing his sexuality to those around him. This storyline was also featured prominently in the U.S. version of Queer As Folk, which debuted in 2000.
The television show The L Word, which debuted in 2004, focuses on the lives of a group of lesbian and bisexual women, and the theme of coming out is prominently featured in the storylines of multiple characters.
Season 3 of the Norwegian Teen drama series SKAM focused on a main character coming out and his relationship with another boy.
Extended use in LGBT media, publishing and activism
"Out" is a common word or prefix used in the titles of LGBT-themed books, films, periodicals, organizations, and TV programs. Some high-profile examples are Out Magazine, the defunct OutWeek Magazine, and OutTV.
In political, casual, or even humorous contexts, "coming out" means by extension the self-disclosure of a person's secret behaviors, beliefs, affiliations, tastes, identities, and interests that may cause astonishment or bring shame. Some examples include: "coming out as an alcoholic", "coming out as a BDSM participant", "coming out of the broom closet" (as a witch), "coming out as a conservative", "coming out as disabled", "coming out as a liberal", "coming out as intersex", "coming out as multiple", "coming out as polyamorous", "coming out as a sex worker", and "coming out of the shadows" as an undocumented immigrant within the United States. The term is also used by members of online body integrity dysphoria communities to refer to the process of telling friends and families about their condition.
With its associated metaphors, the figure of speech has also been extended to atheism, e.g., "coming out as an atheist". A public awareness initiative for freethought and atheism, entitled the "Out Campaign", makes ample use of the "out" metaphor. This campaign was initiated by Robin Elisabeth Cornwell, and is endorsed by prominent atheist Richard Dawkins, who states "there is a big closet population of atheists who need to 'come out'".
- Down-low (sexual slang)
- Ego-dystonic sexual orientation
- Intersex and LGBT
- Labeling theory
- Liberal homophobia
- Questioning (sexuality and gender)
- Terminology of homosexuality
- "Coming Out: A Journey". Utahpridecenter.org. Archived from the original on 2009-08-25. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- Belfast Telegraph: "GAA star Donal Og Cusack: Teammates helped me through ordeal of revealing I am gay," October 20, 2009, accessed January 16, 2012
- Queerty: Japhy Grant, "Rupert Everett Says Coming Out Killed His Career," February 20, 2009 Archived October 15, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, accessed January 16, 2012
- Seidman, Steven (2003). Beyond the Closet; The Transformation of Gay and Lesbian Life, 25, ISBN 0-415-93207-6
- OUT magazine: Michael Musto, "The Glass Closet," September 22, 2008 Archived July 5, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, accessed January 16, 2012
- Bloch, Ivan. Das Sexualleben unserer Zeit in seinen Beziehungen zur modernen Kultur, 1906. English translation: The Sexual Life of Our Time in Its Relations to Modern Civilization, 1910.
- Johansson&Percy, p.24
- "Robert Duncan and Romantic Synthesis: A Few Notes" Archived 2010-09-06 at the Wayback Machine. This article also republished as "On Robert Duncan" at Modern American Poetry website
- "Donald Webster Cory". glbtq.com. glbtq.com. Archived from the original on 2009-06-06. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
- "Sagarin bio". Glbtq.com. 1913-09-18. Archived from the original on 2009-06-06. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- Chauncey, George (1994). Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Making of the Gay Male World, 1890–1940. New York: Basic Books, emphasis added.
- Kennedy, Elizabeth. "'But We Would Never Talk about It': The Structure of Lesbian Discretion in South Dakota, 1928–1933" in Inventing Lesbian Cultures in America, ed. Ellen Lewin (1996). Boston: Beacon Press. p.25 and 214
- "Coming Out, accessed on Aug 31, 2009". Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "Gay Epiphany". Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- Chirrey, Deborah (2003). "I Hereby Come Out: What Sort Of Speech Act Is Coming Out?". Journal of Sociolinguistics. 7 (1): 24–37. doi:10.1111/1467-9481.00209.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-25. Retrieved 2016-03-17.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Salon: Amy Benfer, "We're here! We're queer! We're 13!," September 24, 2009 Archived September 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine, accessed January 16, 2012
- Denizet-Lewis, Benoit (2009-09-27). "Coming Out in Middle School". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 2011-05-13. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
- Coming Out Younger Archived 2013-07-08 at the Wayback Machine, Jezebel.com article.
