Commonwealth of Nations membership criteria
Commonwealth of Nations membership criteria are the corpus of requirements that members and prospective members must meet to be allowed to participate in the Commonwealth of Nations. The criteria have been altered by a series of documents issued over the past eighty-two years.
The most important of these documents were the Statute of Westminster (1931), the London Declaration (1949), the Singapore Declaration (1971), the Harare Declaration (1991), the Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme (1995), the Edinburgh Declaration (1997), and the Kampala Communiqué (2007). New members of the Commonwealth must abide by certain criteria that arose from these documents, the most important of which are the Harare principles and the Edinburgh criteria.
The Harare principles require all members of the Commonwealth, old and new, to abide by certain political principles, including democracy and respect for human rights. These can be enforced upon current members, who may be suspended or expelled for failure to abide by them. To date, Fiji, Nigeria, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe have been suspended on these grounds; Zimbabwe later withdrew.
The foremost of the Edinburgh criteria requires new members to have either constitutional or administrative ties to at least one current member of the Commonwealth of Nations. Traditionally, new Commonwealth members had ties to the United Kingdom. The Edinburgh criteria arose from the 1995 accession of Mozambique, at the time the only member that was never part of the British Empire (in whole or part). The Edinburgh criteria have been reviewed, and were revised at the 2007 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), allowing the admission of Rwanda at the 2009 CHOGM.
- 1 History
- 2 Prospective members
- 3 Footnotes
- 4 External links
The formation of the Commonwealth of Nations is dated back to the Statute of Westminster, an Act of the British Parliament passed on 11 December 1931. The Statute established the independence of the Dominions, creating a group of equal members where, previously, there was one (the United Kingdom) paramount. The solitary condition of membership of the embryonic Commonwealth was that a state be a Dominion. Thus, the independence of Pakistan (1947), India (1947), and Sri Lanka (1948) saw the three countries join the Commonwealth as independent monarchies. On the other hand, Burma (1948) and Israel (1948) did not join the Commonwealth, as they chose to become republics. The membership of Ireland lapsed when it unambiguously became a republic in 1949.
With India on the verge of promulgating a republican constitution, the 1949 Commonwealth Prime Ministers Conference was dominated by the impending departure of over half of the Commonwealth's population. To avoid such a fate, Canadian Prime Minister Louis St. Laurent proposed that republics be allowed to remain in the Commonwealth, provided that they recognise King George VI as 'Head of the Commonwealth'. Known as the London Declaration, this agreement thus established the only formalised rule as being that members must recognise the Head of the Commonwealth. The arrangement prompted suggestions that other countries, such as France, Israel, and Norway, join. However, until Western Samoa joined in 1970, only recently independent countries would accede.
The first statement of the political values of the Commonwealth of Nations was issued at the 1961 conference, at which the members declared that racial equality would be one of the cornerstones of the new Commonwealth, at a time when the organisation's ranks were being swelled by new African and Caribbean members. The immediate result of this was the withdrawal of South Africa's re-application, which it was required to lodge before becoming a republic, as its government's apartheid policies clearly contradicted the principle.
Further political values and principles of the Commonwealth were affirmed in Singapore on 22 January 1971, at the first Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM). The fourteen points clarified the political freedom of its members, and dictated the core principles of the Commonwealth: world peace, liberty, human rights, equality, and free trade. However, neither the terms nor the spirit of the Declaration were binding, and several openly flouted it; despite little conformity, only Fiji was ever expelled for breaching these tenets (on 15 October 1987, following the second coup of that year).
The Harare Declaration, issued on 20 October 1991 in Harare, Zimbabwe, reaffirmed the principles laid out in Singapore, particularly in the light of the ongoing dismantling of apartheid in South Africa. The Declaration put emphasis on human rights and democracy by detailing these principles once more:
The Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme, issued on 12 November 1995 at the Millbrook Resort, near Queenstown, New Zealand, clarified the Commonwealth's position on the Harare Declaration. The document introduced compulsion upon its members, with strict guidelines to be followed in the event of breaching its rules. These included but were not limited to expulsion from the Commonwealth. Adjudication was left to the newly created Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group (CMAG).
