French Communist Party

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French Communist Party
Parti communiste français
General Secretary Pierre Laurent
Spokesperson Olivier Dartigolles,
Patrice Bessac
Founders Ludovic-Oscar Frossard, Fernand Loriot Marcel Cachin
Founded December 30, 1920; 94 years ago (1920-12-30)
Split from French Section of the Workers' International
Headquarters 2, place du Colonel Fabien
75019 Paris
Newspaper L'Humanité (The Humanity)
Student wing Union of Communist Students
Youth wing Youth Communists Movement of France
Membership  (2012) 138,000[1]
Ideology Communism
Democratic socialism
Eco-socialism[2]
Eurocommunism
Anti-globalization[3]
Euroscepticism[4]
Political position Left-wing
National affiliation Left Front*
International affiliation International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties
European affiliation Party of the European Left
European Parliament group European United Left–Nordic Green Left
Colours      Red
Anthem "The Internationale"
National Assembly
7 / 577
Senate
17 / 348
European Parliament
2 / 74
Regional Councils
95 / 1,880
Website
www.pcf.fr
Politics of France
Political parties
Elections
Until 2008 the party was also member of Popular Front (1936-1938), CNFL (1940-1947) and the Plural Left (1997-2002)

The French Communist Party (French: Parti communiste français, PCF ; French pronunciation: ​[paʁti kɔmynist fʁɑ̃ˈsɛ]) is a communist party in France.

Although its electoral support has declined in recent decades, the PCF retains a strong influence in French politics, especially at the local level. In 2012, the PCF claimed 138,000 members including 70,000 who have paid their membership fees.[5] This would make it the third largest party in France in terms of membership after the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) and the Socialist Party (PS).

Founded in 1920 by the majority faction of the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO), it participated in three governments:

It was also once the largest French left-wing party in a number of national elections, from 1945 to 1960, before falling behind the Socialist Party in the 1970s. The PCF has lost further ground to the Socialists since that time.

Since 2009 the PCF has been a leading member of the Left Front (Front de gauche), alongside Jean-Luc Mélenchon's Left Party (PG).

The PCF is a member of the Party of the European Left, and its MEPs sit in the European United Left–Nordic Green Left group.

History[edit]

Ideology[edit]

PCF rallying for a 6th republic, 2012 in Paris

The PCF, in contrast to weaker and more marginal communist parties in Europe, is usually seen as a left-wing rather than far-left party in the French context. While the French far-left (LCR/NPA, LO) has refused to participate in government or engage in electoral alliances with centre-left parties such as the PS, the PCF has participated in governments in the past and still enjoys a de facto electoral agreement with the PS (mutual withdrawals, the common practice since 1962 and in 1934-1939). Nonetheless, some observers and analysts classify the PCF as a far-left party, noting their ideological proximity to other far-left parties.

In the 1980s, under Georges Marchais, the PCF mixed a partial acceptance of "bourgeois" democracy and individual liberties with more traditional Marxist-Leninist rhetoric. During this same period, however, the PCF - still run on democratic centralist lines - still structured itself as a revolutionary party in the Leninist sense and rejected criticism of the Soviet Union. Under Robert Hue's leadership after 1994, the PCF's ideology and internal organization underwent major changes.[6]:174 Hue clearly rejected the Soviet model, and reserved very harsh criticism for Soviet leaders who had "rejected, for years, human rights and 'bourgeois' democracy" and had oppressed individual liberties and aspirations.[6]:174 Today, the PCF considers the Soviet Union as a 'perversion' of the communist model and unambiguously rejects Stalinism. That being said, it has not attributed the failure of the Soviet Union as being that of communism, and it has tried to downplay the failure of Soviet socialism by saying that the failure of Soviet socialism was the failure of one model "among others", including the capitalist or social democratic models.[6]:176–177 It also tried to downplay the PCF's historic attachment to Moscow and the Soviet Union.[6]:176–177

