Common factors theory
Common factors theory, a theory guiding some research in clinical psychology and counseling psychology, proposes that different approaches and evidence-based practices in psychotherapy and counseling share common factors that account for much of the effectiveness of a psychological treatment. This is in contrast to the view that the effectiveness of psychotherapy and counseling is best explained by specific or unique factors (notably, particular methods or procedures) that are suited to treatment of particular problems. According to one review, "it is widely recognized that the debate between common and unique factors in psychotherapy represents a false dichotomy, and these factors must be integrated to maximize effectiveness". In other words, "therapists must engage in specific forms of therapy for common factors to have a medium through which to operate". Common factors is one route by which therapists are attempting to integrate psychotherapies.
Saul Rosenzweig started the conversation on common factors in an article published in 1936 that discussed some psychotherapies of his time. John Dollard and Neal E. Miller's 1950 book Personality and Psychotherapy emphasized that the psychological principles and social conditions of learning are the most important common factors. Sol Garfield (who would later go on to edit many editions of the Handbook of Psychotherapy and Behavior Change with Allen Bergin) included a 10-page discussion of common factors in his 1957 textbook Introductory Clinical Psychology. In the same year, Carl Rogers published a paper outlining what he considered to be common factors (which he called "sufficient conditions") of successful therapeutic personality change, emphasizing the therapeutic relationship factors which would become central to the theory of person-centered therapy.
In 1961, Jerome Frank published Persuasion and Healing, a book entirely devoted to examining the common factors among psychotherapies and related healing approaches. Frank emphasized the importance of (1) the expectation of help (a component of the placebo effect), (2) the therapeutic relationship, (3) a rationale or conceptual scheme that explains the given symptoms and prescribes a given ritual or procedure for resolving them, and (4) the active participation of both patient and therapist in carrying out that ritual or procedure.
After Lester Luborsky and colleagues published a literature review of empirical studies of psychotherapy outcomes in 1975, the idea that all psychotherapies are effective became known as the Dodo bird verdict, referring to a scene from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland quoted by Rosenzweig in his 1936 article; in that scene, after the characters race and everyone wins, the Dodo bird says, "everybody has won, and all must have prizes." Luborsky's research was an attempt (and not the first attempt, nor the last one) to disprove Hans Eysenck's 1952 study on the efficacy of psychotherapy; Eysenck found that psychotherapy generally did not seem to lead to improved patient outcomes. A number of studies after 1975 presented more evidence in support of the general efficacy of psychotherapy, but the question of how common and specific factors could enhance or thwart therapy effectiveness in particular cases continued to fuel theoretical and empirical research over the following decades.
The landmark 1982 book Converging Themes in Psychotherapy gathered a number of chapters by different authors promoting common factors, including an introduction by Marvin R. Goldfried and Wendy Padawer, a reprint of Rosenzweig's 1936 article, and further chapters (some of them reprints) by John Dollard and Neal E. Miller, Franz Alexander, Jerome Frank, Arnold Lazarus, Hans Herrman Strupp, Sol Garfield, John Paul Brady, Judd Marmor, Paul L. Wachtel, Abraham Maslow, Arnold P. Goldstein, Anthony Ryle, and others. The chapter by Goldfried and Padawer distinguished between three levels of intervention in therapy:
- theories of change (therapists' theories about how change occurs);
- principles or strategies of change;
- therapy techniques (interventions that therapists suppose will be effective).
Goldfried and Padawer argued that while therapists may talk about their theories using very different jargon, there is more commonality among skilled therapists at the (intermediate) level of principles or strategies. Goldfried and Padawer's emphasis on principles or strategies of change was an important contribution to common factors theory because they clearly showed how principles or strategies can be considered common factors (they are shared by therapists who may espouse different theories of change) and specific factors (they are manifested in particular ways within different approaches) at the same time. Around the same time, James O. Prochaska and colleagues, who were developing the transtheoretical model of change, proposed ten "processes of change" that categorized "multiple techniques, methods, and interventions traditionally associated with disparate theoretical orientations," and they stated that their processes of change corresponded to Goldfried and Padawer's level of common principles of change.
In 1986, David Orlinsky and Kenneth Howard presented their generic model of psychotherapy, which proposed that five process variables are active in any psychotherapy: the therapeutic contract, therapeutic interventions, the therapeutic bond between therapist and patient, the patient's and therapist's states of self-relatedness, and therapeutic realization.
In 1990, Lisa Grencavage and John C. Norcross reviewed accounts of common factors in 50 publications, with 89 common factors in all, from which Grencavage and Norcross selected the 35 most common factors and grouped them into five areas: client characteristics, therapist qualities, change processes, treatment structure, and therapeutic relationship. In the same year, Larry E. Beutler and colleagues published their systematic treatment selection model, which attempted to integrate common and specific factors into a single model that therapists could use to guide treatment, considering variables of patient dimensions, environments, settings, therapist dimensions, and treatment types. Beutler and colleagues would later describe their approach as "identifying common and differential principles of change".
