Communist Party of Ireland
|Communist Party of Ireland
Páirtí Cumannach na hÉireann
|Founded||3–4 June 1933|
|Headquarters||43 East Essex Street,
Dublin 2, Ireland
|International affiliation||International Conference of Communist and Workers' Parties|
|Politics of the Republic of Ireland
Politics of Northern Ireland
The Communist Party of Ireland (CPI; Irish: Páirtí Cumannach na hÉireann) is an all-Ireland Marxist party, founded in 1933. An earlier party, the Socialist Party of Ireland, was renamed the Communist Party of Ireland in 1921 on its affiliation to the Communist International but was dissolved in 1924.
The present-day CPI was founded in 1933 by the Revolutionary Workers' Groups. In 1941 the part of the party in the Republic of Ireland suspended its activities, while in the north it continued to operate under the name Communist Party (Northern Ireland). The party was re-established in the South in 1948 under the name Irish Workers' League, which changed its name in 1962 to Irish Workers' Party. The two sections reunited as the Communist Party of Ireland in 1970.
In the first half of the 20th century the Communist Party failed to gain any traction. The party provided most of the Irish volunteers in the 1936–39 Spanish Civil War, losing a number of members who were killed in action. The Communist Party of Ireland was also one of the key components in establishing the Republican Congress in 1934, bring communists, republicans, trade unionist and tenants organisations together under the banner of the Republican Congress.
Historically, the party belonged to the wing of international communism that looked to the Soviet Union for inspiration. In the mid-1960s, the U.S. State Department estimated the party membership to be approximately 100. The party grew consistently through the 1960s and 1970s. In the late 1960s, some IWP members (notably Michael O'Riordan) became active in the Dublin Housing Action Committee. The IWP also condemned the Soviet Invasion of Czechoslovakia, although O'Riordan was opposed to this position. In March 1970, following the CPNI/IWP merger, the new Communist Party of Ireland issued a manifesto called For Unity and Socialism, advocating the election of left-wing governments in both parts of Ireland, and, eventually, the creation of a United Ireland.
The CPI strongly criticised the Anglo-Irish Agreement, claiming the AIA "underlined Partition and gave Britain a direct say in the affairs of the Republic". In the 1980s, membership declined significantly during the collapse of the USSR and the electoral rise of the Workers' Party of Ireland. The party’s aim is to win the support of the majority of the Irish people for ending the capitalist system and for building socialism. It is actively opposed to neo-liberalism and to the European Union. Internationally, it maintains fraternal relations with other communist and workers’ parties and is a strong supporter of Cuba and Venezuela.
The general secretary of the party is Eugene McCartan. The Belfast District produces a weekly paper called Unity, while the Dublin District produces a monthly paper called Socialist Voice. There are also branches in Cork, Galway, Munster, and Mid-Ulster.
While it is a registered party, the CPI has rarely run candidates in elections and has never had electoral success. Despite this, it has had a significant influence in the trade union movement and was actively involved in the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association. In addition, a number of prominent Irish Labour Party members were former members of the CPI. The CPI operates a bookshop in Dublin called Connolly Books and has the support of a youth organisation, the Connolly Youth Movement. Both are named after the Irish socialist James Connolly.
One notable split from the CPI was the Eurocommunist grouplet the Irish Marxist Society, which left the CPI around 1976. The IMS was founded by Joe Deasy (1922–2013) and other former CPI members.  The IMS advocated Marxist feminism and was also outspoken in its rejection of the Two Nations Theory of Northern Ireland. Most of the IMS's members later joined the Irish Labour Party.
The party and its members are prominent in a number of campaigns such as advocating a "No" vote in the Lisbon Treaty Referendum. The party has also advocated a referendum on the bailout of banks. The CPI was the first Irish party to call for the repudiation of the debt and continues to advocate that position. It also continues to oppose the European Union and membership of the euro currency. The CPI is active in the Right2Water campaign and has called for a constitutional amendment to enshrine ownership of water to be in the hands of the Irish people and not the state. The party also supported the anti-war movement in Ireland as part of the Peace and Neutrality Alliance. The party stood two candidates in the 2014 local elections. Neither were elected.
- 1933–1941: Sean Murray
- 1941: Tommy Watters
- 1970–1983: Michael O'Riordan
- 1984–2001: Jimmy Stewart
- 2002–present: Eugene McCartan
- 1970–1983 Andy Barr
- 1983–1989 Michael O'Riordan
- 1989–2001 Eugene McCartan
- 2001–2004 Jimmy Stewart
- 2004–present Lynda Walker
Timeline of the Communist Party of Ireland
- 1921 – Socialist Party of Ireland renamed Communist Party of Ireland affiliated to Communist International.
- 1924 – First Communist Party of Ireland Dissolved
- 1924 – James Larkins Irish Worker League affiliated to the Communist International
- 1930 – Revolutionary Workers' Groups founded
- 1933 – Revolutionary Workers' Group disbanded and Communist Party of Ireland created
- 1934 – Republican Congress
- 1936 – Spanish Civil War
- 1941 – National Committee suspends independent activity and urges members to join the labour and trade union movements, members in the North form Communist Party of Northern Ireland
- 1948 – Irish Workers' League established
- 1962 – Irish Worker's League renamed Irish Workers' Party
- 1970 – Irish Workers' Party and Communist Party of Northern Ireland merge to form the Communist Party of Ireland.
- 1976 – A number of members left Irish Marxist Society
- "The Communist Party of Ireland is an all-Ireland Marxist party founded in 1933". Official website.
- Benjamin, Roger W.; Kautsky, John H. Communism and Economic Development, in the American Political Science Review, vol. 62, no. 1. (Mar., 1968), p. 122.
- Communism in Modern Ireland: The Pursuit of the Workers' Republic since 1916, by Mike Milotte, Gill & Macmillan, Dublin 1984 (p. 241, 250-1).
- Milotte, p. 281-2.
- "Agreement attacked as imperialist", Jim Cusack, The Irish Times, 3 February 1986, p. 9
- " With other former members he established the Irish Marxist Society. Eventually he returned to the Labour Party and remained a member until his death." Activist who made 'inspiring' contribution to Irish left Obituary of Joe Deasy, The Irish Times, 9 February 2013. Retrieved 4 March 2013.
- What's on Today? Irish Times, 23 June 1976, (p. 19) advertises a speech by Naomi Wayne on "Marxist Feminism" on behalf of the IMS.
- Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organizations by Peter Barberis, John McHugh and Mike Tyldesley. Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005 (p. 224-5).
- Eagle or Cuckoo? The Story of the ATGWU in Ireland by Matt Merrigan. Matmer Publications, Ireland, 1989 (p. 316).
- Conor McCabe, "Lisbon Treaty Referendum: A statement by the Communist Party of Ireland", 3 October 2009.
- Communists call for referendum on non-payment of debt to 'foreign banksers', by Mary Minihan, Irish Times, Saturday, 5 March 2011
- Official site
- History of the Communist Movement in Ireland
- The storming of CPI headquarters, Connolly House (1933)
- Irish Left Online Document Archive — Contains PDF documents of CPI material, with commentary