Since then, the PCF's ideology has been marked by significant ideological evolution on some topics but consistency on other issues. Some of the most marked changes have come on individual rights and immigration. After having vilified homosexuality and feminism as "the rubbish of capitalism" in the 1970s, the PCF has evolved towards tolerance and now full support for both gay rights and feminism.[6]:174 In the 1980s, the PCF supported reducing the age of consent for homosexual relationships and opposed attempts to repenalize homosexuality. In 1998, the PCF voted in favour of the civil solidarity pact (PACS), civil unions including homosexual couples. The PCF currently supports both same-sex marriage and same-sex adoption. On 12 February 2013, PCF deputies voted in favour of same-sex marriage and adoption rights in the National Assembly.[7] However, one PCF deputy, Patrice Carvalho, voted against.[8] The PCF also supports feminist movements and supports policies to further promote gender equality and parity.

On the issue of immigration, the PCF's positions have also evolved significantly since the 1980s. In the 1981 presidential election, Georges Marchais ran a controversial campaign on immigration which was harshly criticized by anti-racism organizations at the time. In 1980, the PCF's leadership had voted in favour of limiting immigration. The same year, Marchais supported the PCF mayor of Vitry-sur-Seine who had destroyed a home for Malian migrant workers; the PCF claimed that the right-wing government was trying to push immigrants into ghettos in Communist working-class cities.[9] The Libération newspaper also alleged that PCF municipal administrations had been working to limit the number of immigrants in housing projects. Today, however, the PCF supports the regularization of illegal immigrants.

One consistency in the PCF's ideology has been its staunch opposition to capitalism, which must be "overcome" because, according to the PCF, the capitalist system is "exhausted" and "on the verge of collapse".[6]:177 The PCF has interpreted the current course of globalization as a confirmation of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels's view on the future evolution of capitalism. The party feels that the financial crisis of 2007-2008 and the Great Recession have further justified its calls to overcome capitalism.[6]:177 However, the PCF has remained somewhat vague on how capitalism will be 'overcome' and what will replace it, placing heavy emphasis on utopic models or values.[6]:178

The text adopted at the XXXVI Congress in February 2013 reiterated the party's call on the need to "overcome" capitalism, fiercely denounced by the PCF as having led to "savage competition", "the devastation of the planet" and "barbarism".[10] It contrasts its vision of capitalism with its proposed alternative, described as an egalitarian, humanist, and democratic alternative. It emphasizes human emancipation, the development of "each and every one", the right to happiness and the equal dignity of each human being regardless of gender, race or sexual orientation.[10] The party further posits that such an egalitarian society is impossible within capitalism, which "unleashes domination and hatred".[10]

2012 platform[edit]

Jean-Luc Mélenchon and the FG's platform in the 2012 presidential election was broken up into nine overarching 'themes'.[11]