In 1992, Michael J. Lambert summarized psychotherapy outcome research and grouped the factors of successful therapy into four areas, ordered by hypothesized percent of change in clients as a function of therapeutic factors: first, extratherapeutic change (40%), those factors that are qualities of the client or qualities of his or her environment and that aid in recovery regardless of his or her participation in therapy; second, common factors (30%) that are found in a variety of therapy approaches, such as empathy and the therapeutic relationship; third, expectancy (15%), the portion of improvement that results from the client's expectation of help or belief in the rationale or effectiveness of therapy; fourth, techniques (15%), those factors unique to specific therapies and tailored to treatment of specific problems. Lambert's research later inspired a book on common factors theory in the practice of therapy titled The Heart and Soul of Change.
In the mid-1990s, as managed care in mental health services became more widespread in the United States, more researchers began to investigate the efficacy of psychotherapy in terms of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) for particular problems, emphasizing randomized controlled trials as the gold standard of empirical support for a treatment. In 1995, the American Psychological Association's Division 12 (clinical psychology) formed a task force that developed lists of empirically supported treatments for particular problems such as agoraphobia, blood-injection-injury type phobia, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder, panic disorder, etc. In 2001, Bruce Wampold published The Great Psychotherapy Debate, a book that criticized what he considered to be an overemphasis on ESTs for particular problems, and he called for continued research in common factors theory.
In 2014, a series of ten articles on common factors theory was published in the APA journal Psychotherapy. The articles emphasized the compatibility between ESTs and common factors theory, highlighted the importance of multiple variables in psychotherapy effectiveness, called for more empirical research on common factors (especially client and therapist variables), and argued that individual therapists can do much to improve the quality of therapy by rigorously using feedback measures (during treatment) and outcome measures (after termination of treatment). The article by Stefan G. Hofmann and David H. Barlow, two prominent researchers in cognitive behavioral therapy, pointed out how their recent shift in emphasis from distinct procedures for different diagnoses to a transdiagnostic approach was increasingly similar to common factors theory.
There are many models of common factors in successful psychotherapy process and outcome. Already in 1990, Grencavage and Norcross identified 89 common factors in a literature review, which showed the diversity of models of common factors. To be useful for purposes of psychotherapy practice and training, most models reduce the number of common factors to a handful, typically around five. Frank listed six common factors in 1971 and explained their interaction. Goldfried and Padawer listed five common strategies or principles in 1982: corrective experiences and new behaviors, feedback from the therapist to the client promoting new understanding in the client, expectation that psychotherapy will be helpful, establishment of the desired therapeutic relationship, and ongoing reality testing by the client. Grencavage and Norcross grouped common factors into five areas in 1990. Lambert formulated four groups of therapeutic factors in 1992. Joel Weinberger and Cristina Rasco listed five common factors in 2007 and reviewed the empirical support for each factor: the therapeutic relationship, expectations of treatment effectiveness, confronting or facing the problem (exposure), mastery or control experiences, and patients' attributions of successful outcome to internal or external causes.
Terence Tracy and colleagues modified the common factors of Grencavage and Norcross, and used them to develop a questionnaire which they provided to 16 board certified psychologists and 5 experienced psychotherapy researchers; then they analyzed the responses and published the results in 2003. Their multidimensional scaling analysis represented the results on a two-dimensional graph, with one dimension representing hot processing versus cool processing (roughly, closeness and emotional experience versus technical information and persuasion) and the other dimension representing therapeutic activity. Their cluster analysis represented the results as three clusters: the first related to bond (roughly, therapeutic alliance), the second related to information (roughly, the meanings communicated between therapist and client), and the third related to role (roughly, a logical structure so that clients can make sense of the therapy process).
In addition to these models that incorporate multiple common factors, a number of theorists have proposed and investigated single common factors, common principles, and common mechanisms of change, such as learning. In one example, at least three independent groups have converged on the conclusion that a wide variety of different psychotherapies can be integrated via their common ability to trigger the neurobiological mechanism of memory reconsolidation in such a way as to lead to deconsolidation. For further examples, see § Further reading, below.
While many models of common factors have been proposed, they have not all received the same amount of empirical research. There is general consensus on the importance of a good therapeutic relationship in all forms of psychotherapy and counseling.
