Head of the British Armed Forces
The Head of the British Armed Forces[a], also known as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces, is the supreme command authority of the British Armed Forces, a role vested in the monarch of the United Kingdom, currently Queen Elizabeth II. Under British constitutional law the command and government of the British armed forces is vested in the Queen and as such she holds the highest office in the military chain of command. The authority to issue orders and give commands to military personnel is delegated by the Queen to her commanders in the Field, however she does retain the right to issue orders personally.
Oath of allegiance
Before joining the military all recruits of the British Armed Forces must take the following oath:
I... swear by Almighty God (do solemnly, and truly declare and affirm) that I will be faithful and bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, Her Heirs and Successors, and that I will, as in duty bound, honestly and faithfully defend Her Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors, in Person, Crown and Dignity against all enemies, and will observe and obey all orders of Her Majesty, Her Heirs and Successors, and of the Generals and officers set over me.
Long-standing constitutional convention, however, has vested de facto executive authority, by the exercise of Royal Prerogative, in the Prime Minister and Her Majesty’s Secretary of State for Defence. The Prime Minister (acting with the Cabinet) makes the key political decisions on the use of the armed forces.
The Queen however, remains the supreme authority of the military. As Commander-in-Chief the Queen closely follows developments in the armed forces and the security services. She regularly receives the agenda in advance of all cabinet meetings and its committees, particularly the national security committee. She also receives the minutes of the meetings of all of these committees and all cabinet documents.
Duties and Functions
Powers relating to armed forces, war and times of emergency
- Right to make war or peace or institute hostilities falling short of war
- Deployment and use of armed forces overseas
- Maintenance of the Royal Navy
- Use of the armed forces within the UK to maintain the peace in support of the police or otherwise in support of civilian authorities (eg to maintain essential services during a strike)
- The government and command of the armed forces is vested in Her Majesty
- Control, organisation and disposition of armed forces
- Requisition of British ships in times of urgent national necessity
- Commissioning of officers in all three armed forces
- Armed forces pay
- Crown’s right to claim Prize (enemy ships or goods captured at sea)
- Regulation of trade with the enemy
- Crown’s right of angary, in time of war, to appropriate the property of a neutral which is within the realm, where necessity requires
- Powers in the event of a grave national emergency, including those to enter upon, take and destroy private property
Defence Services Secretary of the Royal Household
The Defence Services Secretary is an officer of the Royal Household. He is the primary channel of communication between the Monarch, in her capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces, and the officers and commands of the British Armed Forces. His office provides the Monarch with the information and documentation related to defence affairs that she requires to perform her military functions. The Defence Services Secretary is responsible to the Queen, the Secretary of State for Defence and the Chief of the Defence Staff for tri-service military appointments. He submits the names of the officers nominated for promotion to the Queen through her private secretary. The Queen makes appointments to the ranks of rear-admiral, major-general, air-vice-marshal and above directly.
The Queen and Military Appointments
Under the Queen’s regulations for the Army, Navy and Air Force, the Monarch is responsible for making a large number of appointments to senior military posts. The names of the officers appointed to these and other posts in the armed forces are regularly published by the Ministry of DefenseThe following is a list of some of the most senior positions appointed by the Queen.
|Post||Nominated by||Appointed by||Rank of Post holder|
|Chief of the Defense Staff||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||General, Admiral or Air Chief Marshal|
|Chief of Defence Intelligence||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Vice-Admiral, Lieutenant-General or Air-Marshal|
|First Sea Lord and Chief of the Navy Staff||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Admiral|
|Commander Operations ( Navy )||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Rear Adimral|
|Fleet Commander||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Vice Admiral|
|Chief of the General Staff||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||General|
|Deputy Chief of the General Staff||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Lieutenant General|
|Commander Home Command||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Lieutenant-General|
|Commander Strategic Command||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||General, Admiral, Air Chief Marshal|
|Chief of Joint Operations||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Vice-Admiral, Lieutenant-General, Air-Marshal|
|Commander Field Army||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Lieutenant General|
|Major General Commanding the Household Division||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Major General|
|Chief of the Air Staff||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Air Chief Marshal|
|Air Secretary||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Air Vice Marshal|
|Military ( Army ) Secretary||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Major General|
|Assistant Chief of Naval Staff (People Transformation) / Naval Secretary||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Rear Admiral|
|Commander Joint Helicopter Command||Secretary of State for Defense||The Queen||Air Vice Marshal, Rear Admiral, Major-General|
The Queen and the Ministry of Defence
The command authority of the Armed Forces flows from the Queen, in her capacity as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces, to the various officers and councils of the defense ministry. The Monarch appoints the members of these committees to exercise day to day administration of Her Majesty's Armed Forces. The committees are the Defence Council, the Army Board, the Navy Board, the Air Force Board, the Defence Board and the Chiefs of Staffs Committee. The Defence Council, composed of senior representatives of the services and the Ministry of Defence, provides the "formal legal basis for the conduct of defence" and is chaired by the Defence Secretary.
Each service branch of the Armed Forces maintains its own command staff that administers the affairs of its service. The staffs receive their authority to act and to exercise command and control over their units from the Queen and her Defense Council.
Until 2012 each of the three services also had one or more commands with a (four-star) commander-in-chief in charge of operations. These were, latterly: Commander-in-Chief Fleet (CINCFLEET – sharing a Command HQ with Commander-in-Chief Naval Home Command (CINCNAVHOME)), Commander-in-Chief, Land Forces (CINCLAND) and Commander-in-Chief Air (CINCAIR). (At one time there were many more Naval, Military and Air Commands, each with (in many cases) their own Commanders-in-Chief.) Since 2012, however, full operational command has been vested in the three Chiefs of Staff, and the appointment of distinct Commanders-in-Chief has been discontinued. This change was implemented in response to the 2011 Levene report, which advised that it would serve to "streamline top-level decision-making, simplify lines of accountability... remove duplication between the posts and also provide impetus to the leaning of the senior leadership".
A warning sign posted "By Command of the Defence Council".
Commander-in-Chief of Bermuda
In the colonies of the English Empire, and subsequently the British Empire, the duties of lords-lieutenant were generally performed by the commander-in-chief or the governor. Both offices may have been occupied by the same person. Attempts to rekindle the militia without a Militia Act or funds from the colonial government were made throughout the 19th century under the authorisation of the governor and commander-in-chief, but none proved lasting. The colonial government was finally compelled to raise militia and volunteer forces (the Bermuda Militia Artillery and the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps by act in the 1890s (the Bermuda Cadet Corps, Bermuda Volunteer Engineers, and Bermuda Militia Infantry were added at later dates), and these fell under the governor and commander-in-chief, as well as under operational control of his junior, the brigadier in charge of the Bermuda Command (or Bermuda Garrison, which included the regular as well as the part-time military (as opposed to naval) forces in the colony. Although the Royal Naval and the regular army establishments have been withdrawn from Bermuda, the Governor of Bermuda remains the commander-in-chief (though most recent officeholders have not been career army officers) of the Royal Bermuda Regiment (a 1965 amalgam of the BMA and BVRC, which had both been re-organised in line with the Territorial Army after the First World War).
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