- Etengoff, C. & Daiute, C. (2015). Online Coming Out Communications between Gay Men and their Religious Family Allies: A Family of Choice and Origin Perspective, Journal of GLBT Family Studies.
- re-released in 2003 by University of Wisconsin Press, ISBN 0-299-19374-8
- Pachankis, John E. (2007). "The psychological implications of concealing a stigma: A cognitive-affective-behavioral model". Psychological Bulletin. 133 (2): 328–345. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.133.2.328. ISSN 1939-1455.
- Cole, Steve W.; Kemeny, Margaret E.; Taylor, Shelley E.; Visscher, Barbara R. (1996). "Elevated physical health risk among gay men who conceal their homosexual identity". Health Psychology. 15 (4): 243–251. doi:10.1037//0278-6188.8.131.52. ISSN 0278-6133.
- Berger, RM (1990). "Passing: Impact on the quality of same-sex couple relationships". Social Work. 35 (4): 328–32. PMID 2392712.
- Jordan, KM; Deluty, RH (1998). "Coming out for lesbian women: Its relation to anxiety, positive affectivity, self-esteem, and social support". Journal of Homosexuality. 35 (2): 41–63. doi:10.1300/J082v35n02_03. PMID 9524921.
- Gay.com News, Study: Closeted men at suicide risk[permanent dead link] Cath Pope, Gay.com Australia, May 4, 2007.
- Linda Nielsen (4 May 2012). Father-Daughter Relationships: Contemporary Research and Issues. Routledge. p. 255. ISBN 978-1-84872-933-9. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- Mary Ann Lamanna; Agnes Riedmann; Ann Strahm (1 January 2011). Marriages, Families, and Relationships: Making Choices in a Diverse Society. Cengage Learning. p. 265. ISBN 978-1-111-30154-5. Retrieved 25 October 2012.
- Legate, Nicole; Ryan, Richard M.; Weinstein, Netta (March 2012). "Is Coming Out Always a "Good Thing"? Exploring the Relations of Autonomy Support, Outness, and Wellness for Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Individuals". Social Psychological and Personality Science. 3 (2): 145–152. doi:10.1177/1948550611411929. ISSN 1948-5506.
- Ryan, C.; Huebner, D.; Diaz, R. M.; Sanchez, J. (2009-01-01). "Family Rejection as a Predictor of Negative Health Outcomes in White and Latino Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Young Adults". PEDIATRICS. 123 (1): 346–352. doi:10.1542/peds.2007-3524. ISSN 0031-4005.
- D'Augelli, Anthony R (2002-07-01). "Mental Health Problems among Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Youths Ages 14 to 21". Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry. 7 (3): 433–456. doi:10.1177/1359104502007003039. ISSN 0000-0000.
- Robinson, BE; Walters, LH; Skeen, P (1989). "Response of parents to learning that their child is homosexual and concern over AIDS: a national study". Journal of Homosexuality. 18 (1–2): 59–80. doi:10.1300/j082v18n01_03. PMID 2794499.
- Savin-Williams, Ritch; Eric M. Dubé (January 1998). "Parental Reactions to Their Child's Disclosure of a Gay/Lesbian Identity". Family Relations. 47 (1): 7–13. doi:10.2307/584845. JSTOR 584845.
- Tierney, William G.; Ward, James Dean (December 2017). "Coming Out and Leaving Home: A Policy and Research Agenda for LGBT Homeless Students". Educational Researcher. 46 (9): 498–507. doi:10.3102/0013189x17733964. ISSN 0013-189X.
- Kyu, Choi, Soon; DM, Wilson, Bianca; Jama, Shelton; J, Gates, Gary (2015-06-01). "Serving Our Youth 2015: The Needs and Experiences of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Questioning Youth Experiencing Homelessness".
- Reck, Jen (2009-07-20). "Homeless Gay and Transgender Youth of Color in San Francisco: "No One Likes Street Kids"—Even in the Castro". Journal of LGBT Youth. 6 (2–3): 223–242. doi:10.1080/19361650903013519. ISSN 1936-1653.
- Castellanos, H. Daniel (2015-10-26). "The Role of Institutional Placement, Family Conflict, and Homosexuality in Homelessness Pathways Among Latino LGBT Youth in New York City". Journal of Homosexuality. 63 (5): 601–632. doi:10.1080/00918369.2015.1111108. ISSN 0091-8369. PMC 4930864. PMID 26503713.