A review of common factors research in 2008 suggested that 30% to 70% of the variance in therapy outcome was due to common factors. A summary of research in 2014 suggested that 11.5% of variance in therapy outcome was due to the common factor of goal consensus/collaboration, 9% was due to empathy, 7.5% was due to therapeutic alliance, 6.3% was due to positive regard/affirmation, 5.7% was due to congruence/genuineness, and 5% was due to therapist factors; in contrast, treatment method accounted for roughly 1% of outcome variance.
Alan E. Kazdin has argued that psychotherapy researchers must not only find statistical evidence that certain factors contribute to successful outcomes; they must also be able to fomulate evidence-based explanations for how and why those factors contribute to successful outcomes, that is, the mechanisms through which successful psychotherapy leads to change. Common factors theory has been dominated by research on psychotherapy process and outcome variables, and there is a need for further work explaining the mechanisms of psychotherapy common factors in terms of emerging theoretical and empirical research in the neurosciences and social sciences, just as earlier works such as Dollard and Miller's Personality and Psychotherapy or Frank's Persuasion and Healing explained psychotherapy common factors in terms of the sciences of their time.
There are several criticisms of common factors theory: for example, that common factors theory dismisses the need for specific therapeutic techniques or procedures, that common factors are nothing more than a good therapeutic relationship, and that common factors theory is not scientific. Some common factors theorists have argued that these criticisms are based on a limited knowledge of the common factors literature; a thorough review of the literature shows that a coherent treatment procedure is a crucial medium for the common factors to operate, that most models of common factors define interactions between multiple variables (including but not limited to therapeutic relationship variables), and that some models of common factors provide evidence-based explanations for the mechanisms of the proposed common factors.
- Some sources summarizing common factors theory include: Carr 2008, pp. 49–67; Imel & Wampold 2008; McAleavey & Castonguay 2015; Wampold & Imel 2015
- Chambless & Ollendick 2001
- Boswell et al. 2014, p. 118; this conclusion is also found in, for example, Butler & Strupp 1986, Arkowitz 1995, McAleavey & Castonguay 2015
- Carr 2008, p. 53
- Rosenzweig 1936, Rosenzweig 1940; Duncan 2002, p. 10; Lisa Wallner Samstag has argued that Saul Rosenzweig's contribution to common factors theory has often been misunderstood (Samstag 2002)
- Dollard & Miller 1950; more recently, Warren Tryon has championed learning as a common factor, e.g. Tryon & Tryon 2011, p. 152: "Therapists, and the therapeutic approaches that currently divide us, differ only with regard to what is to be learned and how it is to be acquired... This makes learning and memory basic to our science and profession and should motivate us to search for mechanisms that underlie all effective psychological interventions..."
- Garfield 1957; Duncan 2002, p. 14
- Rogers 1957; 50 years later, in 2007, a series of 13 articles reviewed Rogers' 1957 article; some of those articles argued that Rogers' "sufficient conditions" are not common factors: "Special section: The necessary and sufficient conditions at the half century mark". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 44 (3): 239–299.
- Frank & Frank 1991; the legacy of Frank's work is discussed in Alarcón & Frank 2011
- See also Frank 1971, p. 350: "A historical overview of Western psychotherapy reveals that the dominant psychotherapeutic approach of an era reflects contemporary cultural attitudes and values, and that the same techniques (e.g., abreaction) reappear under new names. Common to all psychotherapies are (a) an emotionally charged, confiding relationship; (b) a therapeutic rationale accepted by patient and therapist; (c) provision of new information by precept, example and self-discovery; (d) strengthening of the patient's expectation of help; (e) providing the patient with success experiences; and (f) facilitation of emotional arousal. Prevalent forms of disability and their treatment include drug therapy for constitutional vulnerabilities, emotional support for environmental crises, spiritual guidance for existential anxieties, and therapeutic maneuvers to correct faulty perceptual and behavioral habits learned early in life. Only the latter form requires therapists trained in specific psychotherapeutic methods."
- Luborsky, Singer & Luborsky 1975
- The question of whether all psychotherapies are all roughly equally effective (known as the Dodo bird verdict) and the question of whether all effective psychotherapies share common factors (known as common factors theory) are two different questions: "Though many authors view outcome equivalence as the main reason to study common factors in psychotherapy, we cheerfully disagree. Regardless of outcome, it is noncontroversial to say that psychotherapies of many origins share several features of process and content, and it follows that better understanding the patterns of these commonalities may be an important part of better understanding the effects of psychotherapies. That is, irrespective of whether some psychotherapies are equivalent to others in symptomatic outcome, understanding what part of clients' improvement is due to factors that are shared by several approaches appears to us to be a conceptually and clinically important question." (McAleavey & Castonguay 2015, p. 294)
- Eysenck 1952
- For example: Smith & Glass 1977; Lipsey & Wilson 1993; Carr 2008
- For an overview of the work of some prominent psychotherapy researchers who have explored this question, see: Castonguay et al. 2010
- Goldfried 1982
- Goldfried 1982, pp. 3–49
- McAleavey & Castonguay 2015, p. 298
- Prochaska, DiClemente & Norcross 1992, p. 1107
- Orlinsky & Howard 1986
- Grencavage & Norcross 1990
- Beutler & Clarkin 1990
- Beutler, Moleiro & Talebi 2002
- Lambert 1992
- Duncan, Hubble & Miller 2010
- Wampold & Imel 2015, ch. 1
- Wampold & Imel 2015
- For example: Sprenkle & Blow 2004; Davis & Piercy 2007; Blow et al. 2009; Sprenkle, Davis & Lebow 2009; Lebow 2014; Karam et al. 2015
- "Special section: Common factors". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 51 (4): 476–524.
