Intimate partner violence
||The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (February 2015)|
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is domestic violence by a spouse or partner in an intimate relationship against the other spouse or partner, and the violence may be mutual, in which case the relationship may be described as a violent relationship. The most extreme form of such violence may be termed "intimate terrorism" where one person is violent and controlling, generally perpetrated by men against women, and most likely of the types of violence to require medical services and shelter. Victims of intimate terrorism may engage in "violent resistance" in response to the violence; violent resistance is likely to be infrequent and be conducted by women.
The most common form of intimate partner violence is "situational couple violence" which is conducted by individuals of both genders, nearly equally. When both partners in the relationship engage in controlling and violent behavior it is called mutual violent control.
Intimate partner violence occurs between two people in an intimate relationship. It may occur between heterosexual or homosexual couples and victims are men or women. Couples may be dating, cohabiting or married and violence can occur in or outside of the home.
Studies by the 1990s showed that both men and women could be abusers or victims of domestic violence.[nb 1] Women are more likely to act violently in retaliation or self-defense one time and with less violence than that by men; men are more likely to commit long-term cycles of abuse. As a result, the issue is not solely about violence against women, but about "violent people" or "violent couples." It also led to further research to better understand the situations within violent homes.
The World Health Organization (WHO) defines intimate partner violence as:
- "... any behaviour within an intimate relationship that causes physical, psychological or sexual harm to those in the relationship".
To these forms of abuse, the WHO adds controlling behaviours as a form of abuse. Intimate partner violence has been observed in heterosexual and same-sex relationships, and in the former instance by men against women, and by women against their male partners.
The WHO reported in 2013 that the incidence of women who had experienced physical or sexual abuse from an intimate partner in their lifetime was:
The theory that women perpetrate intimate partner violence (IPV) at roughly the same rate as men has been termed "gender symmetry." The earliest empirical evidence of gender symmetry was presented in the 1975 U.S. National Family Violence Survey carried out by Murray A. Straus and Richard J. Gelles on a nationally representative sample of 2,146 "intact families." The survey found 11.6% of men and 12% of women had experienced some kind of IPV in the last twelve months, while 4.6% of men and 3.8% of women had experienced "severe" IPV. These unexpected results led Suzanne K. Steinmetz to coin the controversial term "battered husband syndrome" in 1977. Ever since the publication of Straus and Gelles' findings, other researchers into domestic violence have disputed whether gender symmetry really exists. Numerous other empirical studies since 1975 suggest there is evidence for it.
Reciprocal and non-reciprocal
The United States Centers for Disease Control, divide domestic violence into two types: reciprocal, in which both partners are violent, and non-reciprocal violence, in which one partner is violent.
Distinctions are made among the types of violence, motives of perpetrators, and the social and cultural context based upon patterns across numerous incidents and motives of the perpetrator. Types of violence identified by Johnson:
|Serbia and Montenegro city||23||6||24|
Intimate terrorism occurs when one partner in a relationship uses coercive control and power over the other partner, using threats, intimidation, and isolation. In such cases, "[o]ne partner, usually a man, controls virtually every aspect of the victim's, usually a woman's, life." Michael P. Johnson reported in 2001 that 97% of the perpetrators of intimate terrorism were men. Using Johnson's typology, other studies have found that intimate terrorism is more often perpetrated by women or not gendered at all.
Intimate partner violence may involve sexual, sadistic control, economic, physical, emotional and psychological abuse. Intimate terrorism is more likely to escalate over time, not as likely to be mutual, and more likely to involve serious injury. Because this type of violence is most likely to be extreme, it is survivors of intimate terrorism that are most likely to require medical services and the safety of shelters.
Abusers are more likely to have witnessed abuse as children than those who engage in situational couple violence.
Intimate terrorism batterers include two types: "Generally-violent-antisocial" and "dysphoric-borderline". The first type includes people with general psychopathic and violent tendencies. The second type are people who are emotionally dependent on the relationship. Violence by a person against their intimate partner is often done as a way for controlling their partner, even if this kind of violence is not the most frequent. Support for this typology has been found in subsequent evaluations.
Violent resistance (VR), sometimes thought of as "self-defense", is violence perpetrated by victims against their partners who have exerted intimate terrorism against them. Within relationships of intimate terrorism and violent resistance, 96% of the violent resisters are women.
Situational couple violence
Situational couple violence, also called common couple violence, is not connected to general control behavior, but arises in a single argument where one or both partners physically lash out at the other. This is the most common form of intimate partner violence, particularly in the western world and among young couples, and involves members of both sexes nearly equally. Among college students, Johnson found it to be perpetrated about 44% of the time by women and 56% of the time by men.
