Before 30 March 1958 there had been a federation of the French Communist Party. In 1958 the PCG was founded as a party at its first congress in the town Capesterre. In the elections to the French National Assembly in 1968 PCG has received 37.3% of the popular vote; one of three deputies from Guadeloupe in the French Parliament was a communist. In 1971 PCG occupied significant positions in 10 municipalities Guadeloupe (of 34), including 8 mayors. PCG enjoyed influence in some of the trade unions – the General Confederation of Labour of Guadeloupe, and in the Union of Guadelopuean Women. In late 1967, at the initiative of PCG, the Young Communist Union was founded.
In 1961 the second party congress of PCG, identified uniting all workers in the pursuit of the provision of Guadeloupe internal autonomy within the French republic as the main political task of the party. The third party congress, held in 1964, adopted a political, economic and social program for achieving autonomy, covering demands for the establishment of local legislative assembly and executive body, agrarian reform, development cooperation, etc. In 1965 factional conflict erupted in the party leadership. A dissident faction was expelled from the party 1966-67. The fourth party congress was held in 1968. As of 1971 Guy Danent was the First Secretary of the party. The party had, in the same year, 1500 members.
PCG participated in the 1960 and 1969 International Communist and Workers Parties. PCG approved the documents adopted by these meetings. The party was built with democratic centralism as its organizing principle. The primary organization of the party is the cell; then there is the section and the supreme organ is the party congress. Between congresses PCG is headed by Central Committee and Politburo Central Committee. The party publishes Etincelle (Spark).