- Hofmann & Barlow 2014, p. 511
- For example: Imel, Steyvers & Atkins 2015; Chen & Wojcik 2016
- For example: Tschacher, Junghan & Pfammatter 2014
- Weinberger & Rasco 2007
- Tracey et al. 2003, pp. 406–410
- Ecker, Ticic & Hulley 2012; Welling 2012; Lane et al. 2015; for a more hesitant view of the role of memory reconsolidation in psychotherapy see Alberini 2015 and the objections in some of the invited comments in Lane et al. 2015
- McAleavey & Castonguay 2015, pp. 301–302
- Imel & Wampold 2008, p. 255
- Laska, Gurman & Wampold 2014, p. 472
- Kazdin 2005; Kazdin 2009
- Imel & Wampold 2008, p. 261
- Imel & Wampold 2008, pp. 256–258
- Imel & Wampold 2008, pp. 258–260
- Alarcón, Renato D; Frank, Julia, eds. (2011). The psychotherapy of hope: the legacy of Persuasion and healing. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 9781421403045. OCLC 706784241.
- Alberini, Cristina M (April 2015). "Commentary on Tuch". Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association. 63 (2): 317–330. doi:10.1177/0003065115579720. PMID 25922379.
- Arkowitz, Hal (March 1995). "Common factors or processes of change in psychotherapy?". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 2 (1): 94–100. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2850.1995.tb00031.x.
- Beutler, Larry E; Clarkin, John F (1990). Systematic treatment selection: toward targeted therapeutic interventions. Brunner/Mazel integrative psychotherapy series. 3. New York: Brunner/Mazel. ISBN 0876305761. OCLC 20826889.
- Beutler, Larry E; Moleiro, Carla; Talebi, Hani (October 2002). "How practitioners can systematically use empirical evidence in treatment selection". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 58 (10): 1199–1212. doi:10.1002/jclp.10106. PMID 12357437.
- Blow, Adrian J; Morrison, Nancy C; Tamaren, Karen; Wright, Kristin; Schaafsma, Melanie; Nadaud, Alison (July 2009). "Change processes in couple therapy: an intensive case analysis of one couple using a common factors lens". Journal of Marital & Family Therapy. 35 (3): 350–368. doi:10.1111/j.1752-0606.2009.00122.x.
- Boswell, James F; Sharpless, Brian A; Greenberg, Leslie S; Heatherington, Laurie; Huppert, Jonathan D; Barber, Jacques P; Goldfried, Marvin R; Castonguay, Louis G (2014). "Schools of psychotherapy and the beginnings of a scientific approach". In Barlow, David H. The Oxford handbook of clinical psychology. Oxford library of psychology (Updated ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 98–127. ISBN 9780199328710. OCLC 874118501.
- Butler, Stephen F; Strupp, Hans H (1986). "Specific and nonspecific factors in psychotherapy: a problematic paradigm for psychotherapy research". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 23 (1): 30–40. doi:10.1037/h0085590.
- Carr, Alan (2008). What works with children, adolescents, and adults: a review of research on the effectiveness of psychotherapy. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415452915. OCLC 192042194.
- Castonguay, Louis G; Muran, J Christopher; Angus, Lynne E; Hayes, Jeffrey A; Ladany, Nicholas; Anderson, Timothy, eds. (2010). Bringing psychotherapy research to life: understanding change through the work of leading clinical researchers. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. ISBN 9781433807749. OCLC 463855600.
- Chambless, Dianne L; Ollendick, Thomas H (February 2001). "Empirically supported psychological interventions: controversies and evidence" (PDF). Annual Review of Psychology. 52 (1): 685–716. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.685. PMID 11148322.
- Chen, Eric Evan; Wojcik, Sean P (December 2016). "A practical guide to big data research in psychology". Psychological Methods. 21 (4): 458–474. doi:10.1037/met0000111. PMID 27918178.