It is a relationship dynamic "in which conflict occasionally gets ‘out of hand,’ leading usually to ‘minor’ forms of violence, and rarely escalates into serious or life-threatening forms of violence.”
In situational couple violence, acts of violence by men and women occur at fairly equal rates, with rare occurrences of injury, and are not committed in an attempt to control a partner. It is estimated that approximately 50% of couples experience situational couple violence in their relationships.
Situational couple violence is characterized by a few main traits:
- Mode: Mildly aggressive behavior such as throwing objects, ranging to more aggressive behaviors such as pushing, slapping, biting, hitting, scratching, or hair pulling.
- Frequency:Less frequent than PT, occurring once in a while during an argument or disagreement.
- Severity: Milder than PT, very rarely escalates to more severe abuse, generally does not include injuries that were serious or that caused one partner to be admitted to a hospital.
- Mutuality:Violence may be equally expressed by either partner in the relationship.
- Intent:Occurs out of anger or frustration rather than as a means of gaining control and power over the other partner.
In 2014, Bates, Graham-Kevan & Archer found that contrary to the male control theory, women were found to be more physically aggressive to their partners than men were, and the reverse pattern was found for aggression to same-sex non-intimates. Furthermore, there were no substantial sex differences in controlling behavior, which significantly predicted physical aggression in both sexes. IPV was found to be associated with physical aggression to same-sex non-intimates, thereby demonstrating a link with aggression outside the family. Using Johnson's typology, women were more likely than men to be classed as "intimate terrorists," which was counter to earlier findings. Overall, these results do not support the male control theory of IPV. Instead, they fit the view that IPV does not have a special etiology, and is better studied within the context of other forms of aggression they identified three subtypes of domestic violence rather than Johnson's two: common couple violence; what they termed "intimate terrorism," noting that women and men can both use violence to control non-violent mates; and "mutual violent control" where both partners use intimate terrorism levels of violence. However, Bates, Graham-Kevan & Archer also stressed that their and Johnson's research sampling methods should be regarded as preliminary: their subjects were relatively few in number and were drawn from known crime victims or battered women, and thus may not be representative of randomized general population samples. Moreover, Bates, Graham-Kevan & Archer argued that, by relying entirely on analysis of data from one partner in an abusive relationship, Johnson's study was incomplete and skewed due to reporting bias.
In 1998, Milardo reported that women are more likely to initiate common couple violence in dating scenarios (83% of female subjects were "at least somewhat likely" to use mild to moderate violence, compared to 53% of men). Furthermore, men reported higher rates of fearing they would suffer common couple violence (70% of men vs. 50% of women). When questioned about the use of more serious violence analogous to Patriarchal or Intimate Terrorism, Milardo found that women were again more likely to approve of its use against a partner. However, women had higher rates of fearing they would be seriously battered.
Mutual violent control
Mutual violent control (MVC) is rare type of intimate partner violence occurring when both partners act in a violent manner, battling for control.
Sexual violence by intimate partners varies by country and can reach as high as 25% of the women having been subject to forced sex. In some countries forced sex, or marital rape, often occurs with other forms of domestic violence, particularly physical abuse.
- Gelles 1980, 1989; McNeely and Mann 1990; Shupe, Stacey, and Hazelwood 1987; Straus 1973; Straus, Gelles, and Steinmetz 1980; Steinmetz 1977/1978.
- Tasha R. Howe. Marriages and Families in the 21st Century: A Bioecological Approach. John Wiley & Sons; 29 August 2011. ISBN 978-1-4051-9501-0. p. 370.
- Marilyn Fernandez. Restorative Justice for Domestic Violence Victims: An Integrated Approach to Their Hunger for Healing. Lexington Books; 2 June 2010. ISBN 978-0-7391-4806-8. pp. 2-3.
- WHO: World Report on Violence and Health (2002)
- WHO: Understanding and Addressing Intimate Partner Violence
- Renzetti, C. M.; Miley, C. H. (1996). Violence in Gay and Lesbian Domestic Partnerships. Haworth Press. ISBN 1-56023-074-6. OCLC 33947252.
- Johnson, M. P.; Ferraro, K. J. (2000). "Research on Domestic Violence in the 1990s: Making Distinctions". Journal of Marriage and Family 62 (4): 948. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2000.00948.x.
- Global and regional estimates of violence against women: prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence and non-partner sexual violence. World Health Organization. 2013. ISBN 978-92-4-156462-5. p. 16, 18
- Gelles, Richard J.; Straus, Murray A. (1988). Intimate Violence: The Causes and Consequences of Abuse in the American Family (PDF). New York: Simon & Schuster. p. 104. ISBN 9780671682965. Retrieved July 5, 2014.