At the same CHOGM, the Programme was enforced for the first time, as Nigeria was suspended. On 19 December 1995, the CMAG found that the suspension was in line with the Programme, and also declared its intent on enforcing the Programme in other cases (particularly Sierra Leone and The Gambia). On 29 May 1999, the day after the inauguration of Nigeria's first democratically elected President since the end of military rule, Olusẹgun Ọbasanjọ, the country's suspension was lifted, on the advice of the CMAG.
In 1995, Mozambique joined the Commonwealth, becoming the first member to have never had a constitutional link with the United Kingdom or another Commonwealth member. Concerns that this would allow open-ended expansion of the Commonwealth and dilute its historic ties prompted the 1995 CHOGM to launch the Inter-Governmental Group on Criteria for Commonwealth Membership, to report at the 1997 CHOGM, to be held in Edinburgh, Scotland. The group decided that, in future, new members would be limited to those with constitutional association with an existing Commonwealth member.
In addition to this new rule, the former rules were consolidated into a single document. They had been prepared for the High Level Appraisal Group set up at the 1989 CHOGM, but not publicly announced until 1997. These requirements, which remain the same today, are that members must:
- accept and comply with the Harare principles.
- be fully sovereign states.
- recognise Queen Elizabeth II as the Head of the Commonwealth.
- accept the English language as the means of Commonwealth communication.
- respect the wishes of the general population vis-à-vis Commonwealth membership.
On the advice of Secretary-General Don McKinnon, the 2005 CHOGM, held in Valletta, Malta, decided to re-examine the Edinburgh criteria. The Committee on Commonwealth Membership reported at the 2007 CHOGM, held in Kampala, Uganda. According to Don McKinnon, the members of the Commonwealth decided in principle to expand the membership of the organisation to include countries without linkages to the Commonwealth, but Eduardo del Buey stated that it would still take some time until the criteria are reformed. Outstanding applications as of the 2007 meeting included former Belgian colony Rwanda (application submitted in 2003 and approved in 2009), the former French colonies of Algeria and Madagascar, and the former British colony of Yemen and condominium of Sudan.
The revised requirements stated that:
- (a) an applicant country should, as a general rule, have had a historic constitutional association with an existing Commonwealth member, save in exceptional circumstances;
- (b) in exceptional circumstances, applications should be considered on a case-by-case basis;
- (c) an applicant country should accept and comply with Commonwealth fundamental values, principles, and priorities as set out in the 1971 Declaration of Commonwealth Principles and contained in other subsequent Declarations;
- (d) an applicant country must demonstrate commitment to: democracy and democratic processes, including free and fair elections and representative legislatures; the rule of law and independence of the judiciary; good governance, including a well-trained public service and transparent public accounts; and protection of human rights, freedom of expression, and equality of opportunity;
- (e) an applicant country should accept Commonwealth norms and conventions, such as the use of the English language as the medium of inter-Commonwealth relations, and acknowledge Queen Elizabeth II as the Head of the Commonwealth; and
- (f) new members should be encouraged to join the Commonwealth Foundation, and to promote vigorous civil society and business organisations within their countries, and to foster participatory democracy through regular civil society consultations
Rwanda became the 54th nation to join the Commonwealth at the 2009 CHOGM. It became the second country (after Mozambique) not to have any historical ties with the United Kingdom. Rwanda had been a colony of Germany in the 19th century and of Belgium for the first half of the 20th century. Later ties with France were severed during the 1994 Rwandan Genocide. President Paul Kagame also accused it of supporting the killings and expelled a number of French organisations from the country. In recent years, English has replaced French as the official language in parts of Rwanda. Prime Minister of Malaysia Najib Tun Razak stated that Rwanda's application "was boosted by its commitment towards democracy as well as the values espoused by the Commonwealth". Consideration for its admission was also seen as an "exceptional circumstance" by the Commonwealth Secretariat.
The following states would be eligible under the Edinburgh criteria (but not necessarily under the Harare criteria):
- Afghanistan: British protectorate or other control for much of 1823 to 1919.
- Bahrain: British protectorate until 1971.
- Bhutan: Protectorate of British India from 1910 to 1947.