- Davis, Sean D; Piercy, Fred P (July 2007). "What clients of couple therapy model developers and their former students say about change, part II: model-independent common factors and an integrative framework". Journal of Marital & Family Therapy. 33 (3): 344–363. doi:10.1111/j.1752-0606.2007.00031.x. PMID 17598782.
- Dollard, John; Miller, Neal E (1950). Personality and psychotherapy: an analysis in terms of learning, thinking, and culture. McGraw-Hill publications in psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill. OCLC 964374.
- Ecker, Bruce; Ticic, Robin; Hulley, Laurel (2012). Unlocking the emotional brain: eliminating symptoms at their roots using memory reconsolidation. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415897167. OCLC 772112300.
- Eysenck, Hans J (October 1952). "The effects of psychotherapy: an evaluation". Journal of Consulting Psychology. 16 (5): 319–324. doi:10.1037/h0063633. PMID 13000035.
- Duncan, Barry L (March 2002). "The founder of common factors: a conversation with Saul Rosenzweig" (PDF). Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 12 (1): 10–31. doi:10.1037/1053-04184.108.40.206.
- Duncan, Barry L; Hubble, Mark A; Miller, Scott D, eds. (2010) . The heart & soul of change: delivering what works in therapy (2nd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. ISBN 9781433807091. OCLC 370605648.
- Frank, Jerome D (July 1971). "Therapeutic factors in psychotherapy". American Journal of Psychotherapy. 25 (3): 350–361. PMID 4936109.
- Frank, Jerome D; Frank, Julia (1991) . Persuasion and healing: a comparative study of psychotherapy (3rd ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0801840678. OCLC 21764135.
- Garfield, Sol L (1957). Introductory clinical psychology: an overview of the functions, methods, and problems of contemporary clinical psychology. New York: Macmillan. OCLC 1458147.
- Goldfried, Marvin R, ed. (1982). Converging themes in psychotherapy: trends in psychodynamic, humanistic, and behavioral practice. New York: Springer Pub. Co. ISBN 0826136214. OCLC 8169372.
- Grencavage, Lisa M; Norcross, John C (October 1990). "Where are the commonalities among the therapeutic common factors?" (PDF). Professional Psychology: Research and Practice. 21 (5): 372–378. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.21.5.372.
- Hofmann, Stefan G; Barlow, David H (December 2014). "Evidence-based psychological interventions and the common factors approach: the beginnings of a rapprochement?" (PDF). Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 51 (4): 510–513. doi:10.1037/a0037045.
- Imel, Zac E; Steyvers, Mark; Atkins, David C (March 2015). "Computational psychotherapy research: scaling up the evaluation of patient–provider interactions". Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 52 (1): 19–30. doi:10.1037/a0036841. PMID 24866972.
- Imel, Zac E; Wampold, Bruce E (2008). "The importance of treatment and the science of common factors in psychotherapy". In Brown, Steven D; Lent, Robert W. Handbook of counseling psychology (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 249–262. ISBN 9780470096222. OCLC 145942481.
- Karam, Eli A; Blow, Adrian J; Sprenkle, Douglas H; Davis, Sean D (April 2015). "Strengthening the systemic ties that bind: integrating common factors into marriage and family therapy curricula". Journal of Marital & Family Therapy. 41 (2): 136–149. doi:10.1111/jmft.12096. PMID 25382495.
- Kazdin, Alan E (June 2005). "Treatment outcomes, common factors, and continued neglect of mechanisms of change". Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. 12 (2): 184–188. doi:10.1093/clipsy.bpi023.
- Kazdin, Alan E (July 2009). "Understanding how and why psychotherapy leads to change". Psychotherapy Research. 19 (4–5): 418–428. doi:10.1080/10503300802448899. PMID 19034715.
- Lambert, Michael J (1992). "Psychotherapy outcome research: implications for integrative and eclectic therapists". In Norcross, John C; Goldfried, Marvin R. Handbook of psychotherapy integration (1st ed.). New York: Basic Books. pp. 94–129. ISBN 0465028799. OCLC 25547822.
- Lane, Richard D; Ryan, Lee; Nadel, Lynn; Greenberg, Leslie S (2015). "Memory reconsolidation, emotional arousal and the process of change in psychotherapy: new insights from brain science" (PDF). Behavioral and Brain Sciences. 38: e1. doi:10.1017/S0140525X14000041. PMID 24827452.
- Laska, Kevin M; Gurman, Alan S; Wampold, Bruce E (December 2014). "Expanding the lens of evidence-based practice in psychotherapy: a common factors perspective" (PDF). Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training. 51 (4): 467–481. doi:10.1037/a0034332.
