Commer FC van, c. 1968
|Industry||Automotive industry (Commercial vehicles)|
Commer was a British manufacturer of commercial vehicles from 1905 until 1979. Commer vehicles included car-derived vans, light vans, medium to heavy commercial trucks, military vehicles and buses. The company designed and built its own diesel engines for its heavy commercial vehicles.
- 1 History
- 2 Trucks
- 3 Buses
- 4 Light commercial vehicles
- 5 Military vehicles
- 6 Engines
- 7 See also
- 8 References
- 9 External links
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The company was formed as the Commercial Car Company, and was initially based in small premises in Lavender Hill, South London. In order to go into volume production a site was bought at Biscot Road, Biscot, Luton, where production of the first truck, the 3-ton RC type started in 1907. In 1909 the first bus was made. With the outbreak of the First World War the factory turned to the manufacture of military vehicles for the British Army, and by 1919 more than 3000 had been made.
The Commer name was replaced by the Dodge name during the 1970s following the takeover of Rootes by Chrysler Europe. After Peugeot purchased Chrysler Europe in 1978, the Commer factory was run in partnership with the truck division of Renault, Renault Trucks. It continued to produce the Dodge commercial truck range for some time, with Renault badges and a small amount of product development, eventually these were cancelled in favour of mainstream Renault models and switching production at the factory to production of Renault truck and bus engines in the early 1990s.
Many Commer vans and lorries are notable for being fitted with the Rootes TS3 engine, a two-stroke diesel three-cylinder horizontally opposed piston engine, which came to be known as the "Commer Knocker" owing to the distinct noise it produced. Newer Commer vehicles had Perkins and Cummins diesel engines, and less commonly Mercedes diesel engines.
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Commer acquired the Karrier company as part of Rootes acquisition of Karrier in 1934. In the early 1960s production moved to Dunstable where Commer, Dodge (UK) and Karrier were all brought together.
The Karrier trademark is now owned by Peugeot.
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Commer produced buses and is recorded as delivering four to Widnes in 1909. The Commando was released after the Second World War, and the Avenger on 28 February 1948, fitted with the TS3 engine from 1954.
Light commercial vehicles
Commer Light Pick-up
The Commer Light Pick-Up was a pickup truck based on the Hillman Minx saloon and produced by Commer during the 1950s; a similar Hillman-badged model was also produced. The Mark III was powered by a 1,184 cc (72.3 cu in) four-cylinder engine, the Mark VI by a 1,265 cc (77.2 cu in) unit and the Mark VIII by a 1,390 cc (85 cu in) engine. Production ended in about 1958.
Commer Express Delivery Van
The Commer Express Delivery Van was a light commercial vehicle produced by Commer during the 1950s, competing in the 8-10cwt van range. It was based on the Hillman Minx saloon and evolved in parallel with that model, with designations ranging from Mark III to Mark VIIIB. The 1957 model, which featured a load space of 100 cu ft (2.8 m3) and a payload of approximately 9 cwt, was powered by a 1390cc four-cylinder Hillman engine and was fitted with a four-speed column-change gearbox.
The Commer Cob is a 7 cwt delivery van introduced in early 1956 based on the Hillman Husky, itself a derivative of the Hillman Minx Mark VIII. In 1958 new Cob and Husky models were introduced, based on the "Audax" Hillman Minx.
Commer Imp Van
The Commer Imp Van was introduced in September 1965  and was based on the Hillman Imp saloon. It was renamed as the Hillman Imp Van in October 1968, with total production reaching 18,194 units prior to it being phased out in July 1970. The Hillman Husky estate car, which was introduced in July 1967, was based on the Imp Van.
Many examples of these vans were coach-built as ice cream vans.
The Commer Walk-Thru was introduced in 1961 as a replacement for the Commer BF. The Walk-Thru was offered in 1½ ton, 2 ton and 3-ton van and cab-chassis variants with a choice of diesel or petrol engines.
The Commer FC was introduced in 1960 with many body styles, including a 1,500 cc (92 cu in) van. After engine and interior upgrades it was renamed the PB in 1967 and the SpaceVan in 1974. As noted above, it would be sold as a Dodge and Fargo model until 1976, when both Commer and Fargo names were dropped. These were rounded-front forward-control vans with narrow front track—a legacy of their Humber car-derived suspension. Utilising at first the Hillman-derived 1500 cc 4-cylinder engine in the PA series, then the larger 1,600 cc (98 cu in), and from 1968 onwards the 1,725 cc (105.3 cu in) unit in the PB, only the cast-iron-head version of this engine were used. A Perkins 4108 diesel was also available.