- China: Part of its territory (Hong Kong) was a United Kingdom colony until 1997. The British also leased and administered the port city of Weihai and surrounding territory of Weihaiwei between 1898 and 1930, which they called "Port Edward." Britain also had spheres of influence in Tibet, the Guangzhou district and Shanghai and also along the banks of the Yangtze river in the latter half of the 19th century up until 1900.
- Cuba: Western Cuba was under British control from 1762 until 1763.
- Egypt: British protectorate until 1922; English commonly used as a language of instruction and administration.
- Eritrea: administered by Britain under UN Mandate until 1951.
- France: During the Suez crisis in 1956 it was suggested that France join the Commonwealth to align their interests in the Middle East with those of the United Kingdom. The French Prime Minister, Guy Mollet, proposed that a Franco-British Union with common citizenship and Queen Elizabeth II as head of state. But Anthony Eden instead proposed that France join the Commonwealth with Commonwealth citizenship rights and recognising the Queen as the Head of the Commonwealth but this was rejected. Parts of France have been occupied by English forces and authority at times between 1066 to 1558. With the Angevin Empire from 1172 to 1242 which had partial or direct control of duchies Normandy, Aquitaine, Brittany and Gascony as well as various counties such as Anjou. The English crown dominated half of France until the Angevin Empire was lost by the mismanagement of King John. In 1216 the English rebel barons invited King Louis VIII the Lion of France to be King of England.This nearly became so until King John of England died and they chose his infant son to be Henry III instead. Years later Edward III through his French mother wanted claim of the French crown. But under Salic Law his claim was not legitimate thus starting the Hundred Years War. Scotland formed the Auld Alliance with France and Burgundy allied themselves with England. The English took Calais in 1346 and had great victories at the Battle of Crecy and the Battle of Poitiers. In 1415 after his spectacular victory at the Battle of Agincourt, The English king; Henry V was recognised as the heir apparent and regent of France at the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. He married Catherine of Valois and they had a son who was officially king of both England and France until the French drove the English out in 1453 leaving them only with Calais until finally taking that in 1558. From 1453 to 1801 all English and British kings claimed what was to become the "ghost title" of the Queen or King of France
- The Gambia: member of the Commonwealth until its withdrawal in 2013.
- Germany: British kings from 1714 to 1837 were also Electors and eventually Kings of Hanover, but it was politically divorced from the United Kingdom and soon the title was lost due to Salic Law when Queen Victoria came to the throne. During the Napoleonic Wars, Britain took the small but strategic island of Heligoland off Denmark who had fought with the Holy Roman Empire for its possession which it finally got in 1714. The British administered it from 1807 to 1890 when it was ceded to Germany with the Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty. After 1918 the German colonial empire was confiscated and former German colonies became the protectorates and nations of British Cameroons, British Togoland, Namibia, Nauru, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tanganyika and Papua New Guinea. Rwanda and Burundi were former German colonies that were ceded to Belgium in 1918. They have both made bids to join the Commonwealth; so far Rwanda has been successful. From 1945 to 1949 the British occupied and administered a zone that consisted of the states of Schleswig-Holstein, Lower Saxony, Hamburg, and North Rhine-Westphalia. From 1945 to 1990 a sector of West Berlin was administered by the British.
- Greece: In 1815 the Ionian Islands came under British protection Greece was founded as an independent state from the Ottoman Empire in 1825 and were ceded and annexed to Greece in 1862.They also administered the Dodecanese islands from 1945 to 1947 before being ceded to Greece.
- Haiti: Parts of its territory were under British control during the Haitian Revolution from 1793 until 1798.
- Honduras: The southern tip of its eastern coastline was part of the British occupied Mosquito Coast from 1638 to 1787 and from 1844 to 1860.
- Indonesia: The city of Bengkulu on the island of Sumatra from 1714 with trading post Fort Marlborough became a region known as British Bencoolen until 1824. The island of Java was in British hands from 1811 to 1814 until both territories were ceded to the Dutch. The legacy of former British occupation is that Indonesia is a "left hand driving" nation.
- Iraq: British Mandate of Mesopotamia until 1932.