- Lebow, Jay (2014). "Common factors". Couple and family therapy: an integrative map of the territory. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. pp. 113–128. doi:10.1037/14255-005. ISBN 9781433813627. OCLC 827119779.
- Lipsey, Mark W; Wilson, David B (December 1993). "The efficacy of psychological, educational, and behavioral treatment: confirmation from meta-analysis" (PDF). American Psychologist. 48 (12): 1181–1209. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.48.12.1181.
- Luborsky, Lester; Singer, Barton; Luborsky, Lise (August 1975). "Comparative studies of psychotherapies: is it true that everyone has won and all must have prizes?". Archives of General Psychiatry. 32 (8): 995–1008. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.1975.01760260059004.
- McAleavey, Andrew A; Castonguay, Louis G (2015). "The process of change in psychotherapy: common and unique factors". In Gelo, Omar CG; Pritz, Alfred; Rieken, Bernd. Psychotherapy research: foundations, process, and outcome. New York: Springer. pp. 293–310. doi:10.1007/978-3-7091-1382-0_15. ISBN 9783709113813. OCLC 900722269.
- Orlinsky, David E; Howard, Kenneth I (1986). "Process and outcome in psychotherapy". In Garfield, Sol L; Bergin, Allen E. Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (3rd ed.). New York: Wiley. pp. 311–381. ISBN 0471799955. OCLC 13425136.
- Prochaska, James O; DiClemente, Carlo C; Norcross, John C (September 1992). "In search of how people change: applications to addictive behaviors" (PDF). American Psychologist. 47 (9): 1102–1114. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.47.9.1102. PMID 1329589.
- Rogers, Carl R (April 1957). "The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change" (PDF). Journal of Consulting Psychology. 21 (2): 95–103. doi:10.1037/h0045357.
- Rosenzweig, Saul (July 1936). "Some implicit common factors in diverse methods of psychotherapy". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 6 (3): 412–415. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1936.tb05248.x.
- Rosenzweig, Saul (October 1940). "Areas of agreement in psychotherapy". American Journal of Orthopsychiatry. 10 (4): 703–704. doi:10.1111/j.1939-0025.1940.tb05736.x.
- Samstag, Lisa Wallner (March 2002). "The common versus unique factors hypothesis in psychotherapy research: did we misinterpret Rosenzweig?". Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 12 (1): 58–66. doi:10.1037/1053-04220.127.116.11.
- Smith, Mary L; Glass, Gene V (September 1977). "Meta-analysis of psychotherapy outcome studies" (PDF). American Psychologist. 32 (9): 752–760. doi:10.1037/0003-066X.32.9.752. PMID 921048.
- Sprenkle, Douglas H; Blow, Adrian J (April 2004). "Common factors and our sacred models". Journal of Marital & Family Therapy. 30 (2): 113–129. doi:10.1111/j.1752-0606.2004.tb01228.x.
- Sprenkle, Douglas H; Davis, Sean D; Lebow, Jay (2009). Common factors in couple and family therapy: the overlooked foundation for effective practice. New York: Guilford Press. ISBN 9781606233252. OCLC 310400353.
- Tracey, Terence GJ; Lichtenberg, James W; Goodyear, Rodney K; Claiborn, Charles D; Wampold, Bruce E (December 2003). "Concept mapping of therapeutic common factors" (PDF). Psychotherapy Research. 13 (4): 401–413. doi:10.1093/ptr/kpg041.
- Tryon, Warren W; Tryon, Georgiana Shick (February 2011). "No ownership of common factors" (PDF). American Psychologist. 66 (2): 151–152. doi:10.1037/a0021056. PMID 21299265.
- Tschacher, Wolfgang; Junghan, Ulrich Martin; Pfammatter, Mario (January 2014). "Towards a taxonomy of common factors in psychotherapy—results of an expert survey". Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy. 21 (1): 82–96. doi:10.1002/cpp.1822. PMID 23129553.
- Wampold, Bruce E; Imel, Zac E (2015) . The great psychotherapy debate: the evidence for what makes psychotherapy work (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780805857092. OCLC 227918397.
- Weinberger, Joel L; Rasco, Cristina (2007). "Empirically supported common factors". In Hofmann, Stefan G; Weinberger, Joel L. The art and science of psychotherapy. New York: Routledge. pp. 103–129. ISBN 0415952158. OCLC 71241861.
- Welling, Hans (June 2012). "Transformative emotional sequence: towards a common principle of change" (PDF). Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 22 (2): 109–136. doi:10.1037/a0027786.
Sources emphasizing learning as a common factor
- Basseches, Michael (2003). "Adult development and the practice of psychotherapy". In Demick, Jack; Andreoletti, Carrie. Handbook of adult development. Plenum series in adult development and aging. New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum. pp. 533–563. doi:10.1007/978-1-4615-0617-1_28. ISBN 0306467585. OCLC 49519013.