Reportedly, one condition of the government bailout of Chrysler's British operations in 1976 was a commitment to upgrade the Spacevan, which was praised for its brakes, cornering, and price, but criticized for its power, comforts, and top speed. A revised Spacevan was thus introduced in 1977, using the same mechanicals but with numerous cosmetic changes, conveniences, and a new interior. Although outdated by its demise in 1982, by which time Commer had been taken over by Peugeot, the Spacevan remained a familiar sight in the UK thanks to its role with Post Office Telephones—which was almost solely responsible for it remaining in production for so long and these vans and outstanding orders were inherited by British Telecom on its formation in October 1981. By this time, there were three engines: two 1.7 L petrol engines of 37 kW (with low compression) and 42 kW (with high compression), and a small diesel engine (31 kW), with a four-speed manual transmission and no automatic available. The last Spacevan was built in 1983.
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Commer made a range of military vehicles for use during the Second World War, with the range still in use in the 1980s. While serving in the army, British humourist Frank Muir reported a broken-down vehicle over his radio with the words "The Commer has come to a full stop."
Commer designed and manufactured its own diesel engines for its heavy commercial vehicles and buses. They were low-profile units designed to be deployed under the floor of the cab.
The TS3 engine was a two-stroke diesel unit with three cylinders each containing a pair of pistons arranged with the combustion chamber formed between the crown of the piston pair and the cylinder walls. It was designed specifically for the Commer range of trucks. The TS3 and derivative TS4 were unique in using rockers to deliver power to the single crankshaft.
The TS4 engine ran 1.2 million miles as a pre-production prototype. It was a 4-cylinder version of the TS3.
- "The TS3". Retrieved 4 April 2015.
The engine was a direct injection, high speed diesel engine with three horizontal cylinders, each containing two pistons. Each cylinder had specially designed ports to control the inlet of air and outlet of the exhaust which are controlled by the pistons. The pistons controlling the inlet ports are known as the air pistons (left-hand side of the engine), and the pistons controlling the exhaust ports are the exhaust pistons.
- "Dodge Spacevan / Telecom Van (Fargo F-series, Dodge K-series, Commer PA and PB vans)". Allpar. Allpar LLC. Retrieved 18 August 2010.
- ""Commer" Commercial Cars Ltd Luton". Retrieved 2008-11-05.
These four vehicles took 4 days to be delivered from Luton to Widnes in 1909. There was no motorways, roads were in general very poor and at a height of 16ft 6ins "still very high for a vehicle nowadays" quite a few tree branches had to be cut down to get to Widnes.
- "Avenger Bus". Retrieved 2008-11-05.
While not as common as other bus chassis, many excellent bodies were mounted on Avenger chassis, including Duple, Harrington and others.
- Robert Penn Bradly, The Commer Ute, Restored Cars No 160, pages 38–42;
- Mark VIII Light Pick-up (utility) Retrieved from www.sa.hillman.org.au on 22 August 2012
- The Commer Express Delivery van Retrieved from www.oldclassiccar.co.uk on 22 August 2012
- Club Library Parts Catalogu es Retrieved from www.sa.hillman.org.au on 22 August 2012
- HILLMAN 1956 Retrieved on 12 August 2012
- Commer Cob Retrieved from www.simoncars.co.uk on 12 August 2012
- Commer Imp Van Retrieved on 12 August 2012
- The range expands; status quo maintained Retrieved on 12 August 2012
- "Hillman Imp, Super Imp, Husky and Californian". simoncars.co.uk. Retrieved 12 August 2012.
- Gavin Farmer, Great Ideas in Motion, A History of Chrysler in Australia, 2010, pages 330–332
- "Dodge Spacevan / Telecom Van (Commer PA and PB vans, Dodge K-series)". allpar.com. Allpar, LLC. Retrieved April 2008.
- "Truck 3 ton 4 x 4 GS Commer Q4". REME Museum of Technology. Retrieved 2008-11-05.
Among the longest living of the Commer workshop trucks was the Telecommunications Repair variant, some being used into the late 1980s or later.
- "The TS3". Retrieved 2008-11-05.
The TS3 was initially designed by Rootes Power Units Chief Engineer Eric W Coy (and under him, designers Bennett and Mileluski) at the Humber plant (Stoke-Aldermore) in 1948. It was designed solely to meet Rootes production planning requirements for an underfloor 105 hp diesel engine for the new forward control Commer range of heavy trucks.
- "Other Two Strokes". Retrieved 2008-11-05.
Many two-strokes used opposed piston layouts, but the design feature that set the TS3/4 apart from other two-strokes was the use of rockers to transmit power from the piston to the crankshft and the use of a single crankshaft.
- "The TS4 Prototype". Retrieved 2008-11-05.
All the 14 prototype TS4s were test bed run initially. Six stayed in test bed work and eight were put in trucks for road evaluation, prior to going into production. The engines that were put in trucks ran up to 1.2 million miles between the 8 of them, trouble free, before being pulled out and scrapped on instructions from Chrysler to protect Chrysler’s joint venture in England with Cummins.
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