- Ireland: the only country ever to secede from the United Kingdom; shared a monarch with England, then Scotland and England, later Great Britain and later the United Kingdom from 1177 to 1949; parliamentary ties with the parliament of England and later Great Britain from 1494 to 1782; a part of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1922; and a British Dominion from 1922 to 1937. Ireland was formerly a member of the Commonwealth, but its membership terminated when it declared itself a republic in 1949, prior to the London Declaration, which allowed republics to remain in the Commonwealth.
- Israel: part of the British Mandate of Palestine until 1948. Israel's eligibility was declared in 2006 by the Commonwealth secretary-general.
- Japan:Between 1945 to 1952 British and Commonwealth forces occupied and administered the demilitarize the western prefectures of Shimane, Yamaguchi, Tottori, Okayama, Hiroshima and Shikoku Island, with headquarters in Kure.
- Jordan: part of the British Mandate of Palestine 1920–1921; protectorate 1921–1946.
- Kuwait: British protectorate until 1961.
- Libya: In 1943 the British administered the provinces of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica until 1951.
- Morocco: Between the years 1661 to 1684 the English occupied and administered the port-city of Tangier. This was part of the dowry that King Charles II received when he married Catherine of Braganza as a treaty he also received Bombay. However, due to administration costs and Moroccans living outside the walls wanting a return of the city, it was eventually abandoned.
- Myanmar: British Colony until 1948.
- Nicaragua: Its eastern coastline was part of the British occupied Mosquito Coast from 1638 to 1787 and from 1844 to 1860.
- Nepal: British protectorate until 1923.
- Oman: British protectorate of Muscat and Oman until 1971.
- Panama:In 1698 the Kingdom of Scotland wished to set up a colony called "Caledonia" in the Gulf of Darien in Panama. Due to poor management, divided leadership, lack of demand of trade goods, disease and epidemics as well as Spanish raids and blockades. The Darien scheme ended as a failure in 1700 which left Scotland in financial ruin.This was an important factor that brought about the Act of Union in 1707.
- Philippines: British occupation of Manila from 1762 until 1764; controlled by the United States from 1898-1946 (as the Commonwealth of the Philippines 1935-1946).
- Qatar: British protectorate until 1971.
- Senegal: British forces in the Seven Years' War captured this French settlement in particular the port of Saint-Louis in 1758. After more confrontation Senegal was ceded back to France as part of the Treaty of Paris in 1783.
- Somalia: Following World War II, Britain retained control of both British Somaliland and Italian Somaliland as protectorates.
- South Sudan: administered between 1899 and 1956, when it was a condominium of the United Kingdom and Egypt as part of Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. (South Sudan has applied to join the Commonwealth.)
- Sudan: Anglo-Egyptian condominium but a British colony in reality until 1956. (Sudan has applied to join the Commonwealth.)
- Suriname: English colony of Willoughbyland from 1650 to 1667 and controlled by the British from 1799 to 1816. In 2012 Suriname expressed plans to join the Commonwealth and the British government has made it a priority to provide guidance to Suriname in applying for Commonwealth membership
- United Arab Emirates: seven British protectorates, known collectively as the Trucial States, until 1971.
- United States: the original Thirteen Colonies, most US territory east of the Mississippi River, much of the former Red River Colony, and the former Oregon Country were all under British control until various dates ranging from 1776 to 1846; however, the US Constitution would prohibit US commonwealth membership.
- Uruguay: During the year of 1807 the British occupied the city of Montevideo.
- Yemen: South Yemen was a British colony (Aden) and British protectorates (Protectorate of South Arabia and the states, apart from Aden, in the Federation of South Arabia) until 1967. (Yemen has applied to join the Commonwealth.)
- Zimbabwe: member of the Commonwealth until 2003.
Secessionist movements and other territories
There are several secessionist movements and other sub-national territories that, were they to gain independence, would be eligible to join the Commonwealth. The following countries and territories would be eligible under the Edinburgh criteria (but not necessarily Harare) and have either expressed interest in joining or been considered for entry:
- Hong Kong: British Colony until 1997.
- Northern Ireland: constituent country of the United Kingdom, a member since the Commonwealth's foundation.