- Basseches, Michael; Mascolo, Michael F (2009). Psychotherapy as a developmental process. New York: Routledge. ISBN 0805857303. OCLC 244063508.
- Breger, Louis; McGaugh, James L (May 1965). "Critique and reformulation of 'learning-theory' approaches to psychotherapy and neurosis". Psychological Bulletin. 63 (5): 338–358. doi:10.1037/h0021788.
- Carey, Timothy A (March 2011). "Exposure and reorganization: the what and how of effective psychotherapy". Clinical Psychology Review. 31 (2): 236–248. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.04.004.
- Castonguay, Louis G; Hill, Clara E, eds. (2012). Transformation in psychotherapy: corrective experiences across cognitive behavioral, humanistic, and psychodynamic approaches. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. ISBN 9781433811593. OCLC 776999993.
- Curtis, Rebecca Coleman (January 2012). "New experiences and meanings: a model of change for psychoanalysis". Psychoanalytic Psychology. 29 (1): 81–98. doi:10.1037/a0025086.
- Harvey, Allison G; Watkins, Edward R; Mansell, Warren; Shafran, Roz (2004). Cognitive behavioural processes across psychological disorders: a transdiagnostic approach to research and treatment. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198528876. OCLC 55143988.
- Mahoney, Michael J (1991). Human change processes: the scientific foundations of psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0465031188. OCLC 22489415.
- Marmor, Judd (1962). "Psychoanalytic therapy as an educational process: common denominators in the therapeutic approaches of different psychoanalytic 'schools'". In Masserman, Jules H. Psychoanalytic education. Science and psychoanalysis. 5. New York: Grune & Stratton. pp. 286–299. OCLC 2546835.
- Scaturo, Douglas J (March 2010). "A tripartite learning conceptualization of psychotherapy: the therapeutic alliance, technical interventions, and relearning". American Journal of Psychotherapy. 64 (1): 1–27. PMID 20405762.
- Tryon, Warren W (2014). Cognitive neuroscience and psychotherapy: network principles for a unified theory. London: Elsevier/Academic Press. ISBN 9780124200715. OCLC 871061526.
- Tryon, Warren W (January 2010). "Learning as core of psychological science and clinical practice" (PDF). The Behavior Therapist. 33 (1): 10–12.
- Tryon, Warren W; Misurell, Justin R (December 2008). "Dissonance induction and reduction: a possible principle and connectionist mechanism for why therapies are effective". Clinical Psychology Review. 28 (8): 1297–1309. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2008.06.003.
Sources emphasizing other common factors
- Andersen, David T (Fall 2005). "Empathy, psychotherapy integration, and meditation: a Buddhist contribution to the common factors movement". Journal of Humanistic Psychology. 45 (4): 483–502. doi:10.1177/0022167805280264.
- Barlow, David H; Farchione, Todd J; Fairholme, Christopher P; Ellard, Kristen K; Boisseau, Christina L; Allen, Laura B; Ehrenreich-May, Jill (2011). Unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: therapist guide. Treatments that work. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199772667. OCLC 658536234.
- Barth, Richard P; Lee, Bethany R; Lindsey, Michael A; Collins, Kathryn S; Strieder, Frederick; Chorpita, Bruce F; Becker, Kimberly D; Sparks, Jacqueline A (January 2012). "Evidence-based practice at a crossroads: the timely emergence of common elements and common factors" (PDF). Research on Social Work Practice. 22 (1): 108–119. doi:10.1177/1049731511408440.
- Beitman, Bernard D; Soth, Angela M; Bumby, Nancy A (2005). "The future as an integrating force through the schools of psychotherapy". In Norcross, John C; Goldfried, Marvin R. Handbook of psychotherapy integration. Oxford series in clinical psychology (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 65–89. ISBN 0195165799. OCLC 54803644.
- DeFife, Jared A; Hilsenroth, Mark J (June 2011). "Starting off on the right foot: common factor elements in early psychotherapy process" (PDF). Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 21 (2): 172–191. doi:10.1037/a0023889.
- Levitt, Heidi M; Neimeyer, Robert A; Williams, Daniel C (March 2005). "Rules versus principles in psychotherapy: implications of the quest for universal guidelines in the movement for empirically supported treatments" (PDF). Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy. 35 (1): 117–129. doi:10.1007/s10879-005-0807-3.
- Levitt, Heidi M; Williams, Daniel C (May 2010). "Facilitating client change: principles based upon the experience of eminent psychotherapists". Psychotherapy Research. 20 (3): 337–352. doi:10.1080/10503300903476708.
