|Part of a series on|
|Violence against women|
|Sexual assault and rape|
|International legal framework|
Forced prostitution, also known as involuntary prostitution or compulsory prostitution, is prostitution or sexual slavery that takes place as a result of coercion by a third party. The terms "forced prostitution" or "enforced prostitution" appear in international and humanitarian conventions such as the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court but have been insufficiently understood[neutrality is disputed] and inconsistently applied. "Forced prostitution" refers to conditions of control over a person who is coerced by another to engage in sexual activity.
Forced prostitution is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation.
Forced prostitution is illegal under customary law in all countries. This is different from voluntary prostitution which may have a different legal status in different countries, which range from being fully illegal and punishable by death to being legal and regulated as an occupation.
While the legality of adult prostitution varies between jurisdictions, the prostitution of children is illegal nearly everywhere in the world.
In 1949, the UN General Assembly adopted the Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and of the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others. This Convention supersedes a number of earlier conventions that covered some aspects of forced prostitution, and also deals with other aspects of prostitution. It penalises the procurement and enticement to prostitution as well as the maintenance of brothels. As at December 2013, the Convention has only been ratified by 82 countries. One of the main reasons it has not been ratified by many countries is because it 'voluntary' is broadly defined in countries with a legal sex industry. For example, in countries such as Germany, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Greece and Turkey and other countries some forms of prostitution and pimping are legal and regulated as professional occupations.
Child prostitution is considered inherently non-consensual and exploitative, as children, because of their age, are not legally able to consent. In most countries child prostitution is illegal irrespective of the child reaching a lower statutory age of consent.
State parties to the Optional Protocol on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography are required to prohibit child prostitution. The Protocol defines a child as any human being under the age of 18, "unless an earlier age of majority is recognized by a country's law". The Protocol entered into force on 18 January 2002, and as of December 2013, 166 states are party to the Protocol and another 10 states have signed but not yet ratified it.
The Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (Convention No 104) of the International Labour Organization (ILO) provides that the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution is one of the worst forms of child labor. This convention, adopted in 1999, provides that countries that had ratified it must eliminate the practice urgently. It enjoys the fastest pace of ratifications in the ILO's history since 1919.
In the United States, the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 classifies any "commercial sex act [which] is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age" to be a "Severe Form of Trafficking in Persons".
In many countries, especially poorer countries, child prostitution remains a very serious problem, and numerous tourists from the Western World travel to these countries to engage in child sex tourism. Thailand, Cambodia, India, Brazil and Mexico have been identified as leading hotspots of child sexual exploitation.
|Part of a series on|
Human trafficking, especially of girls and women, often leads to forced prostitution and sexual slavery. According to a report by the UNODC, internationally, the most common destinations for victims of human trafficking are Thailand, Japan, Israel, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Turkey and the United States. The major sources of trafficked persons are Thailand, China, Nigeria, Albania, Bulgaria, Belarus, Moldova, and Ukraine. Victims of cybersex trafficking are transported and then coerced to perform sexual acts and or raped in front of a webcam on live streams that are often commercialized.
Following the first international conference on the prevention of trafficking of women in Paris in 1885 a series of initiatives to restrict the trade of women into the sex trade were initiated. Both the League of Nations and the United Nations have addressed the issue.
A 2010 United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime report estimates that globally, 79% of identified victims of human trafficking were trafficked for sexual exploitation, 18% for forced labor, and 3% for other forms of exploitation. In 2011, preliminary European Commission in September 2011 similarly estimated that among human-trafficking victims, 75% were trafficked for sexual exploitation and the rest for forced labor or other forms of exploitation.
Due to the illegal nature of prostitution and the different methodologies used in separating forced prostitution from voluntary prostitution, the extent of this phenomenon is difficult to estimate accurately. According to a 2008 report by the U.S. Department of State: "Annually, according to U.S. Government-sponsored research completed in 2006, 600,000 to 800,000 people are trafficked across national borders, which does not include millions trafficked within their own countries. Approximately 80% of transnational victims are women and girls and up to 50% are minors, and the majority of transnational victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation." A 2014 European Commission report found that from 2010 to 2013, a total of 30,146 people were registered as victims of human trafficking in the 28 member states of the European Union; of these, 69% were victims of sexual exploitation.
The Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children (also referred to as the Palermo Protocol) is a protocol to the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and defines human trafficking as the "recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation." For this reason, threat, coercion, or use of force is not necessary to constitute trafficking, the exploitation of an existing vulnerability – such as economic vulnerability or sexual vulnerability – is sufficient. Sigma Huda, UN special reporter on trafficking in persons, observed that "For the most part, prostitution as actually practiced in the world usually does satisfy the elements of trafficking." However Save the Children see explicit trafficking and prostitution as different issues: "The issue [human trafficking] however, gets mired in controversy and confusion when prostitution too is considered as a violation of the basic human rights of both adult women and minors, and equal to sexual exploitation per se. From this standpoint then, trafficking and prostitution become conflated with each other".
Voluntary vs involuntary prostitution
With regard to prostitution, three worldviews exist: abolitionism (where the prostitute is considered a victim), regulation (where the prostitute is considered a worker) and prohibitionism (where the prostitute is considered a criminal). Currently all these views are represented in some Western country.
For the proponents of the abolitionist view, prostitution is always a coercive practice, and the prostitute is seen as a victim. They argue that most prostitutes are forced into the practice, either directly, by pimps and traffickers, indirectly through poverty, drug addiction and other personal problems, or, as it has been argued in recent decades by radical feminists such as Andrea Dworkin, Melissa Farley and Catharine MacKinnon, merely by patriarchal social structures and power relations between men and women. William D. Angel finds that "most" prostitutes have been forced into the occupation through poverty, lack of education and employment possibilities. Kathleen Barry argues that there should be no distinction between "free" and "coerced", "voluntary" and "involuntary" prostitution, "since any form of prostitution is a human rights violation, an affront to womanhood that cannot be considered dignified labour". France's Green Party argues: "The concept of "free choice" of the prostitute is indeed relative, in a society where gender inequality is institutionalized". The proponents of the abolitionist view hold that prostitution is a practice which ultimately leads to the mental, emotional and physical destruction of the women who engage in it, and, as such, it should be abolished. As a result of such views on prostitution, Sweden, Norway and Iceland have enacted laws which criminalize the clients of the prostitutes, but not the prostitutes themselves.
In contrast to the abolitionist view, those who are in favour of legalization do not consider the women who practice prostitution as victims, but as independent adult women who had made a choice which should be respected. Mariska Majoor, former prostitute and founder of the Prostitution Information Center, from Amsterdam, holds that: "In our [sex workers'] eyes it's a profession, a way of making money; it's important that we are realistic about this ... Prostitution is not bad; it's only bad if done against one's will. Most women make this decision themselves." According to proponents of regulation, prostitution should be considered a legitimate activity, which must be recognized and regulated, in order to protect the workers' rights and to prevent abuse. The prostitutes are treated as sex workers who enjoy benefits similar to other occupations. The World Charter for Prostitutes Rights (1985), drafted by the International Committee for Prostitutes' Rights, calls for the decriminalisation of "all aspects of adult prostitution resulting from individual decision". Since the mid-1970s, sex workers across the world have organised, demanding the decriminalisation of prostitution, equal protection under the law, improved working conditions, the right to pay taxes, travel and receive social benefits such as pensions. As a result of such views on prostitution, countries such as Germany, the Netherlands and New Zealand have fully legalized prostitution. Prostitution is considered a job like any other.
In its understanding of the distinction between sex work and forced prostitution, the Open Society Foundations organization states: "sex work is done by consenting adults, where the act of selling or buying sexual services is not a violation of human rights".
Sexual discrimination happens to those who work both in sex work and forced prostitution. Historically, crimes involving violence against women and having to do with prostitution and sex work have been taken less seriously by the law. Although acts such as the Violence Against Women Act have been passed to take steps toward preventing such violence, there is still sexism rooted in the way that the legal system approaches these cases. Gender based violence is a serious form of discrimination that has slipped through many cracks in the legal system of the United States. These efforts have fallen short due to the fact that there is no constitutional protection for women against discrimination.