- Straus, Murray A. (June 2010). "Thirty Years of Denying the Evidence on Gender Symmetry in Partner Violence: Implications for Prevention and Treatment" (PDF). Partner Abuse 1 (3): 333. doi:10.1891/1946-65126.96.36.1992. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Steinmetz, Suzanne K. (1977). "The Battered Husband Syndrome" (PDF). Victimology 2 (3–4): 499–509. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Straus, Murray A. (June 2010). "Thirty Years of Denying the Evidence on Gender Symmetry in Partner Violence: Implications for Prevention and Treatment" (PDF). Partner Abuse 1 (3): 332–362. doi:10.1891/1946-65188.8.131.522. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Saunders, Daniel G. (1988). "Wife Abuse, Husband Abuse, or Mutual Combat? A Feminist Perspective on the Empirical Findings". In Yllö, Kersti; Bogard, Michele. Feminist Perspectives on Wife Abuse. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. pp. 90–113. ISBN 9780803930537. (subscription required)
- Dobash, Russell P.; Dobash, R. Emerson; Wilson, Margo; Daly, Martin (February 1992). "The Myth of Sexual Symmetry in Marital Violence". Social Problems 39 (1): 71–91. doi:10.2307/3096914. Retrieved July 4, 2014. (subscription required)
- Straus, Murray A. (1999). "The Controversy Over Domestic Violence by Women: A Methodological, Theoretical and Sociology of Science Analysis". In Arriaga, Ximena B.; Oskamp, Stuart. Violence in Intimate Relationships (PDF). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. pp. 17–44. ISBN 9780761916420. Retrieved June 28, 2014.
- Kessler, Ronald C.; Molnar, Beth E.; Feurer, Irene D.; Applebaum, Mark (October 2001). "Patterns and Mental Health Predictors of Domestic Violence in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey". International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 24 (4–5): 487–508. doi:10.1016/S0160-2527(01)00080-2. PMID 11521422. Retrieved June 29, 2014. (subscription required)
- Dutton, Donald G. (2006). Rethinking Domestic Violence. Vancouver: University of British Columbia. p. 140. ISBN 9780774810159.
- Straus, Murray A. (2010). "Patterns and Mental Health Predictors of Domestic Violence in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey". International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 24 (4–5): 487–508. doi:10.1016/S0160-2527(01)00080-2. PMID 11521422. Retrieved June 29, 2014.
- Straus, Murray A. (2010). "Thirty Years of Denying the Evidence on Gender Symmetry in Partner Violence: Implications for Prevention and Treatment". Partner Abuse (Springer Publishing Company) 1 (3). CiteSeerX: 10
.1 .1 .372 .5578.
- Whitaker, D. J.; Haileyesus, T.; Swahn, M.; Saltzman, L. S. (2007). "Differences in Frequency of Violence and Reported Injury Between Relationships with Reciprocal and Nonreciprocal Intimate Partner Violence". American Journal of Public Health 97 (5): 941–947. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2005.079020. PMC 1854883. PMID 17395835.
- Paula Nicolson. Domestic Violence and Psychology: A Critical Perspective. Taylor & Francis; 14 December 2010. ISBN 978-1-136-69861-3. p. 40.
- Graham-Kevan, N.; Archer, J. (2003). "Intimate terrorism and common couple violence. A test of Johnson's predictions in four British samples". Journal of interpersonal violence 18 (11): 1247–1270. doi:10.1177/0886260503256656. PMID 19774764.
- Rosen, K. H.; Stith, S. M.; Few, A. L.; Daly, K. L.; Tritt, D. R. (2005). "A qualitative investigation of Johnson's typology". Violence and victims 20 (3): 319–334. doi:10.1891/vivi.20.3.319. PMID 16180370.
- Tasha R. Howe. Marriages and Families in the 21st Century: A Bioecological Approach. John Wiley & Sons; 29 August 2011. ISBN 978-1-4051-9501-0. p. 374.
- "Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence". Aggressive Behavior. July 22, 2013. Retrieved December 7, 2014.
- Janel M. Leone, Michael P. Johnson, and Catherine L. Cohan, "Victim Help Seeking: Differences between Intimate Terrorism and Situational Couple Violence," Family Relations 56, no. 5 (2007)
- Marilyn Fernandez. Restorative Justice for Domestic Violence Victims: An Integrated Approach to Their Hunger for Healing. Lexington Books; 2 June 2010. ISBN 978-0-7391-4806-8. p. 5.
- LAROCHE Denis, Context and Consequences of Domestic Violence Against Men and Women in Canada in 2004 p.35. 2004
- Jacobson, N.; Gottman, J. (1998). When Men Batter Women: New Insights into Ending Abusive Relationships. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-684-81447-1. OCLC 37748396.