  • "Sharing the wealth and abolishing social insecurity" - banning market-based layoffs (licenciements boursiers) for companies which make profits, raise the minimum wage (SMIC) to €1,700, setting a maximum wage differential of 1 to 20 in all businesses, right to retirement with a full pension at 60, defending public services, stopping public sector spending cuts (RGPP), setting a maximum wage at €36,000, 35 hours workweek.
  • "Reclaiming power from banks and financial markets" - changing the European Central Bank's policy to favour job creation and public services, controlling financial speculation, raising the capital gains tax and the solidarity tax on wealth (ISF), abolishing fiscal loopholes and previleges, taxing corporations' financial revenues, creating a 'public financial pole' to reorient credit towards jobs, innovation and sustainable development.
  • "Ecological planning" - Nationalizing Électricité de France, Gaz de France and Areva to create a publicly owned energy sector, creating a national public water service, a new transportation policy promoting public transportation and taxing the transportation of non-vital merchandise.
  • "Producing differently" - a new model of development and economic growth which respects the environment and individuals, redefining industrial priorities, new rights for employees, creating a Gross national happiness indicator.
  • "The Republic, for real" - Reaffirming the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, creating a ministry for women and equality, repealing the HADOPI law, regularizing illegal immigrants, opposition to the golden rule of fiscal balance, creating jobs in the public sector.
  • "Convene a constituent assembly for the Sixth Republic" - convening a constituent assembly, repealing the 2010 local and regional government reform, proportional representation in all elections, reducing presidential powers and strengthening parliamentary powers, guaranteeing judicial and press freedom.
  • "Repealing the Lisbon Treaty and creating another Europe" - repealing the Treaty of Lisbon, opposition to the European Fiscal Compact, proposing and adopting a new European treaty which would 'prioritize social progress and democracy', reforming the statutes of the European Central Bank.
  • "To change the course of globalization" - withdrawing French troops from the war in Afghanistan, French withdrawal from NATO, recognizing the independence of a Palestinian state within 1967 borders, creation of a Tobin tax to finance international development and cooperation, debt forgiveness for low-income countries.
  • "Prioritizing human emancipation" - creating jobs in public education, spending 1% of GDP on arts and culture, doubling investment in research.
  • The platform also supported same-sex marriage, same-sex adoption, voting rights for resident foreigners, euthanasia, and constitutional recognition of a woman's right to have an abortion.

Elected officials[edit]

Departments with PCF general councillors.
  One or more PCF general councillor
  No PCF general councillor

The PCF has two Presidents of the General Council – in the Val-de-Marne and Allier. It lost Seine-Saint-Denis, which it had held since the 1960s, to the PS in 2008.

Internal organization[edit]

The PCF has traditionally been a "mass party", although Maurice Duverger had differentiated it from other mass parties because the PCF kept a tight control over membership and regularly purged dissenting members. In its heyday, the PCF maintained a large base of members and the party's political and electoral actions were supported in society by a trade union, the General Confederation of Labour (CGT); a newspaper, L'Humanité; and a large number of front organizations or associations in civil society which organized a large number of political or non-political social activities for PCF members.[6]:166 One such activity which still exists today is the annual Fête de l'Humanité organized the L'Humanité. French and foreign left-wing parties, organizations or movements are represented and the activities feature musical performances.

Since the PCF's decline began in the 1970s, however, it has seen its membership base slowly dry up and its allied organizations disappear or distance themselves from the party. The PCF claimed 520,000 members in 1978; 330,000 in 1987; 270,000 in 1996; and 133,000 in 2002.[6]:166 In 2008, the party claimed that it had 134,000 members of which 79,000 were up to date on their membership fees.[6]:166 In the 2011 internal primary, 69,277 members were registered to vote and 48,631 (70.2%) did so.[6]:166 The party likely has about 70,000 members as of today, but only about 40 to 50 thousand seem to actively participate in the party's organization and political activities.

According to studies by the CEVIPOF in 1979 and 1997, the makeup of the PCF's membership has also changed significantly since 1979. The most marked change was a major decline in the share of manual workers (ouvriers) in the party's membership, with a larger number of employees and middle-classes, especially those who work in the public sector.[6]:175 The form of political action taken by members has also changed, with less emphasis on direct political or electoral action but a greater emphasis on social work and protests.

The party's structures were democratized at the 1994 Congress, dropping democratic centralism and allowing for the public expression of disapproval or dissent with the party line or leadership. The party's top posts, like that of 'secretary-general', were renamed (secretary-general became national-secretary). The party, since 2000, is now led by a national council, which serves as the leadership between congresses; and the executive committee, which is charged with applying the national council's decisions. The national-secretary is elected by delegates at the congress. Likewise, the national council is elected by list voting at every congress. A reform of statutes in 2001 has allowed "alternative texts" - dissent from the text proposed by the PCF leadership - to be presented and voted on; dissident lists to those backed by the leadership may also run for the national council.[6]:170–171