There is often no evidence, according to police, that when men are arrested for soliciting a prostitute that it is a gender based crime. However, there are large discrepancies between the arrests of prostitutes and the arrests of men caught in the act. While 70% of prostitution related arrests are of woman prostitutes, only 10% of related arrests are men/customers. Regardless if the girl or woman is either underage or forced into the exchange, she is still often arrested and victim blamed instead of being offered resources. The men who are charged with engaging in these illegal acts with woman who are prostitutes are able to pay for the exchange and therefore are usually able to pay for their release while the woman may not be able to. This generates a cycle of violence against women, as the situation's outcome favors the man. In one case, a nineteen-year-old woman in Oklahoma was charged with offering to engage in prostitution when the woman was known to have previously been a victim of human sex trafficking. She is an example of how the criminalization of prostitution often leads to women being arrested multiple times due to the fact that they are often punished or arrested even when the victim of a situation. Young women and girls have a much higher likelihood of getting arrested for prostitution than boys in general, and woman victims of human trafficking often end up being arrested upon multiple occasions, being registered as a sex offender, and being institutionalized. The lack of rehabilitation given to women after experiences with human sex trafficking contributes to the cycles of arrests that most woman who engage in prostitution face.
The ERA or Equal Rights Amendment is a proposed amendment to the U.S Constitution that has not yet been ratified. It would guarantee that equal rights could not be denied under the law on account of sex. With this amendment in place, it would allow for sex workers and victims of human sex trafficking to have legal leverage when it comes to the discrepancies in how men and women (customers and prostitutes) are prosecuted. This is due to the fact that there would be legal grounds to argue the unequal legal treatment on account of sex, which is not currently outlawed by the U.S constitution. Although there are other acts and laws that protect against discrimination based on a variety of categories and identities, they are often not substantial enough, provide loopholes, and do not offer adequate protection. This connects to liberal feminism and the more individualistic approach that comes with this theory. Liberal feminists believe that there should be equality between the sexes and this should be gained through equal legal rights, equal education, and women having "greater self value as individuals". This theory focuses on equality at a more individual level as supposed to rethinking legal systems themselves or systems of gender, just as the ERA works for the equality of sexes within an existing system.
In Europe, since the fall of the Iron Curtain, the former Eastern bloc countries such as Albania, Moldova, Bulgaria, Russia, Belarus and Ukraine have been identified as the major source countries for trafficking of women and children. Young women and girls are often lured to wealthier countries by the promises of money and work and then reduced to sexual slavery. It is estimated that two thirds of women trafficked for prostitution worldwide annually come from Eastern Europe and China, three-quarters of whom have never worked as prostitutes before. The major destinations are Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, Turkey, the Middle East (Israel, the United Arab Emirates), Asia, Russia and the United States.
In Mexico, many criminal organisations lure, and capture women and use them in brothels. Once the women become useless to the organisations, they are often killed. Often, the criminal organisations focus on poor, unemployed girls, and lure them via job offerings (regular jobs), done via billboards and posters, placed on the streets. In some cities, like Ciudad Juárez, there is a high degree of corruption in all levels on the social ladder (police, courts, ...) which makes it more difficult to combat this criminal activity. Hotels where women are kept and which are known by the police are often also not raided/closed down by police. Nor are the job offerings actively investigated. Some NGO's such as Nuestras Hijas de Regreso a Casa A.C. are trying to fight back, often without much success.
In the US, in 2002, the US Department of State repeated an earlier CIA estimate that each year, about 50,000 women and children are brought against their will to the United States for sexual exploitation. Former Secretary of State Colin Powell said that "[h]ere and abroad, the victims of trafficking toil under inhuman conditions – in brothels, sweatshops, fields and even in private homes." In addition to internationally trafficked victims, American citizens are also forced into prostitution. According to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children, "100,000 to 293,000 children are in danger of becoming sexual commodities."
Eastern European women are trafficked to several Middle Eastern countries, including Turkey and the United Arab Emirates. Until 2004, Israel was a destination for human trafficking for the sex industry.
A high number of the Iraqi women fleeing the Iraq War turned to prostitution, while others were trafficked abroad, to countries like Syria, Jordan, Egypt, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Turkey, and Iran. In Syria alone, an estimated 50,000 Iraqi refugee girls and women, many of them widows, had become prostitutes. Cheap Iraqi prostitutes helped to make Syria a popular destination for sex tourists before the Syrian Civil War. The clients come from wealthier countries in the Middle East. High prices are offered for virgins.
