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Communications in the State of Palestine

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Ooredoo Palestine advertisement board in Surda

Communications in the State of Palestine occur across many media, including telephone, radio, television, and internet.[1] The telecom infrastructure is growing at a very rapid pace and continually being updated and expanded.

Internet and Telephone[edit]

There are several palestinian internet and telephone companies, major ones are:


The Israeli Ministry of Communications has control over the cellular communications and technology Palestinians may build, which has been limited to 2G.[5] Israeli bombardment, electricity blockades and fuel shortages have caused the near-total collapse of Gaza’s largest cell network providers.[6] There are two mobile operators in the Palestinian territories: Jawwal with 2.9m customers,[7] and Ooredoo with 400,000 customers.


There are 25 licensed FM stations broadcasting in the Palestinian territories.

FM Stations

  • Ajyal only has 8 stations - www.arn.ps
  • Raya - www.raya.fm

On October 1, 1999, the International Telecommunication Union assigned the call block E4A through E4Z to Palestine. Aircraft tail numbers, amateur radio stations, vessels at sea and other radio facilities licensed by the Palestinian Authority will carry call signs beginning with "E4."


In 2008 opennet stated "Access to Internet in the Palestinian territories remains relatively open, although social filtering of sexually explicit content has been implemented in Gaza. Internet in the West Bank remains almost entirely unfiltered, save for a single news Web site that was banned for roughly six months starting in late 2008. Media freedom is constrained in Gaza and the West Bank by the political upheaval and internal conflict as well as by the Israeli forces."[8]

On 23 April 2012, EFF published a list of websites censored by some Palestinian ISPs.[9] That same day, the Tor Project announced that they are witnessing politically motivated censorship in Bethlehem.[10]

In May 2012, the Ma'an news agency stated "The Palestinian Authority has quietly instructed Internet providers to block access to news websites whose reporting is critical of President Mahmoud Abbas."[11]


Palestine Post is responsible for providing postal service in West Bank, while the Ministry of Telecom and Information Technology of the State of Palestine is responsible for postal service in the Gaza Strip. Generally, international letters addressed to West Bank are routed through both Jordan and Israel and the international letters addressed to Gaza are routed through only Israel. Delays often happen during sending and receiving letters from Palestine. Without these two national postal authorities, no international courier service would be serving the areas.[citation needed]



2023 Israel–Gaza war[edit]

During the 2023 Israel–Gaza war, telecommunications company Paltel kept its networks online for most of the first six weeks. The company has a network operations center in Ramallah, West Bank. As of 2023, Paltel has 750 staff in Gaza, and they perform maintenance tasks such as repairing and refueling generators when an outage is detected. Five Paltel staff have been killed in the conflict. Paltel networks are essential for coordinating emergency services and humanitarian aid, and for documenting conditions inside Gaza.[12]

In response to previous wars in Gaza, Paltel has made preparations and has many contingencies to help keep its networks online. It buries its cables very deep (up to 26 feet), and has multiple power sources available such as batteries, solar panels, and generators. Ultimately, Paltel is reliant on Israel, because its two main fiber optic cables pass through Israel. Israel has turned off telecommunications by interfering with these cables twice before.[12]

On November 3, 2023, the BBC World Service launched an emergency radio service for Gaza,[13] broadcasting on long-range AM from the British East Mediterranean Relay Station, to "provide listeners in Gaza with the latest information and developments as well as safety advice on where to access shelter, food and water supplies".[14]

On November 16, 2023, due to fuel shortages, Internet and telephone services went down in Gaza. This also resulted in a suspension of humanitarian aid convoys because humanitarian agencies could not communicate.[15] On November 18, services were partially restored, after some fuel was allowed in and allocated to telecommunications.[16] On November 21, an Israeli strike against a telecommunications tower in North Gaza led to a telecommunications blackout in that area.[17]

An organisation called Connecting Humanity provides internet access to people in Gaza using donated eSIMs, allowing them to connect to networks outside of Gaza.[18][19][20] By December 2023 200,000 people living in Gaza (around 10% of the population) had received internet access through an eSIM.[21][22][23]

See also[edit]


  • Public Domain This article incorporates public domain material from The World Factbook. CIA.
  1. ^ "Telecommunication sector note in the Palestinian territories : missed opportunity for economic development". United Nations. 2016-02-01. Retrieved 2019-11-23.
  2. ^ "...:: Paltel Group ::..." www.paltelgroup.ps. Retrieved 2024-04-05.
  3. ^ a b "Palestine unplugged: how Israel disrupts Gaza's internet". Access Now. Retrieved 2024-04-05.
  4. ^ "مدى | إكتشف مدى". mada.ps. Retrieved 2024-04-05.
  5. ^ "Why Gaza keeps losing communications". Washington Post. 2024-01-16. Retrieved 2024-03-19.
  6. ^ Aly, Rasha (2023-12-17). "Palestinians in Gaza using eSim cards to get around communications blackout". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2024-03-19.
  7. ^ Blogger, Guest (2016-12-19). "Palestinian mobile network operator Jawwal signs the GSMA Humanitarian Connectivity Charter". Mobile for Development. Retrieved 2023-12-30.
  8. ^ "ONI Country Profile: Gaza and the West Bank", OpenNet Initiative, 10 August 2009
  9. ^ "Palestinian Authority Found to Block Critical News Sites". 23 April 2012.
  10. ^ "Politically motivated censorship in Bethlehem, Palestine | Tor Blog".
  11. ^ "Palestinian media clampdown spreads to the Web | Maan News Agency". Archived from the original on 2012-06-14. Retrieved 2012-06-10.
  12. ^ a b "Keeping Gaza online: Telecom heroes risk life and limb under Israel's bombs". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2023-11-21.
  13. ^ Potter, Simon (2023-11-03). "BBC's emergency Gaza radio broadcasts show why World Service mustn't rely on digital technology". The Conversation. Retrieved 2024-03-14.
  14. ^ "BBC World Service announces Emergency Radio Service for Gaza". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2024-03-13.
  15. ^ "Under a communication blackout, Gaza's 2.3 million people are cut off from each other and the world". AP News. 2023-11-16. Retrieved 2023-11-21.
  16. ^ "Telecom service partially restored in Gaza after limited fuel entry". www.aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2023-11-21.
  17. ^ "Photos: Intense Israeli air strikes hit Gaza amid growing signs of truce". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 2023-11-21.
  18. ^ Vo, Lam Thuy (2023-11-07). "'Let Me Tell Them Goodbye Before They Get Killed': How eSIM Cards Are Connecting Palestinian Families – The Markup". themarkup.org. Retrieved 2024-03-19.
  19. ^ "Gazans had no cell service. An effort led from Egypt helped reconnect them". The New York Times.
  20. ^ "This activist is helping Palestinians get back online in Gaza when connection is lost under Israeli attack". CNN. 2023-12-04. Retrieved 2024-03-19.
  21. ^ Aly, Rasha (2023-12-17). "Palestinians in Gaza using eSim cards to get around communications blackout". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2024-03-19.
  22. ^ "When Gaza lost telephone and internet connection, this activist found a way to get Palestinians back online". The Mercury News. 2023-12-03. Retrieved 2024-03-19.
  23. ^ Elassar, Alaa; Tucker, Emma (2023-12-03). "When Gaza lost phone and internet under Israeli attack, this activist found a way to get Palestinians back online". CNN. Retrieved 2024-03-19.