The General Confederation of Labour (CGT) was dominated by the PCF after 1946, with all its leaders between 1947 and 1996 (Benoît Frachon, Alain Le Léap, Georges Séguy, Henri Krasucki, Louis Viannet) also serving in the PCF's national leadership structures. For years, the CGT and the PCF were close and almost indissociable allies - notably in May 1968 when both the CGT and PCF were eager for a restoration of social order and welcomed the Grenelle agreements. While the CGT has remained the largest trade union in France, it has taken its independence vis-à-vis the PCF. Louis Viannet spectacularly quit the national bureau of the PCF in 1996 and Bernard Thibault, the CGT's leader between 1999 and 2013, left the PCF's national council in 2001.

L'Humanité has retained closer ties with the PCF. The newspaper was founded by Jean Jaurès in 1904 as the socialist movement's mouthpiece, and it followed the communist majority following the split in 1920. After having been the official newspaper of the PCF, with a readership of up to 100,000 in 1945, the newspaper's readership and sales declined substantially partly due to the PCF's concomitant decline. In 1999, the mention of the newspaper's link to the PCF was dropped and the PCF no longer determines its editorial stance. It sold an average of 46,929 newspapers per day in 2012; down from 53,530 in 2007.[12]

Leadership[edit]

Secretaries-general (1921–1994) and national-secretaries (since 1994)

Factions[edit]

There are no formal organized factions or political groupings within the PCF. This was originally due to the practice of democratic centralism, but even after the democratization of the PCF structure after 1994 the ban on the organization of formal factions within the party remained. According to party statutes, the PCF supports the "pluralism of ideas" but the right to pluralism "may not be translated into an organizations of tendencies".[13] Nevertheless, certain factions and groups are easily identifiable within the PCF and they are de facto expressed officially by different orientation texts or lists for leadership elections at party congresses.

  • Majority: The current leadership of the PCF since 2003 around Marie-George Buffet and Pierre Laurent, the party majority supports the continued existence of the PCF but with the need for internal transformations. Vis-à-vis the PS, the PCF leadership has taken a more autonomous stance but it still sees the PS as a potential electoral partner (in runoff elections or in local elections) and even as a potential governing partner. The leadership has been generally strongly supportive of the Left Front alliance with other parties, which it sees as a "new Popular Front" as a culmination of its attempts, undertaken since 2003, to broaden the PCF's base to social movements, associations, unions and other left-wing or far-left parties.
Some orthodox communists have chosen to leave the PCF. In 2004, the FNARC group around Georges Hage founded the small Pole of Communist Revival in France (PRCF). Maxime Gremetz was sidelined from the PCF in 2006, after major disagreements with the leadership, and has since founded a small political movement (Anger and Hope, Colère et espoir) active only in his native Picardy. A group of hardline orthodox around former PCF senator Rolande Perlican founded the Communistes party.
  • Novateurs (also known as 'conservatives'): The novateurs are a small faction led by supporters of Georges Marchais' old political line - traditional Marxism adapted to modern circumstances, as developed by PCF economist and historian Paul Boccara (who developed the idea of state monopoly capitalism). Leaders of the faction include Nicolas Marchand and Yves Dimicoli.
  • La Riposte: La Riposte is a political association within the PCF which is the French section of the International Marxist Tendency, a Trotskyist entryist organization. They are ideologically close to the orthodox faction on rejecting alliances with the PS or a return to Marxist fundamentals but they differ significantly from the orthodox faction in their severe condemnations of Stalinism and the later Soviet Union. They also support the Left Front.
  • Huistes: The allies of former secretary-general Robert Hue (1994–2001) have mostly left the PCF. Hue's leadership was marked by internal democratizations as part of his mutation, but also close cooperation and alliances with the PS. The Huistes tend to be the most supportive of electoral and government alliances with the PS. Hue remains, technically, a member of the PCF; but he has broken with the current leadership. As a senator, he sits in the European Democratic and Social Rally (RDSE) and leads a small political movement, the Progressive Unitary Movement (MUP) which has one deputy elected in 2012 with PS support and who sits with the Radical Party of the Left (PRG) group in the National Assembly. The MUP supports the creation of a broad alliance with the PS, the Greens (EELV), the PRG and even some centrists. Besides Hue, some of prominent followers include Jean-Claude Gayssot, Jack Ralite or Ivan Renar.
  • Refondateurs/Rénovateurs: The reformist faction of the PCF, known either as refondateurs or rénovateurs, has mostly left the PCF today, but they played an important role in the PCF's internal politics for decades and they continue to be closely associated to the PCF through the Left Front. The reformist faction, ideologically aligned with the New Left, eurocommunism, ecosocialism, feminism and democratic socialism, has long been at odds with the PCF's leadership. Under Marchais, they opposed the traditionalist Marxist and pro-Soviet direction of the party and chafed at the party's democratic centralism.
Many dissident Communist reformists supported Pierre Juquin's candidacy in the 1988 presidential election, alongside 'red-green' ecosocialists, the remnants of the Unified Socialist Party (PSU) and the LCR. PCF dissidents who had backed Juquin's candidacy, including former cabinet ministers Marcel Rigout and Charles Fiterman participated in the foundation of the Convention for a Progressive Alternative (CAP) in 1994, which has since obtained limited support only in a few departments. Jean-Pierre Brard, the CAP's sole parliamentarian until his defeat in 2012, sat with the PCF in the National Assembly.
Reformists who remained within the PCF, such as Patrick Braouezec, François Asensi and Jacqueline Fraysse, opposed Hue and Buffet's leadership: they did not support the PCF's presidential candidates in 2002 and 2007, and they clamored for the re-foundation of the PCF as part of a broader left-wing movements including left-wing Greens, ecosocialists, the far-left, social movements and left-wing associations. Despite the creation of the Left Front, the reformists led by Braouezec left the PCF in 2010 and joined the small Federation for a Social and Ecological Alternative (FASE) which is now a component of the Left Front.