In Asia, Japan is the major destination country for trafficked women, especially from the Philippines and Thailand. The US State Department has rated Japan as either a ‘Tier 2’ or a ‘Tier 2 Watchlist’ country every year since 2001, in its annual Trafficking in Persons reports. Both these ratings implied that Japan was (to a greater or lesser extent) not fully compliant with minimum standards for the elimination of human trafficking trade. As of 2009, an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 people are trafficked through Southeast Asia, much of it for prostitution. It is common that Thai women are lured to Japan and sold to Yakuza-controlled brothels where they are forced to work off their price. In Cambodia at least a quarter of the 20,000 people working as prostitutes are children with some being as young as 5. By the late 1990s, UNICEF estimated that there are 60,000 child prostitutes in the Philippines, describing Angeles City brothels as "notorious" for offering sex with children.
For the last decade it has been estimated that 6,000 - 7,000 girls are trafficked out of Nepal each year. But these numbers have recently risen substantially. Current numbers for girls trafficked out of the country are now 10,000 to 15,000 yearly. This is compounded as the US Central Intelligence Agency states that most trafficked girls are currently worth, in their span as a sex-worker, approx $250,000 (USD) on the sex-trades market.
In Southern India & eastern Indian state of Odisha, devadasi is the practice of hierodulic prostitution, with similar customary forms such as basavi, and involves dedicating pre-pubescent and young adolescent girls from villages in a ritual marriage to a deity or a temple, who then work in the temple and function as spiritual guides, dancers, and prostitutes servicing male devotees in the temple. Human Rights Watch reports claim that devadasis are forced into this service and, at least in some cases, to practice prostitution for upper-caste members. Various state governments in India enacted laws to ban this practice both prior to India's independence and more recently. They include Bombay Devdasi Act, 1934, Devdasi (Prevention of dedication) Madras Act, 1947, Karnataka Devdasi (Prohibition of dedication) Act, 1982, and Andhra Pradesh Devdasi (Prohibition of dedication) Act, 1988. However, the tradition continues in certain regions of India, particularly the states of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.
There have been allegations that the North Korean state engages in forced prostitution. It has been suggested that girls as young as 14 years old are drafted to work in the kippŭmjo. Not all kippŭmjo work as prostitutes; the source used is unclear as to whether only adult women are assigned to prostitution, or whether there is prostitution of children. Other kippŭmjo activities are massaging and half-naked singing and dancing. According to the same source from April 2005, "60 to 70% of [North Korean] defectors [in the People's Republic of China] are women, 70 to 80% of whom are victims of human trafficking." North Korean authorities are said to severely punish or even kill repatriated prostitutes and kill their Chinese-fathered children, born and unborn alike.
Forced prostitution has existed throughout history.
Slavery and prostitution – the example of Phaedo of Elis
Phaedo of Elis was a native of the ancient Greek city state of Elis and of high birth. He was taken prisoner in his youth, and passed into the hands of an Athenian slave dealer; being of considerable personal beauty, he was forced into male prostitution. Luckily for him, Phaedo made an acquaintance with Socrates, to whom he attached himself. According to Diogenes Laërtius he was ransomed by one of the friends of Socrates. He prominently appears in Plato's dialogue Phaedo which takes its name from him, and later became a major philosopher in his own right.
The case of Phaedo got special attention due to these exceptional circumstances. Countless other slaves, male and female, were less lucky and lived out their lives in perpetual prostitution. The institution of slavery left a master with no need to ask a slave's consent for sex. Masters could and often did force their slaves into sex with themselves, but also had the option of forcing the slave into lucrative prostitution. Not only did the slaves have no choice about it, but they did not benefit from the payment clients made for their sexual services – it went into the master's pocket.
War of Canudos in Brazil
The War of Canudos (1895–1898) was an unequal conflict between the state of Brazil and some 30,000 inhabitants of a rebel community named Canudos in the northeastern state of Bahia. It marks the deadliest civil war in Brazilian history, ending with mass atrocities. After a number of unsuccessful attempts at military suppression, it came to a brutal end in October 1897, when a large Brazilian army force overran the village and killed nearly all the inhabitants. Men were hacked to pieces in front of their wives and children. In the aftermath,some of the surviving women were taken captive and sent to brothels in Salvador. 