- Quebec: province of Canada, a member since the Commonwealth's foundation.
- Scotland: constituent country of the United Kingdom, a member since the Commonwealth's foundation.
- Somaliland: The state that came about through the breakaway from Somalia in 1991 and regards itself as the successor state of British Somalia has shown interest in joining the Commonwealth.
- Wales: constituent country of the United Kingdom, a member since the Commonwealth's foundation.
Newly movement for secession is by Sabah Sarawak Union (UK) for Sabah and Sarawak from Malaysia Federation.
- Crown dependencies ( Guernsey, Jersey, and Isle of Man): While their constitutional status bears some resemblance to that of the Commonwealth realms, the Crown dependencies are not members of the Commonwealth of Nations. They participate in the Commonwealth of Nations by virtue of their association with the United Kingdom, and participate in various Commonwealth institutions in their own right. For example, all three participate in the Commonwealth Parliamentary Association and the Commonwealth Games. All three Crown dependencies regard the existing situation as unsatisfactory and have lobbied for change. The States of Jersey have called on the UK Foreign Secretary to request that the Commonwealth Heads of Government "consider granting associate membership to Jersey and the other Crown Dependencies as well as any other territories at a similarly advanced stage of autonomy". Jersey has proposed that it be accorded "self-representation in all Commonwealth meetings; full participation in debates and procedures, with a right to speak where relevant and the opportunity to enter into discussions with those who are full members; and no right to vote in the Ministerial or Heads of Government meetings, which is reserved for full members". The States of Guernsey and the Government of the Isle of Man have made calls of a similar nature for a more integrated relationship with the Commonwealth, including more direct representation and enhanced participation in Commonwealth organisations and meetings, including Commonwealth Heads of Government Meetings.
- The British overseas territories of Anguilla, Bermuda, British Antarctic Territory, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Falkland Islands, Gibraltar, Montserrat, Pitcairn, Saint Helena, Ascension Island, Tristan da Cunha, and Turks and Caicos Islands, and other similar states in free association with New Zealand ( Niue, Tokelau, Cook Islands and Ross Dependency) and Australia ( Christmas Island, Coral Sea Islands, Heard and McDonald Islands, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Australian Antarctic Territory, and Norfolk Island). Many of these territories and associated states participate in the Commonwealth of Nations by virtue of their association with the United Kingdom, Australia, or New Zealand, and participate in various Commonwealth institutions in their own right, and are frequently listed as members of the Commonwealth by virtue of their relationship with these full member states.
The "Palestinian movement" is not a secessionist movement (as the territory concerned is not recognised as forming part of any State) nor a sub-national territory (for the same reason), but the "Palestinian Territories" may, if they achieve sovereignty, apply for membership:
- Palestine: the area comprising this non-member UN observer state was part of the British Mandate for Palestine until 1948. The State of Palestine has shown interest in joining the Commonwealth.
There are a range of other states that have expressed formal or informal interest in joining the Commonwealth or have merely made enquiries about membership (expressing no view on whether they wish to become members), despite not meeting the Edinburgh criteria as they are now. However, with the criteria being re-examined, they may be inclined to launch membership bids in the future:
- Algeria: has expressed interest.
- Cambodia has expressed interest
- Democratic Republic of the Congo
- Dominican Republic: In 2013 the Foreign Minister; Carlos Morales Troncoso made bids for his nation to join the Commonwealth.
- East Timor
- Madagascar: has expressed interest.
- Howden, Daniel (26 November 2009). "The Big Question: What is the Commonwealth's role, and is it relevant to global politics?". The Independent (London).
- Ireland's status was ill-defined between 1936 and 1949.
- "France and UK considered 1950s 'merger'". London: Guardian Unlimited. 15 January 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2007.
- "Kongebesøk i øyriket" (in Norwegian). Aftenposten. 26 October 2005. Archived from the original on 10 March 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2008.
- "Singapore Declaration of Commonwealth Principles 1971". Commonwealth Secretariat. 22 January 1971. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
- "Fiji Rejoins the Commonwealth". Commonwealth Secretariat. 30 September 1997. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
- "Harare Commonwealth Declaration, 1991". Commonwealth Secretariat. 1991-10-20. Retrieved 2006-09-16.