Factional strength[edit]

Preparatory votes on 'orientation texts' for PCF Congresses since 2003

Faction XXXII (2003)[14] XXXIII (2006)[14] XXXIV (2008)[15] XXXVI (2013)[16]
Majority 55.02% 63.38% 60.9% 73.16%
Orthodox 23.60% 13.25%[17]
8.22%[18]
3.71%[19]
24.02% 10.99%
5.81%[20]
Novateurs 21.38% 11.44% - -
La Riposte - - 15.05% 10.05%

At the XXXIV Congress in 2008, for the election of the national council, the majority's list won 67.73% from the congress' delegates against 16.38% for Marie-Pierre Vieu's huiste list backed by the refondateurs, 10.26% for André Gerin's orthodox list and 5.64% for Nicolas Marchand's novateur list.[14]

Popular support and electoral record[edit]

Currently, the PCF retains some strength in suburban Paris, in the Nord section of the old coal mining area in the Nord-Pas-de-Calais, the industrial harbours of Le Havre and Dieppe, in some departments of central France, such as Allier and Cher (where a form of sharecropping existed, in addition to mining and small industrial-mining centres such as Commentry and Montceau-les-Mines), the industrial mining region of northern Meurthe-et-Moselle (Longwy) and in some cities of the south, such as the industrial areas of Marseille and nearby towns, as well as the working-class suburbs surrounding Paris (the ceinture rouge), Lyon, Saint-Étienne, Alès and Grenoble.[21] The PCF is also strong in the Cévennes mountains, a left-wing rural anti-clerical stronghold with a strong Protestant minority.

Communist traditions in the "Red Limousin", the Pas-de-Calais, Paris proper, Nièvre, Finistère, Alpes-Maritimes and Var have been hurt significantly by demographic changes (Var, Alpes-Maritimes, Finistère), a loss of voters to the Socialist Party due to good local Socialist infrastructure or strongmen (Nièvre, Pas-de-Calais, Paris) or due to the emergence of rival parties on the radical left (the Convention for a Progressive Alternative, a party of reformist communists, in the Limousin and Val-de-Marne).