German military brothels were set up by the Third Reich during World War II throughout much of occupied Europe for the use of Wehrmacht and SS soldiers. These brothels were generally new creations, but in the West, they were sometimes set up using existing brothels as well as many other buildings. Until 1942, there were around 500 military brothels of this kind in German-occupied Europe. Often operating in confiscated hotels and guarded by the Wehrmacht, these facilities used to serve travelling soldiers and those withdrawn from the front. According to records, at least 34,140 European women were forced to serve as prostitutes during the German occupation of their own countries along with female prisoners of concentration camp brothels. In many cases in Eastern Europe, the women involved were kidnapped on the streets of occupied cities during German military and police round ups called łapanka or rafle.
In World War II, Nazi Germany established brothels in the concentration camps (Lagerbordell) to create an incentive for prisoners to collaborate, although these institutions were used mostly by Kapos, "prisoner functionaries" and the criminal element, because regular inmates, penniless and emaciated, were usually too debilitated and wary of exposure to Schutzstaffel (SS) schemes. In the end, the camp brothels did not produce any noticeable increase in the prisoners' work productivity levels, but instead, created a market for coupons among the camp VIPs. The women forced into these brothels came mainly from the Ravensbrück concentration camp, except for Auschwitz, which employed its own prisoners. In combination with the German military brothels in World War II, it is estimated that at least 34,140 female inmates were forced into sexual slavery during the Third Reich. There were cases of Jewish women forced into such prostitution - even though German soldiers having sex with them thereby violated the Nazis' own Nuremberg Laws.
Around 200,000 are typically estimated to have been involved, with estimates as low as 20,000 from some Japanese scholars and estimates of up to 410,000 from some Chinese scholars, but the disagreement about exact numbers is still being researched and debated. Historians and researchers have stated that the majority were from Korea, China, Japan and Philippines but women from Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Taiwan, Indonesia, East Timor and other Japanese-occupied territories were also used in "comfort stations". Stations were located in Japan, China, the Philippines, Indonesia, then Malaya, Thailand, then Burma, then New Guinea, Hong Kong, Macau, and what was then French Indochina.
Young women from countries under Japanese Imperial control were reportedly abducted from their homes. In some cases, women were also recruited with offers to work in the military. It has been documented that the Japanese military itself recruited women by force. However, Japanese historian Ikuhiko Hata stated that there was no organized forced recruitment of comfort women by the Japanese government or military.
The number and nature of comfort women servicing the Japanese military during World War II is still being actively debated, and the matter is still highly political in both Japan and the rest of the Far East Asia.
Many military brothels were run by private agents and supervised by the Korean Police. Some Japanese historians, using the testimony of ex-comfort women, have argued that the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy were either directly or indirectly involved in coercing, deceiving, luring, and sometimes kidnapping young women throughout Japan's Asian colonies and occupied territories.
- ILO Forced Labour Convention, 1930 (No. 29)
- ILO Abolition of Forced Labour Convention, 1957 (No. 105)
- ILO Minimum Age Convention, 1973 (No. 138)
- ILO Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention, 1999 (No. 182)
- Article 7: Crime against humanity
- "Report of the Special Rapporteur on systematic rape". Unhchr.ch. Archived from the original on 12 January 2013. Retrieved 7 September 2015.
- Bantekas, Ilias; Susan Nash (2003). International Criminal Law (2d ed.). Cavendish: Routledge. p. 6. ISBN 978-1859417768.
- "Iran - Facts on Trafficking and Prostitution". Archived from the original on 8 October 2014. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "UNTC". Archived from the original on 7 September 2015. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Prostitution: Sex is their business". The Economist. 2 September 2004. Retrieved 15 December 2009. (subscription required)
- "Policing prostitution: The oldest conundrum". The Economist. 30 October 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2010. (subscription required)
- "Greece". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Güsten, Susanne (23 January 2013). "Turkey Cracks Down on Legal Brothels". The New York Times. Retrieved 11 December 2015.
- "Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography". United Nations Treaty Collection. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000". US State Department. 28 October 2000. Archived from the original on 12 March 2009. Retrieved 17 February 2010.