- Martin, Jeffery R (December 1997). "Mindfulness: a proposed common factor". Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 7 (4): 291–312. doi:10.1023/B:JOPI.0000010885.18025.bc.
- Norcross, John C, ed. (2011) . Psychotherapy relationships that work: evidence-based responsiveness (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780199737208. OCLC 663370182.
- Rosenfeld, George W (2009). Beyond evidence-based psychotherapy: fostering the eight sources of change in child and adolescent treatment. Counseling and psychotherapy. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415993357. OCLC 221961147.
- Stangier, Ulrich; Consbruch, Katrin Von; Schramm, Elisabeth; Heidenreich, Thomas (May 2010). "Common factors of cognitive therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy in the treatment of social phobia". Anxiety, Stress & Coping. 23 (3): 289–301. doi:10.1080/10615800903180239. PMID 19662551.
- Stricker, George; Gold, Jerold R, eds. (2006). A casebook of psychotherapy integration. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. ISBN 1591474051. OCLC 61879691.
Sources emphasizing specific or unique factors
- Beutler, Larry E; Forrester, Bryan; Gallagher-Thompson, Delores; Thompson, Larry; Tomlins, Joseph B (September 2012). "Common, specific, and treatment fit variables in psychotherapy outcome". Journal of Psychotherapy Integration. 22 (3): 255–281. doi:10.1037/a0029695.
- Bickman, Leonard; Lyon, Aaron R; Wolpert, Miranda (May 2016). "Achieving precision mental health through effective assessment, monitoring, and feedback processes". Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research. 43 (3): 271–276. doi:10.1007/s10488-016-0718-5. PMID 26887937.
- Castonguay, Louis G; Beutler, Larry E, eds. (2006). Principles of therapeutic change that work. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195156846. OCLC 57311478.
- Coughlin, Patricia Ann (11 November 2011). "The case for specific factors in psychotherapy outcome". YouTube. Retrieved 8 February 2015.
- Dudley, Robert; Kuyken, Willem; Padesky, Christine A (March 2011). "Disorder specific and trans-diagnostic case conceptualisation". Clinical Psychology Review. 31 (2): 213–224. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.07.005.
- Greenberg, Leslie S; Warwar, Warwar, Serine H; Malcolm, Wanda M (April 2008). "Differential effects of emotion-focused therapy and psychoeducation in facilitating forgiveness and letting go of emotional injuries". Journal of Counseling Psychology. 55 (2): 185–196. doi:10.1037/0022-018.104.22.168.
- Lohr, Jeffrey M; DeMaio, Christine; McGlynn, F Dudley (July 2003). "Specific and nonspecific treatment factors in the experimental analysis of behavioral treatment efficacy". Behavior Modification. 27 (3): 322–368. doi:10.1177/0145445503027003005. PMID 12841588.
- Lohr, Jeffrey M; Olatunji, Bunmi O; Parker, Lisa; DeMaio, Christine (July 2005). "Experimental analysis of specific treatment factors: efficacy and practice implications". Journal of Clinical Psychology. 61 (7): 819–834. doi:10.1002/jclp.20128. PMID 15827994.
- McCarthy, Kevin S (December 2009). Specific, common, and unintended factors in psychotherapy: descriptive and correlational approaches to what creates change (Ph.D.). Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania. OCLC 727897457.
- McCarthy, Kevin S; Barber, Jacques P (January 2009). "The multitheoretical list of therapeutic interventions (MULTI): initial report". Psychotherapy Research. 19 (1): 96–113. doi:10.1080/10503300802524343. PMID 19065285.
- Norton, Peter J; Barrera, Terri L (October 2012). "Transdiagnostic versus diagnosis-specific CBT for anxiety disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled non-inferiority trial". Depression and Anxiety. 29 (10): 874–882. doi:10.1002/da.21974. PMC . PMID 22767410.
- Norton, Peter J; Barrera, Terri L; Mathew, Amanda R; Chamberlain, Lance D; Szafranski, Derek D; Reddy, Radhika; Smith, Angela H (February 2013). "Effect of transdiagnostic CBT for anxiety disorders on comorbid diagnoses". Depression and Anxiety. 30 (2): 168–173. doi:10.1002/da.22018. PMID 23212696.
- Oei, Tian PS; Shuttlewood, Greg J (September 1997). "Comparison of specific and nonspecific factors in a group cognitive therapy for depression". Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry. 28 (3): 221–231. doi:10.1016/S0005-7916(97)00019-0. PMID 9327301.
- Oei, Tian PS; Shuttlewood, Greg J (1996). "Specific and nonspecific factors in psychotherapy: a case of cognitive therapy for depression". Clinical Psychology Review. 16 (2): 83–103. doi:10.1016/0272-7358(96)00009-8.