There exists isolated Communist bases in the rural anti-clerical areas of southwestern Côtes-d'Armor and northwestern Morbihan; in the industrial areas of Le Mans; in the shipbuilding cities of Saint-Nazaire, La Seyne-sur-Mer (there are no more ships built in La Seyne); and in isolated industrial centres built along the old Paris-Lyon railway (The urban core of Romilly-sur-Seine, Aube has elected a Communist general councillor since 1958).

During the course of the Twentieth Century, the French Communists were considered to be pioneers in local government, providing not only efficient street lighting and clean streets, but also public entertainment, public housing, municipal swimming pools, day nurseries, children’s playgrounds, and public lavatories.[22] In 1976, for instance, the Communist mayor of Sarchelles, Henri Canacos, was named “best mayor in the Paris region” by Vie Publique (a trade periodical for urban planners and administrators) for enriching Sarchelles’ public spaces with new restaurants, movie theatres, cafes, more parks, a large shopping mall, and better transportation.[23] Education also became, in the words of one text, an “identifiable characteristic of Communist government at the local level.” A study of municipal budgets that was completed in 1975 (but using data from 1968) found that while Communist local government spent 34% less that non-Communist Left governments and 36% less than moderate-Right governments for maintenance, it nevertheless spent 49% more than moderate Right governments and 36% more than non-Communist Left governments for education and educational support.[24]

Presidential[edit]

Election year Candidate 1st round 2nd round
# of overall votes  % of overall vote # of overall votes  % of overall vote
1969 Jacques Duclos 4,808,285 21.27
1981 Georges Marchais 4,456,922 15.35 (#4)
1988 André Lajoinie 2,056,261 (#5) 6.76[25]
1995 Robert Hue 2,638,936 8.66 (#5)
2002 Robert Hue 960,480 3.37 (#11)
2007 Marie-George Buffet 707,268 1.93 (#7)
2012 Jean-Luc Mélenchon (as Left Front candidate) 3,985,089 11.10 (#4)

Legislative[edit]

French National Assembly
Election year # of 1st round votes  % of 1st round vote # of seats  % of seats Seats
1924 885,993 9.82% 26 4.48% 581
1928 1,066,099 11.26% 11 1.82% 604
1932 796,630 8.32% 10 1.65% 607
1936 1,502,404 15.26% 72 11.80% 610
1945 5,024,174 26.23% 159 27.13% 586
1946 (Jun) 5,145,325 25.98% 153 26.11% 586
1946 (Nov) 5,430,593 28.26% 182 29.03% 627
1951 4,939,380 26.27% 103 16.48% 625
1956 5,514,403 23.56% 150 25.21% 595
1958 3,882,204 18.90% 10 1.83% 546
1962 4,003,553 20.84% 41 8.82% 465
1967 5,039,032 22.51% 73 14.99% 487
1968 4,434,832 20.02% 34 6.98% 487
1973 5,085,108 21.39% 73 14.96% 488
1978 5,870,402 20.55% 86 17.62% 488
1981 4,065,540 16.17% 44 8.96% 491
1986 2,739,225 9.78% 35 6.65% 573
1988 2,765,761 11.32% 27 4.70% 575
1993 2,331,339 9.30% 24 4.16% 577
1997 2,523,405 9.92% 35 6.07% 577
2002 1,216,178 4.82% 21 3.64% 577
2007 1,115,663 4.29% 15 2.60% 577
2012 1,792,923 6.91% 10 1.73% 577

European Parliament[edit]

European Parliament
Election year Number of votes  % of overall vote # of seats won
1979 4,153,710 20.52% 19
1984 2,261,312 11.21% 10
1989 1,401,171 7.72% 7
1994 1,342,222 6.89% 7
1999 1,196,310 6.78% 6
2004 1,009,976 5.88% 2
2009 1,115,021 6.48%[26] 3[27]

Publications[edit]

The PCF publishes the following:

  • Communistes (Communists)
  • Info Hebdo (Weekly News)
  • Economie et Politique (Economics and Politics)

Traditionally, it was also the owner of the French daily L'Humanité (Humanity), founded by Jean Jaurès. Although the newspaper is now independent, it remains close to the PCF. The paper is sustained by the annual Fête de L'Humanité festival, held in La Courneuve, a working class suburb of Paris. This event remains the biggest festival in France with 600,000 people during a three days festival.