- Emilio Godoy (13 August 2007). "RIGHTS-MEXICO: 16,000 Victims of Child Sexual Exploitation". IPS. Archived from the original on 26 March 2012.
- "UN highlights human trafficking". the BBC. 26 March 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- Carback, Joshua T. (2018). "Cybersex Trafficking: Toward a More Effective Prosecutorial Response". Criminal Law Bulletin. 54 (1): 64–183. p. 64.
- Greiman, Virginia & Bain, Christina (2013). "The Emergence of Cyber Activity as a Gateway to Human Trafficking". Journal of Information Warfare. 12 (2): 41–49. p. 43.
- "Surge in online sex trade of children challenges anti-slavery campaigners". Reuters. 1 December 2016.
- "Child Sexual Exploitation". Europol. 2020.
- Altman, Dennis (2001). Global Sex. University of Chicago Press. p. 114. ISBN 9780226016054.
- The EU Strategy towards the Eradication of Trafficking in Human Beings, 2012–2016, European Commission Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs.
- "Trafficking in Persons Report, I. Introduction". 3 June 2005. Retrieved 30 January 2010.
- Trafficking harms 30,000 in EU - most in sex trade, BBC News (17 October 2014).
- Pisani, Elizabeth (2009). The Wisdom of Whores: Bureaucrats, Brothels and the Business of AIDS. Granta Books. pp. 213–214. ISBN 978-1-84708-076-9.
- "United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime", Annex II, Section I, Article 3 (pg. 42). Retrieved on 21 September 2009.
- "Prostitution and Human Trafficking: Tackling Demand" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2012. Retrieved 19 February 2013.
- Norma Ramos (Summer 2008). ""It's Not TV, Its Sexploitation" Protest Against Home Box Office". On the Issues Magazine. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "Definition of Trafficking". Save the Children. Archived from the original on 8 August 2007. Retrieved 11 January 2010.
- "Prostitution and Male Supremacy". 1993.
- Angel, William D. (1995). The International Law of Youth Rights. Martinus Nijhoff. p. 897. ISBN 9780792333210.
- Lim, Lean (1998). The Sex Sector: The Economic and Social Bases of Prostitution in Southeast Asia. International Labour Office. p. 14. ISBN 9789221095224.
- "Prostitution : les Verts opposés à la réouverture des maisons closes".
- "New Norway law bans buying of sex". BBC. 1 January 2009. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- "A new law makes purchase of sex illegal in Iceland". 21 April 2009. Archived from the original on 4 April 2011. Retrieved 19 January 2010.
- Allow Women to Sell Their Bodies to Earn a Living, Monitor (Uganda), 24 April 2006.
- Amalia Cabezos (28 July – 4 August 1999). "Hookers in the House of the Lord". Santa Monica Mirror. Archived from the original on 20 August 2008.
- Lim, Lean (1998). The Sex Sector: The Economic and Social Bases of Prostitution in Southeast Asia. International Labour Office. p. 39. ISBN 978-9221095224.
- "Understanding Sex Work in an Open Society". Open Society Foundations. Open Society Foundations. June 2013. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- Neuwirth, Jessica. Equal Means Equal. p. 68.
- "PENet: Prostitution Issues: Statistics". www.bayswan.org. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- "OSCN Case Details". www.oscn.net. Retrieved 5 November 2016.
- "ERA: Home". www.equalrightsamendment.org. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- "ERA: FAQ" Archived 17 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine. www.equalrightsamendment.org. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- Wendell, Susan (1987). A (Qualified) Defense of Liberal Feminism. Hypatia. pp. 65–66.
- Loncle, Francis (December 2001). "Eastern Europe Exports Flesh to the EU". Le Monde diplomatique. Archived from the original on 22 May 2002. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
- "Local women fall prey to sex slavery abroad". Archived from the original on 3 July 2009. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- Deshpande, Neha A; Nour, Nawal M (2013). "Sex Trafficking of Women and Girls". Reviews in Obstetrics and Gynecology. 6 (1): e22–e27. PMC 3651545. PMID 23687554.
- "Almost half of all women trafficked into Britains prostitution are Chinese". Archived from the original on 8 December 2010.
- "Eastern Europe - Coalition Against Trafficking of Women". Archived from the original on 28 December 2008.
