Common tree frog

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Common tree frog
Female Polypedates leucomystax (KU 330233) from the crater of Mt. Cagua - ZooKeys-266-001-g040.jpg
Common tree frog (female)
Polyp leucom M 050408 041 ipb.jpg
Adult at Darmaga (Bogor Regency, West Java, Indonesia)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Rhacophoridae
Genus: Polypedates
Species: P. leucomystax
Binomial name
Polypedates leucomystax
(Gravenhorst, 1829)
  • Hyla leucomystax Gravenhorst, 1829
  • Polypedates rugosus Duméril & Bibron, 1841
  • Polypedates teraiensis (Dubois, 1987 "1986")

Polypedates leucomystax is a species in the shrub frog family Rhacophoridae. It is known under numerous common names, including common tree frog, four-lined tree frog, golden tree frog[2] or striped tree frog. Many past authors have united it with the common Indian tree frog in P. maculatus (or Rhacophorus maculatus, as was common in older times), but today they are generally considered distinct species. In its native range, it is also called "white-lipped tree frog", but this name is otherwise applied to a species of true tree frogs (family Hylidae).

Polypedates leucomystax is not considered a threatened species by the IUCN.[1] It is in fact a species complex containing various cryptic species within it.


P. leucomystax is found in Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Vietnam, and possibly Bhutan. It has been introduced to Japan.

The Polypedates leucomystax complex began diverging during the Pliocene, and spread quickly after the Pleistocene due to human activity.[3]

The range of P. leucomystax has recently expanded in the Philippines and Indonesia due to the widespread conversion of forests into agricultural-use land. It is also frequently found in trans-island agricultural shipments. Lineages on the Indochina mainland are more diverse.[4]

In Indonesia, it has been found throughout the archipelago in Borneo, Mentawai, Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, Bali, Lombok, Natuna Islands, Anambas Islands, Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, and Timor, and has also been introduced to Papua. In Japan, where it has been introduced, it is found on the islands of Okinawa, Tonaki, Kurima, Miyako, Ie, Iheya, Izena, Sesoko, and Yabuchi.[1]

4 major haplotype clades of P. leucomystax have been recognized by Brown, et al. (2010),[4] with the clades other than the southern Sunda region clade likely to be cryptic species.

Divergent varieties that are either P. cf. leucomystax or P. cf. megacephalus have been found in southern China (including Hainan) and Vietnam.[4]


Its natural habitats are subtropical or tropical dry forests, subtropical or tropical moist lowland forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, subtropical or tropical moist shrubland, subtropical or tropical seasonally wet or flooded lowland grassland, rivers, intermittent rivers, freshwater lakes, intermittent freshwater lakes, freshwater marshes, intermittent freshwater marshes, freshwater springs, rocky shores, coastal freshwater lagoons, arable land, pastureland, plantations, rural gardens, urban areas, water storage areas, ponds, aquaculture ponds, irrigated land, seasonally flooded agricultural land, and introduced vegetation.

In captivity[edit]

This species of tree frog is commonly kept in captivity in vivariums and terrariums by both hobbyists and professional.[2]


  1. ^ a b c Diesmos, A., et al. (2004). Polypedates leucomystax. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. Archived June 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.. Downloaded on 01 December 2013.
  2. ^ a b "Golden Tree Frog (Polypedates leucomystax)". amphibiancare. October 31, 2009. Retrieved July 24, 2016. 
  3. ^ KURAISHI, N., MATSUI, M., HAMIDY, A., BELABUT, D. M., AHMAD, N., PANHA, S., SUDIN, A., YONG, H. S., JIANG, J.-P., OTA, H., THONG, H. T. and NISHIKAWA, K. (2013), Phylogenetic and taxonomic relationships of the Polypedates leucomystax complex (Amphibia). Zoologica Scripta, 42: 54–70. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2012.00562.x
  4. ^ a b c Brown, R. M., C W. Linkem, C. D. Siler, J. Sukumaran J. A. Esselstyn, A. C. Diesmos, D. T. Iskandar, D. Bickford, B. J. Evans, J. A. McGuire, L. Grismer, J. Supriatna, and N. Andayani. 2010. Phylogeography and historical demography of Polypedates leucomystax in the islands of Indonesia and the Philippines: evidence for recent human-mediated range expansion? Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 57:598–619

External links[edit]

Media related to Polypedates leucomystax at Wikimedia Commons