Commonsense knowledge (artificial intelligence)

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In artificial intelligence research, commonsense knowledge consists of facts about the everyday world, such as "Lemons are sour", that all humans are expected to know. The first AI program to address common sense knowledge was Advice Taker in 1959 by John McCarthy [1].

It is currently an unsolved problem in Artificial General Intelligence and is a focus of the Paul Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence.[2] Commonsense knowledge can underpin a commonsense reasoning process, to attempt inferences such as "You might bake a cake because you want people to eat the cake." A natural language processing process can be attached to the commonsense knowledge base to allow the knowledge base to attempt to answer commonsense questions about the world.[3] Common sense knowledge also helps to solve problems in the face of incomplete information. Using widely held beliefs about everyday objects, or common sense knowledge, AI systems make common sense assumptions or default assumptions about the unknown similar to the way people do. In an AI system or in english, this is expressed as 'Normally P holds', 'Usually P' or 'Typically P so Assume P'. For example if we know the fact 'tweety is a bird' , because we know the commonly held belief about birds, Typically Birds Fly, without knowing anything else about tweety, we may reasonably assume the fact that 'tweety can fly.' As more knowledge of the world is discovered or learned over time, the AI system can revise its assumptions about tweety using a truth maintenance process. If we later learn that 'tweety is a penguin' then truth maintenance revises this assumption because we also know 'penguins do not fly'.

Commonsense reasoning[edit]

Commonsense reasoning simulates the human ability to make presumptions about the type and essence of ordinary situations they encounter every day, including time, missing or incomplete information and cause and effect. The ability to explain cause and effect is an important aspect of explainable AI. Compared with humans, all existing computer programs that attempt human-level AI perform extremely poorly on modern "commonsense reasoning" benchmark tests such as the Winograd Schema Challenge.[4] The problem of attaining human-level competency at "commonsense knowledge" tasks is considered to probably be "AI complete" (that is, solving it would require the ability to synthesize a fully human-level intelligence),[5][6] although some oppose this notion and believe compassionate intelligence is also required for human-level AI.[1] Common sense reasoning has been applied successfully in more limited domains such as automated diagnosis[7] or analysis[8].

Applications[edit]

Around 2013, MIT researchers developed BullySpace, an extension of the commonsense knowledgebase ConceptNet, to catch taunting social media comments. BullySpace included over 200 semantic assertions based around stereotypes, to help the system infer that comments like "Put on a wig and lipstick and be who you really are" are more likely to be an insult if directed at a boy than a girl.[9][10][11]

ConceptNet has also been used by chatbots[12] and by computers that compose original fiction.[13] At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, common sense knowledge was used in an intelligent software agent to detect violations of a comprehensive nuclear test ban treaty.[14]

Data[edit]

As an example, as of 2012 ConceptNet includes these 21 language-independent relations:[15]

  • IsA
  • UsedFor
  • HasA
  • CapableOf
  • Desires
  • CreatedBy ("cake" can be creating by "baking")
  • PartOf
  • Causes
  • LocatedNear
  • AtLocation (Somewhere a "cook" can be is a "restaurant")
  • DefinedAs
  • SymbolOf (X represents Y)
  • ReceivesAction ("cake" can be "eaten")
  • HasPrerequisite (X can't do Y unless A does B)
  • MotivatedByGoal (You would "bake" because you want to "eat")
  • CausesDesire ("baking" makes you want to "follow recipe")
  • MadeOf
  • HasFirstSubevent (The first thing required when you're doing X is for entity Y to do Z)
  • HasSubevent ("eat" has subevent "swallow")
  • HasLastSubevent

Commonsense knowledge bases[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "PROGRAMS WITH COMMON SENSE". www-formal.stanford.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-11. 
  2. ^ "Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence to Pursue Common Sense for AI | Paul Allen". Paul Allen. Retrieved 2018-04-11. 
  3. ^ Liu, Hugo, and Push Singh. "ConceptNet—a practical commonsense reasoning tool-kit." BT technology journal 22.4 (2004): 211-226.
  4. ^ "The Winograd Schema Challenge". cs.nyu.edu. Retrieved 9 January 2018. 
  5. ^ Yampolskiy, Roman V. "AI-Complete, AI-Hard, or AI-Easy-Classification of Problems in AI." MAICS. 2012.
  6. ^ Andrich, C, Novosel, L, and Hrnkas, B. (2009). Common Sense Knowledge. Information Search and Retrieval, 2009.
  7. ^ "A theory of diagnosis from first principles". Artificial Intelligence. 32 (1): 57–95. 1987-04-01. doi:10.1016/0004-3702(87)90062-2. ISSN 0004-3702. 
  8. ^ "Cooperating agents for 3-D scientific data interpretation - IEEE Journals & Magazine". ieeexplore.ieee.org. Retrieved 2018-04-12. 
  9. ^ Bazelon, Emily (March 2013). "How to Stop the Bullies". The Atlantic. Retrieved 9 January 2018. 
  10. ^ Dinakar, Karthik; Jones, Birago; Havasi, Catherine; Lieberman, Henry; Picard, Rosalind (1 September 2012). "Common Sense Reasoning for Detection, Prevention, and Mitigation of Cyberbullying". ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems. 2 (3): 1–30. doi:10.1145/2362394.2362400. 
  11. ^ "AI systems could fight cyberbullying". New Scientist. 27 June 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2018. 
  12. ^ "'I Believe That It Will Become Perfectly Normal for People to Have Sex With Robots'". Newsweek. 23 October 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2018. 
  13. ^ "Told by a robot: Fiction by storytelling computers". New Scientist. 24 October 2014. Retrieved 9 January 2018. 
  14. ^ "An intelligent assistant for nuclear test ban treaty verification - IEEE Journals & Magazine". ieeexplore.ieee.org. Retrieved 2018-04-12. 
  15. ^ Speer, Robert, and Catherine Havasi. "Representing General Relational Knowledge in ConceptNet 5." LREC. 2012.