- "BBC NEWS - Europe - A modern slave's brutal odyssey". Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Moldova: Lower prices behind sex slavery boom and child prostitution Archived 1 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "The Russian Mafia in Asia". Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Gustavo Delarosa Hickerson on corruption in Ciudad Juárez
- "Worldwide Tragedy: U.S. Not Immune to Sexual Slavery". Archived from the original on 29 September 2008.
- "2002 Report". 20 April 2005. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Modern Slavery: People for Sale". Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Human Trafficking: Sexual Trafficking". Archived from the original on 13 February 2010.
- "Sex Traffickers Prey On Eastern Europeans". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Israel a Human Trafficking Haven FoxNews.com
- "sexual-terrorism.org". Archived from the original on 18 February 2012. Retrieved 29 September 2016.
- "'50,000 Iraqi refugees' forced into prostitution". The Independent. Archived from the original on 8 July 2008. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Iraqi refugees forced into prostitution". Archived from the original on 1 November 2008.
- Katherine Zoepfmay (29 May 2007). "Desperate Iraqi Refugees Turn to Sex Trade in Syria". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
- "Japan 2017 Trafficking in Persons Report". U.S. Department of State. Archived from the original on 3 July 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2018.
- Far Eastern Economic Review: "Costs Of Human Trafficking In Southeast Asia." Janis Foo, April 2009.
- "Woman's Dying Wish: to punish traffickers who ruined her life" The Nation, 23 January 2006
- "A modern form of slavery: Trafficking of Burmese Women and Girls into Brothels in Thailand".
- "Somaly Mam Foundation". Archived from the original on 29 October 2013. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Britain to Take Action Against Sex Tourists". BBC. 1997. Retrieved 10 January 2010.
- "Lost Daughters - An Ongoing Tragedy in Nepal," Women News Network - WNN, 5 December 2008
- Anti-Slavery Society. Child Hierodulic Servitude in India and Nepal Archived 7 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- Human Rights Watch. Caste: Asia's Hidden Apartheid
- United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. Thirty-seventh session: 15 January – 2 February 2007
- "'Project Combat' launched to eradicate 'Devadasi' system". The Hindu. 30 January 2006. Archived from the original on 25 May 2006. Retrieved 31 January 2007.
- "Intervention Agenda Item 12: Elimination of Violence Against Women Archived 6 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine" at the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in April 2004; speaker: Ji Sun JEONG for A Woman's Voice International
- Chisholm 1911, p. 341. sfn error: no target: CITEREFChisholm1911 (help)
- Plato, Phaedo'
- "Laërtius, Suda, Gellius"Laërtius 1925, § 105 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFLaërtius1925 (help); Suda, "Phaedon" harvnb error: no target: CITEREFSuda (help); Aulus Gellius, 18 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFAulus_Gellius (help)
- The occasion on which he was taken prisoner was no doubt the war between Sparta and Elis, 402–401 BCE, in which the Spartans were joined by the Athenians in 401 BCE.Xenophon, Hellenica iii.2.21–31; Diodorus Siculus, xiv.17.4–12, 34Nails 2002, p. 231 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFNails2002 (help)
- Laërtius 1925, § 105. sfn error: no target: CITEREFLaërtius1925 (help)
- Levine, Robert M. (October 1991). "Canudos in the National Context". The Americas. 48 (2): 208. doi:10.2307/1006824. JSTOR 1006824.
- "Especial – NOTÍCIAS – Uma nova agenda militar". revistaepoca.globo.com. ÉPOCA. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- Robb, Peter (2004). A Death in Brazil (Reprint ed.). Picador. p. 208. ISBN 978-0312424879.
- Nanda Herbermann; Hester Baer; Elizabeth Roberts Baer (2000). The Blessed Abyss: Inmate #6582 in Ravensbruck Concentration Camp for Women (Google Books). Detroit: Wayne State University Press. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-0-8143-2920-7. Retrieved 12 January 2011. (in English)
- Helge Sander, Barbara Johr (Hrsg.), Befreier und Befreite - Krieg - Vergewaltigung - Kinder, Frankfurt a.M. 2005
- (in English) Leon Yudkin, ed. (1993). "Narrative Perspectives on Holocaust Literature". Hebrew Literature in the Wake of the Holocaust. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. pp. 13–32. ISBN 978-0-8386-3499-8.
