Communist Party of Luxembourg

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Communist Party of Luxembourg

Kommunistesch Partei vu Lëtzebuerg
LeaderAli Ruckert
Founded2 January 1921
Split fromLuxembourg Socialist Workers' Party
Headquarters3, rue Zénon Bernard
Esch-sur-Alzette
NewspaperZeitung vum Lëtzebuerger Vollek
IdeologyCommunism
Marxism–Leninism
Hard Euroscepticism
Political positionFar-left
International affiliationInternational Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties
International Communist Seminar
ColoursRed
Chamber of Deputies
0 / 60
European Parliament
0 / 6
Local councils
2 / 600
Website
www.kp-l.org

The Communist Party of Luxembourg (Luxembourgish: Kommunistesch Partei vu Lëtzebuerg, French: Parti Communiste Luxembourgeois, German: Kommunistische Partei Luxemburgs), abbreviated to KPL or PCL, is a communist party in Luxembourg.

Ali Ruckert is the current chairman of the party.

History[edit]

Founded on 2 January 1921 in the town of Niederkorn, the KPL was launched, making it one of the oldest parties in Luxembourg. In 1937, the Bech government attempted to introduce the so-called Maulkuerfgesetz ("Muzzle law") which would have banned the party, but the law was abandoned after failing to achieve popular support in a national referendum.

Following the end of the Second World War, the party which won 11.1% in the legislative elections, joined the National Union Government (1945–47). Its first minister was Charles Marx. After Marx's death, in a car accident in 1946, he was replaced by Dominique Urbany. However, after the death of the leader of the LSAP, the coalition collapsed. With the principle of an all-inclusive government gone, the KPL was excluded from the next government, and never returned another member to the cabinet.

In 1964, the United States State Department estimated the party membership to be approximately 500.[1] In legislative elections held in the same year, the party registered 10.4% of the vote, and won five of the Chamber of Deputies' 56 seats. The party's representation in the Chamber peaked at the following election, with six deputies, but fell, until the KPL lost its last remaining deputy in 1994. In the same year a minority opposing the maxist-leninist line of the party split and founded the New Left (Luxembourgish: Nei Lénk) together with the rest of the Revolutionary Socialist Party (Luxembourgish: Revolutionär Sozialistesch Partei).

In 1999, the KPL and the New Left agreed to found The Left (Luxembourgish: Déi Lénk). The Left had members of both parties and independents. Accordingly, KPL members ran on The Left lists in the 1999 and 2000 elections and no separate KPL lists existed. After disputes between leading KPL members and a majority within the Left shortly before the 2004 elections the party again ran separate lists. A number of the Left members were subsequently expelled from the Communist Party.

Election results[edit]

Year Votes % Elected seats Seats after +/–
1922[a] 6,976 1.0
0 / 25
0 / 48
Steady
1925 15,443 0.9
0 / 47
Steady
1928[a]
0 / 28
0 / 52
Steady
1931[a] 6,264 0.7
0 / 27
0 / 54
Steady
1934[a] 70,940 5.2
1 / 29
1 / 54
Increase 1
1937[a]
0 / 26
0 / 55
Decrease 1
1945 295,701 11.1
5 / 51
Increase 5
1948[a] 195,956 14.3
4 / 26
5 / 51
Steady
1951[a] 35,662 3.2
0 / 26
4 / 52
Decrease 1
1954 211,171 7.3
3 / 52
Decrease 1
1959 220,425 7.2
3 / 52
Steady
1964 330,909 10.4
5 / 56
Increase 2
1968 402,610 13.1
6 / 56
Increase 1
1974 314,635 8.8
5 / 59
Decrease 1
1979 177,286 4.9
2 / 59
Decrease 3
1984 165,960 4.4
2 / 64
Steady
1989 157,608 4.4
1 / 60
Decrease 1
1994 57,646 1.7
0 / 60
Decrease 1
1999[b] 110,274 3.3
1 / 60
Increase 1
2004 35,524 0.9
0 / 60
Decrease 1
2009 49,108 1.4
0 / 60
Steady
2013 53,669 1.6
0 / 60
Steady
2018 44,916 1.3
0 / 60
Steady
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Partial election. Only half of the seats were up for renewal.
  2. ^ Results for The Left alliance.

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Benjamin, Roger W.; Kautsky, John H. (March 1968). "Communism and Economic Development". American Political Science Review. 62 (1): 110–123. doi:10.2307/1953329. JSTOR 1953329.

References[edit]

  • Ruckert, Ali, Geschichte der Kommunistischen Partei Luxemburgs, Teil I: 1921-1946, Esch-sur-Alzette 2006
  • Ruckert, Ali, Geschichte der Kommunistischen Partei Luxemburgs, Teil II: 1947-1954, Esch-sur-Alzette 2007
  • Ruckert, Ali, Geschichte der Kommunistischen Partei Luxemburgs, Teil III: 1955-1960, Esch-sur-Alzette 2010
  • Wehenkel, Henri, Communisme et postcommunisme au Luxembourg, in: Communisme 2014, 1989-2014 - L'éternel retour des communistes, p. 165-172
  • Wehenkel, Henri, Die Kommunistische Partei Luxemburgs. Aufstieg und Fall einer Partei in: Moreau, Patrick/Marc Lazar/Gerhard Hirscher (eds.),Der Kommunismus in Westeuropa, Niedergang oder Mutation?, Landsberg/Lech, 1998, p. 477-497
  • Wehenkel, Henri/ Foetz, Guy/Hoffmann, André, 1921-1981. Beiträge zur Geschichte der Kommunistischen Partei Luxemburgs, Luxembourg 1981
  • Wehenkel, Henri/Redondo, Jean-Laurent/Hoffmann, André/Urbany, Serge, Table ronde: PCL et/ou nouvelle gauche: renouvellement et/ou scission, in: Cahiers Marxistes, No. 201, April-May 1996, p. 121-144

External links[edit]