During the 1970s, the PCF registered success with the children's magazine it founded, Pif gadget.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Les primaires à gauche au banc d'essai". Lexpress.fr. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  2. ^
    "Parti communiste français - Écologie". French Communist Party. 
  3. ^ "L’altermondialisme, vecteur d’une nouvelle gauche, Aurélie Trouvé". French Communist Party. 
  4. ^ "Information Guide Euroscepticism" (PDF). Retrieved 22 August 2014. 
  5. ^ Les primaires à gauche au banc d'essaiL'Express
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Pierre, Bréchon (2011), Les partis politiques français, La documentation française 
  7. ^ Analyse du scrutin n° 259 - Première séance du 12/02/2013 Results of the vote on the National Assembly's website
  8. ^ see Un député PCF contre le mariage gay in Rouges & verts in Lemonde.fr, 11 January 2013
  9. ^ L'Humanité, 7 January 1981
  10. ^ a b c « Il est grand temps de rallumer les étoiles... » - Humanifeste du Parti communiste français à l'aube du siècle qui vient Text adopted by the XXXVI Congress of the PCF 10 February 2013
  11. ^ Le programme du Front de gauche et de son candidat commun Jean-Luc Mélenchon - L'humain d'abord on the PCF website (French)
  12. ^ "Official report on the OJD website". Ojd.com. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  13. ^ "Official party statutes on the PCF website" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  14. ^ a b c Chronologie PCF in France-politique.fr
  15. ^ "Results of the XXXIV Congress by federation" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  16. ^ Official results of the XXXVI Congress in CommunisteS #501
  17. ^ André Gerin, Communist Left
  18. ^ Paris' 15th arrondissement
  19. ^ Maxime Gremetz, Colère et espoir
  20. ^ Paris' 15th arrondissement - Emmanuel Dang Tran
  21. ^ "Atlaspol". 
  22. ^ Life World Library: France by D.W. Brogan and the Editors of LIFE, 1961, P.47
  23. ^ Ethnic Minority Migrants in Britain and France: Integration Trade-Offs - Rahsaan Maxwell - Google Books. Books.google.co.uk. Retrieved 2014-07-10. 
  24. ^ French Politics and Public Policy. Edited by Philip G. Cerny and Martin A. Schain
  25. ^ Pierre Juquin, PCF dissident polled 2.1% of the vote
  26. ^ Results of the Left Front.
  27. ^ Of the 5 Left Front MEPs, 3 are members of the PCF.

Further reading[edit]

  • Bell, D.S. and Byron Criddle. The French Communist Party in the Fifth Republic. (1994)
  • Hazareesingh, Sudhir. Intellectuals and the French Communist Party: disillusion and decline (Oxford University Press, 1991)
  • Hughes, Hannah Cole. "Contemporary Perspectives on the French Communist Party: A Dying Ideology?" Thesis. Kent State University, 2013. online
  • Joly, Danièle. The French Communist Party and the Algerian War (1991)
  • Kemp, Tom. Stalinism in France: The first twenty years of the French Communist Party. (London: New Park, 1984)
  • Raymond, Gino G. The French Communist Party during the Fifth Republic: A Crisis of Leadership and Ideology (Palgrave Macmillan, 2005)
  • Sacker, Richard. A Radiant Future. The French Communist Party and Eastern Europe, 1944-1956 (Peter Lang, 1999)

External links[edit]