- (in English) Lenten, Ronit (2000). Israel and the Daughters of the Shoah: Reoccupying the Territories of Silence. Berghahn Books. pp. 33–34. ISBN 978-1-57181-775-4.
- "Camp Brothel". Wollheim Memorial. Accessed 30 June 2011.
- Germany, SPIEGEL ONLINE, Hamburg (15 January 2007). "Nazi Sex Slaves: New Exhibition Documents Forced Prostitution in Concentration Camps - SPIEGEL ONLINE - International". Spiegel Online.
- Tessa Morris-Suzuki (8 March 2007), Japan's 'Comfort Women': It's time for the truth (in the ordinary, everyday sense of the word), archived from the original on 9 January 2009, retrieved 15 December 2008
- WCCW 2004.
- Asian Women'sFund, p. 10 harvnb error: no target: AWF-CW (help)
- Rose 2005, p. 88
- Jone Johnson Lewis. "Women and World War II - Comfort Women". About.com Education. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- "Japanese Military Sexual Slavery in East Timor". Retrieved 25 March 2015.
- Reuters & 2007-03-05.
- Yoshimi 2000, pp. 100–101, 105–106, 110–111;
- van Buitenlandse zaken 1994, pp. 6–9, 11, 13–14
- Hata Ikuhiko, NO ORGANIZED OR FORCED RECRUITMENT: MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT COMFORT WOMEN AND THE JAPANESE MILITARY (PDF), hassin.sejp.net, archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2008, retrieved 15 December 2008 (First published in Shokun May 2007 issue in Japanese. Translated by Society for the Dissemination of Historical Fact).
- According to journalist Satoshi Ikeuchi: "Even though the forcible recruitment of women was not systematically implemented, the (Japanese) government should acknowledge its moral responsibility if any single woman victimized by the private operators through fraud, exploitation, violence or other acts of intimidation comes forward to tell her story. The government should do so because the military gave consent to set up brothels for soldiers and had responsibility for overseeing them.» «In this context, the issue of the so-called comfort women was invested with extreme importance as the epitome of Japanese sin from the viewpoint of some and became the focal point of contention, The excessive effort by leftists and liberals in politicizing this issue as one of the few means left to shake conservative dominance, by extending the notion of coercion to the extreme, resulted in alienating a large part of the nation. Their open intention to collude with rising tides of hostile nationalism in Korea and China also hardened the minds of many in Japan." 25 April 2007. Satoshi Ikeuchi, Overcoming postwar mind-set, Daily Yomuri Online, 25 April 2007.
- Onishi 2007-03-08
- Fackler, Martin (6 March 2007), "No Apology for Sex Slavery, Japan's Prime Minister Says", The New York Times, retrieved 23 March 2007
- Onishi, Norimitsu (8 March 2007), "Denial Reopens Wounds of Japan's Ex-Sex Slaves", The New York Times, retrieved 23 March 2007
- Rose, Caroline (2005), Sino-Japanese relations: facing the past, looking to the future?, Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-29722-6
- Yoshimi, Yoshiaki (2000), Comfort Women. Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II, Asia Perspectives, translation: Suzanne O'Brien, New York: Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0-231-12033-3
- "Abe questions sex slave 'coercion'", BBC News, 2 March 2007, retrieved 23 March 2007
- "FACTBOX-Disputes over Japan's wartime "comfort women" continue", Reuters, 5 March 2007, retrieved 5 March 2008
- International Labour Office. (2005). A global alliance against forced labour
- "Japan party probes sex slave use", BBC News, 8 March 2007, retrieved 23 March 2007
- Ministerie van Buitenlandse zaken (24 January 1994). "Gedwongen prostitutie van Nederlandse vrouwen in voormalig Nederlands-Indië [Enforced prostitution of Dutch women in the former Dutch East Indies]". Handelingen Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal [Hansard Dutch Lower House] (in Dutch). 23607 (1). ISSN 0921-7371. Lay summary – Nationaal Archief (Dutch National Archive) (27 March 2007).
- WCCW (2004), Comfort-Women.org FAQ, Washington Coalition for Comfort Women Issues, archived from the original on 15 June 2007, retrieved 20 June 2007