- "The Millbrook Commonwealth Action Programme on the Harare Declaration, 1995". Commonwealth Secretariat. 12 November 1995. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
- "First Meeting of the Commonwealth Ministerial Action Group on the Harare Declaration". Commonwealth Secretariat. 20 December 1995. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
- "Nigeria Resumes Full Commonwealth Membership". Commonwealth Secretariat. 18 May 1999. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
- "Edinburgh Communique, 1997". Commonwealth Secretariat. 27 October 1997. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
- McIntyre, W. David (April 2008). "The Expansion of the Commonwealth and the Criteria for Membership". Round Table 97 (395): 273–85. doi:10.1080/00358530801962089.
- Collinge, John (July 1996). "Criteria for Commonwealth Membership". Round Table 85 (339): 279–86. doi:10.1080/00358539608454314.
- te Velde-Ashworth, Victoria (10 October 2005). "The future of the modern Commonwealth: Widening vs. deepening?" (doc). Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
- "2005 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting: Final Communiqué". Commonwealth Secretariat. 27 November 2005. Retrieved 16 September 2006.
- Osike, Felix (24 November 2007). "Rwanda membership delayed". New Vision. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- 2007 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting: final communiqué
- Kron, Josh (28 November 2009). "Rwanda Joins Commonwealth". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- "Rwanda seeks to join Commonwealth". BBC News. 21 December 2006. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Ross, Will (27 November 2009). "What would the Commonwealth do for Rwanda?". BBC News. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Muin, Abdul; Majid, Abdul (29 November 2009). "Commonwealth Accepts Rwanda's Membership Bid". Bernama. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- "Rwanda: Joining the Commonwealth". The New Times (AllAfrica). 27 November 2009. Retrieved 29 November 2009.
- Mole, Stuart (July 1998). "Issues of Commonwealth membership". Round Table 87 (347): 307–12. doi:10.1080/00358539808454426.
- Report in the Telegraph: Israel and Palestine could join the Commonwealth.
- South Sudan on Track to Join Commonwealth.
- South Sudan Launches Bid to Join Commonwealth
- Suriname plans to join the Commonwealth
- Suriname eyeing membership of Commonwealth
- Worldwide Priority: Strengthening Guyana’s participation in the Commonwealth and providing guidance to Suriname as it considers applying for membership
- 1972 Cabinet Papers: Repartition - Still a Threat - By Ciaran Mulholland, Quote:Making Northern Ireland "an independent state within the Commonwealth" was also under active consideration.
- Burns, John F. (21 February 1992). "Montreal Journal; A Sovereign Quebec, He Says, Needn't Be Separe". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 June 2009.
[Mr. Parizeau] has even suggested that a sovereign Quebec might join the Commonwealth, the group of nations that were formerly British colonies.
- YOUR SCOTLAND, YOUR VOICE - Summary of the SNP White Paper on Scottish Independence, quote:Scotland would also be able to play a role in other global groups such as...the Commonwealth
- Independent Wales would be 39% richer, claims ex-MP, quote:Plaid has a long-term ambition for an independent Wales within the EU
- "Written evidence from States of Jersey". Chief Minister of Jersey. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "The role and future of the Commonwealth". House of Commons. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Written evidence from the States of Guernsey". Policy Council of Guernsey. Retrieved 18 March 2013.
- "Appendix B: The Commonwealth of Nations" Library of Congress Federal Research Division country studies: Area handbook series - Caribbean islands. Retrieved 10 August 2013.
- Burundi plans to become Commonwealth member
- "Alkatiri Raises Possibility of Commonwealth Membership". East Timor and Indonesia Action Network. 6 November 2001. Retrieved 5 November 2006.
- "Libertarianism has made Georgia rich and free". London: Daily Telegraph - Dan Hannan. 17 February 2010. Retrieved 18 February 2010.
- Velde-Ashworth, Victoria. "Commonwealth Membership and the Patterson Commission Report: In the light of the Kampala Communiqué" (doc). Commonwealth Policy Studies Unit. Retrieved 6 December 2009.