- Manning, Jimmie (2015). "Positive and Negative Communicative Behaviors in Coming-out Conversations". Journal of Homosexuality. 62 (1): 61–97. doi:10.1080/00918369.2014.957127. PMID 25153806.
- Seidman, Meeks, and Traschen (1999)
- "History of National Coming Out Day". Human Rights Campaign. Archived from the original on 2008-10-12. Retrieved 2008-10-17.
- "Representative Frank Discloses He Is Homosexual". The New York Times. May 31, 1987. Archived from the original on December 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-10-19.
- "McGreevey: 'I am a gay American'". CNN. 2004-08-13. Archived from the original on 2008-04-17. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
- Kohen, Yael (2004-08-13). "McGREEVEY TO QUIT, DECLARES 'I AM A GAY AMERICAN'". The New York Sun. Retrieved 2008-03-10.
- "The Brief History of Gay Athletes". ESPN. 18 December 1998. Archived from the original on 10 July 2009. Retrieved 2009-09-19.
- Peter, O'Shea (1995-10-03). "Out of the field". The Advocate. Here Publishing. Retrieved 10 October 2011.
- "Macklemore singing at grand final like 'seeping sewage into debutante ball'". abc.net.au. 28 September 2017. Archived from the original on 30 September 2017. Retrieved 7 May 2018.
- "I'm gay, reveals GAA star Donal Og Cusack in new autobiography". Belfast Telegraph. 19 October 2009. Retrieved 2011-02-28.
- Smith, Gary (May 3, 2010). "Gareth Thomas ... The Only Openly Gay Male Athlete". Sports Illustrated. Archived from the original on May 2, 2010.
- "Ricky Martin Gay Bombshell: 'I am a Fortunate Homosexual Man'" Archived 2012-10-22 at the Wayback Machine ,PopEater.com Staff, March 29, 2010
- Huffington Post: "Ricky Martin Comes Out: 'I'm A Fortunate Homosexual Man'," May 29, 2010 Archived April 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine, accessed January 16, 2012
- ""Ricky Martin Comes Out of the Closet", Rolling Stone (March 29, 2010)". Rolling Stone. 2010-03-29. Archived from the original on 16 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- TIME: "I Am a Homosexual," September 8, 1975 Archived May 31, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, accessed January 16, 2012;Steve Kornacki (2010-12-01). "The Air Force vs. the "practicing homosexual"". Salon.com. Archived from the original on 2010-12-03. Retrieved 2012-01-16.
- MSNBC: "Soldier tells dad he's gay on YouTube," September 20, 2011 Archived December 22, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, accessed January 16, 2012
- Guelph Mercury: Graeme Gerrard, "Archie Comics' storyline has nothing on Randy Phillips," September 29, 2011, accessed January 16, 2012
- "Bishop Jim Swilley: A Minister Comes Out". Archived from the original on 2016-03-18. Retrieved 16 Mar 2016.
- "Joy Behar Talks To Gay Bishop Jim Swilley & His Ex-Wife Debye Swilley". Archived from the original on 2016-07-17. Retrieved 16 Mar 2016.
- "Don Lemon Talks To Gay Bishop Jim Swilley". CNN News. Archived from the original on 2015-02-21. Retrieved 16 Mar 2016.
- "MegaChurch Pastor Declares He's Gay". ABC News. Retrieved 16 Mar 2016.
- "Out Of The Closet ... In The Pulpit Of A Megachurch". NPR All Things Considered. Archived from the original on 2016-03-24. Retrieved 16 Mar 2016.
- "Georgia Megachurch Pastor Jim Swilley: I'm Gay, And I'm Telling You Because Of Those Bullycides". Queerty. 2010-10-29. Archived from the original on 2016-03-22. Retrieved 16 Mar 2016.
- "Gay Ga. mega-church pastor reflects on year of coming out". The GAVoice. 2011-11-11. Archived from the original on 2016-03-23. Retrieved 16 Mar 2016.
- "Five years later: The Swilleys on family, coming out and inclusive LGBT ministries". The GAVoice. 2016-01-22. Archived from the original on 2016-03-25. Retrieved 16 Mar 2016.
- "Black Lips' Swilley discusses father's recent coming out". Creative Loafing Atlanta. Archived from the original on 2010-11-07. Retrieved 16 Mar 2016.