- Hamberger, L. K.; Lohr, J. M.; Bonge, D.; Tolin, D. F. (1996). "A large sample empirical typology of male spouse abusers and its relationship to dimensions of abuse". Violence and victims 11 (4): 277–292. PMID 9210273.
- Holtzworth-Munroe, A.; Meehan, J. C.; Herron, K.; Rehman, U.; Stuart, G. L. (2000). "Testing the Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) batterer typology". Journal of consulting and clinical psychology 68 (6): 1000–1019. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.68.6.1000. PMID 11142534.
- Johnson, M. P. (1995). "Patriarchal terrorism and common couple violence: Two forms of violence against women". Journal of Marriage and the Family 57: 283–294. doi:10.2307/353683.
- Olson, L. N. (2002). "Exploring Common Couple Violence in Heterosexual Romantic Relationships". Western Journal of Communication 66: 104–125. doi:10.1080/10570310209374727.
- "Testing predictions from the male control theory of men's partner violence.". Aggress Behav 40 (1): 42–55. Jan 2014. doi:10.1002/ab.21499. PMID 23878077.
- Milardo, Robert M. (1998) Gender asymmetry in common couple violence. Personal Relationships, Volume 5 Issue 4, Pages 423 - 438
- Bachman, R.; Carmody, D. C. (1994). "Fighting fire with fire: The effects of victim resistance in intimate versus stranger perpetrated assaults against females". Journal of Family Violence 9 (4): 317. doi:10.1007/BF01531942.
- Browne, A.; Salomon, A.; Bassuk, S. S. (1999). "The Impact of Recent Partner Violence on Poor Women's Capacity to Maintain Work". Violence Against Women 5 (4): 393. doi:10.1177/10778019922181284.
- Chang, V. N. (1996). I Just Lost Myself: Psychological Abuse of Women in Marriage. Praeger. ISBN 978-0-275-95209-9.
- Follingstad, D. R.; Rutledge, L. L.; Berg, B. J.; Hause, E. S.; Polek, D. S. (1990). "The role of emotional abuse in physically abusive relationships". Journal of Family Violence 5 (2): 107. doi:10.1007/BF00978514.
- Graham-Kevan, N.; Archer, J. (2003). "Physical aggression and control in heterosexual relationships: The effect of sampling". Violence and victims 18 (2): 181–196. doi:10.1891/vivi.2003.18.2.181. PMID 12816403.
- Hassan, Tengku Nur Fadzilah Tengku; Ali, Siti Hawa; Salleh, Halim (January 2015). "Patterns of help-seeking among women experiencing intimate partner violence in Malaysia". Asian Journal of Women's Studies (AJWS) (Taylor and Francis) 21 (1): 77–92. doi:10.1080/12259276.2015.1029226.
- Johnson, M. P. (2006). "Conflict and Control: Gender Symmetry and Asymmetry in Domestic Violence". Violence Against Women 12 (11): 1003–1018. doi:10.1177/1077801206293328. PMID 17043363.
- Johnson, Michael P. (2000). "Conflict and Control: Images of Symmetry and Asymmetry in Domestic Violence". In Booth, A.; Crouter, A. C.; Clements, M. Couples in Conflict. Erlbaum. ISBN 0-8058-3545-8.
- Johnson, Michael P. (1995). "Patriarchal Terrorism and Common Couple Violence: Two Forms of Violence against Women". Journal of Marriage and Family 57 (2): 283–294. doi:10.2307/353683. JSTOR 353683.
- Johnson, Michael P. (2006). "Violence and abuse in personal relationships: Conflict, terror, and resistance in intimate partnerships". In Vangelisti, A. L.; Perlman, D. Cambridge handbook of personal relationships. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 557–576. ISBN 0-521-82617-9.
- Kirkwood, C. (1993). Leaving Abusive Partners: From the Scars of Survival to the Wisdom for Change. Sage. ISBN 0-8039-8686-6. OCLC 29049176.
- Leone, J. M.; Johnson, M. P.; Cohan, C. L.; Lloyd, S. E. (2004). "Consequences of Male Partner Violence for Low-Income Minority Women". Journal of Marriage and Family 66 (2): 472. doi:10.1111/j.1741-3737.2004.00032.x.
- Roberts, A. R. (1996). "Battered women who kill: A comparative study of incarcerated participants with a community sample of battered women". Journal of Family Violence 11 (3): 291–304. doi:10.1007/BF02336946.
- Tilbrook, E.; Allan, A.; Dear, G. (2010). "Intimate Partner Abuse of Men". Men's Advisory Network. Perth, Western Australia: Edith Cowan University School of Psychology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-07-12. Retrieved 21 November 2010.