- "Preachers of Atlanta Episode Guide". 2015-11-19. Archived from the original on 2016-03-10. Retrieved 16 Mar 2016.
- Streitmatter, Rodger (2009). From 'Perverts' to 'Fab Five': The Media's Changing Depiction of Gay Men and Lesbians, Routledge. ISBN 0-7890-3670-3; p. 104.
- "Coming out – Première série web sur l'univers gai québécois". Info-Culture.biz. 2013-04-02. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- Lawson, Richard. "Love, Simon Is a Charming Gay Studio Movie That Makes Us Hungry for More". HWD. Archived from the original on 2018-03-29. Retrieved 2018-03-14.
- Theroux, Louis (2001-11-03). "The show must go on". London: Guardian. Archived from the original on 2013-12-24. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- "Coming out BDSM: upsides and downsides". Clarisse Thorn. Archived from the original on 10 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "How do I tell my family I'm a Wiccan?". Slate.com. 2003-12-04. Archived from the original on 2012-01-21. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- Coming-out day for conservatives Archived February 6, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
- "Coming out as disabled - Ekklesia". ekklesia.co.uk. 2011-10-10. Archived from the original on 2015-06-27.
- "Layout 1 (Page A1)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-11-02. Retrieved 2017-09-13.
- "The LA radio host who came out as intersex and why no one gossiped". Gay Star News. 2013-07-18. Archived from the original on 13 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "COMPD – Introduction". 2multiples.com. Retrieved 2009-06-24.[dead link]
- "Polyamorists Come Out of the Closet - National Review Online". National Review Online. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
- "What It's Like to Come Out of the Hooker Closet". Archived from the original on 2014-10-14. Retrieved 2018-12-09.
- Corrunker, Laura (2012-01-01). ""Coming Out of the Shadows": DREAM Act Activism in the Context of Global Anti-Deportation Activism". Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies. 19 (1): 143–168. ISSN 1543-0367. Archived from the original on 2016-09-19.
- "U.S. Rep. Pete Stark "Comes Out" as an Atheist". Harvard Law Record. Archived from the original on 2009-06-04. Retrieved 2009-06-24.
- "The Out Campaign (original announcement)". The Official Richard Dawkins Website. 2007-07-30. Archived from the original on 2008-04-30. Retrieved 2007-12-30.
- MacAskill, Ewen (2007-10-01). "Atheists arise: Dawkins spreads the A-word among America's unbelievers". Guardian Unlimited. London: The Guardian. Archived from the original on 2007-12-22. Retrieved 2007-12-30.
- Argent, Jay (2017) Coming Out: High School Boys Share Their Stories. [Charleston]: CreateSpace Independent Publishing. ISBN 978-1547151936
- Beasley, Neil (2016) Football's Coming Out: Life as a Gay Fan and Player. [London]: Floodlit Dreams Ltd. ISBN 978-0992658564
- Berube, Allan (2010) Coming Out under Fire: The History of Gay Men and Women in World War Two (2nd edition). Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0807871775
- Blaschke, Ronny (2008) Versteckspieler: Die Geschichte des schwulen Fußballers Marcus Urban. Göttingen: Verlag Die Werkstatt. ISBN 978-3895336119
- Dossie Easton, Catherine A. Liszt, When Someone You Love Is Kinky. Greenery Press, 2000. ISBN 1-890159-23-9.
- Kinsella, Vinne (2016) Fashionably Late: Gay, Bi, and Trans Men Who Came Out Later in Life. Portland: Eldredge Books ISBN 978-0997749106
- LaSala, Michael (2010) Coming Out, Coming Home: Helping Families Adjust to a Gay or Lesbian Child. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0231143837
- McCall Tigert, Leanne; Brown, Timothy (2001). Coming Out Young and Faithful. Cleveland, Ohio: Pilgrim Press. ISBN 9780829814149. OCLC 45958034.
- Rogers, Robbie; Marcus, Eric (2014) Coming Out to Play. London: The Robson Press. ISBN 978-1849547208
- Seidman, Steven. Beyond the Closet: The Transformation of Gay and Lesbian Life. Routledge, 2003. ISBN 0-415-93207-6.
- Stramel, James. Gay Virtue: The Ethics of Disclosure. Dissertation, University of Southern California, 1996.