Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist)

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Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist)
नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (एकीकृत मार्क्सवादी-लेनिनवादी)
Leader Khadga Prasad Oli
Founded 6 January 1991
Dissolved 17 May 2018
Merger of CPN (Marxist)
CPN (Marxist–Leninist)
Succeeded by Nepal Communist Party[1][2][3]
Headquarters Aakirti Marg, Dhumbarahi, Kathmandu, Nepal
Ideology Communism
People's Multiparty Democracy
Political position Centre-left[4][5][6] to Left-wing[7][8]
International affiliation International Meeting of Communist and Workers' Parties
Election symbol
Party flag
Flag of the CPN-UML.svg

The Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) (Nepali: नेपाल कम्युनिष्ट पार्टी (एकीकृत मार्क्सवादी-लेनिनवादी)) was one of the two major communist parties in Nepal.

The party was formed on January 1991 through the unification of the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist) and the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist). The party has led four governments, from 1994 to 1995 under Man Mohan Adhikari, from 2009 to 2011 under Madhav Kumar Nepal, in 2011 under Jhala Nath Khanal, and from 2015 to 2016 under Khadga Prasad Oli. The party was also a junior partner in five coalition governments in 1997 under Lokendra Bahadur Chand, from 1998 to 1999 under Girija Prasad Koirala, from 2008 to 2009 under Pushpa Kamal Dahal, from 2011 to 2013 under Baburam Bhattarai, and from 2014 to 2015 under Sushil Koirala.[9]

The party dissolved on the 17th of May 2018, to make way for the Nepal Communist Party, a merger with the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre).


Founding, 1991–1993[edit]

The United Left Front was formed in 1990 to protest against the Panchayat system and to restore multi-party democracy. They held a joint movement with the Nepali Congress and King Birendra in November 1990 finally yielded to their Jana Andolan. Two constituents of the United Left Front, Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist) and Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist), merged in January 6, 1991 to form the Communist Party of Nepal (Unified Marxist–Leninist) before the 1991 elections while the United Left Front became inactive.[10]

In the 1991 elections, the party won 69 out of 205 seats and was the second largest party in the House of Representatives.[9] Man Mohan Adhikari was elected the head of the parliamentary group and became the Leader of the Opposition in May 1991. The fifth party congress was held in Kathmandu in January 1993 and people's multiparty democracy was adopted as the party's main ideology. Man Mohan Adhikari was elected chairman and Madan Bhandari was elected general secretary. Later the same year Bhandari died in a vehicle incident at Chitwan and Madhav Kumar Nepal became general secretary of the party.[10]

First government, 1994–1997[edit]

After the mid-term elections in 1994, the party won 88 out of 205 seats in a hung parliament and formed a minority government under Man Mohan Adhikari.[9] The government lasted nine months after he was forced to resign after losing a no-confidence motion in September 1995. The party was back in the government in March 1997 after supporting the Lokendra Bahadur Chand led Rastriya Prajatantra Party government. After division in the Rastriya Prajatantra Party, Chand resigned and CPN (UML) again remained in the opposition.[9][10]

Split, 1998–1999[edit]

The party faced its first split in March 1998 after disagreements with a water-sharing agreement with India. The new party was formed with 46 parliamentarians from the mother party and was named Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist) under the leadership of Bam Dev Gautam. The party joined the government again in December 1998 backing the Girija Prasad Koirala led Nepali Congress-Nepal Sadbhawana Party coalition government.[10]

In the 1999 elections, the party won 70 out of 205 seats and finished as the second largest party in the House of Representatives.[9]

Madhav Kumar Nepal: former party president and Prime Minister

Direct rule under King Gyanendra, 2002–2006[edit]

On February 15, 2002, a bulk of the members of the Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist–Leninist) rejoined the parent party, while others decided to restructure the existing party.[10]

The seventh general convention of the party was held in Janakpur, February 1–6, 2003. The convention decided to abolish the post of party chair, a post vacant after the death of Man Mohan Adhikari and Madhav Kumar Nepal was re-elected unopposed as General Secretary of the party.

When King Gyanendra dissolved parliament and sacked Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba, CPN (UML) in 2003, five other parties protested the decision. However, once Deuba had been reinstalled as Prime Minister, CPN (UML) joined the provisional government with Bharat Mohan Adhikari serving as deputy Prime Minister. This government was dissolved by King Gyanendra on February 1, 2005. A Seven Party Alliance was formed to protest this decision and after an agreement with the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) was made, a joint struggle was launched against the direct rule of the king. On April 10, 2006, the dissolved parliament was reinstated by the King and a government under Girija Prasad Koirala was formed.[10]

Constituent Assembly, 2008–2015[edit]

In the Constituent Assembly elections in 2008, the party won 108 out of 605 seats and finished third. Following the results, Madhav Kumar Nepal resigned as general secretary of the party and was replaced by Jhala Nath Khanal. The party backed the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) candidate Pushpa Kamal Dahal and joined his government in August 2008.[11] On February 2009, Jhala Nath Khanal was elected chairman of the party by the eighth general convention of the party in Butwal and Ishwor Pokhrel was elected the general secretary.

Jhala Nath Khanal: former party chairman and Prime Minister

In early May 2009, the CPN (UML) joined several parties in leaving the Pushpa Kamal Dahal led coalition government in response to the sacking the Army Chief of Staff Rookmangud Katawal.[12] Following their withdrawal from the previous government, they formed a new coalition government with the Nepali Congress and the Madhesi Jana Adhikar Forum, Nepal under Madhav Kumar Nepal .[13] Madhav Kumar Nepal resigned in June 2010 after failure to draft a new constitution.[14] After more than seven months of political stalemate, Jhala Nath Khanal was elected Prime Minister on February 2011 after backing from the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist).[15] He resigned on August 2011 after failing to get consensus with other parties on drafting a new constitution and the peace process.[15] The party joined the following government led by Baburam Bhattarai on 28 August 2011.[16]

After the Constituent Assembly of Nepal was dissolved by Prime Minister Baburam Bhattarai after failure to draft a new constitution before the deadline,[17] the became the second largest party after winning 175 out of 575 elected seats in the 2013 elections. Following the elections, the party joined a coalition government with the Nepali Congress and Rastriya Prajatantra Party under Sushil Koirala.[18] In July 2014, Khadga Prasad Oli became chairperson of the party after defeating Madhav Kumar Nepal in the party's ninth general convention.[19] The new constitution was delivered by this government on 20 September 2015.[20]

Final years and dissolution, 2015-2018[edit]

Following the drafting of the new constitution, İSushil Koirala resigned and Khadga Prasad Oli was elected Prime Minister after backing from the Unified Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) and Rastriya Prajatantra Party Nepal among others.[21] Khadga Prasad Oli resigned on July 2016 ahead of a no confidence vote supported by the Nepali Congress and Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre).[22]

In the 2017 local elections, the party won 14,099 seats including 294 mayor or chairman positions and emerged as the largest party in local governments. The party won mayoral positions in major cities including Kathmandu and Pokhara Lekhnath.[23][24] The party announced an alliance with the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) ahead of the 2017 legislative and provincial elections.[25] The party won 121 seats and emerged as the largest party in the House of Representatives.[26] The party also became the largest party in six out of the seven provinces.[27] Following the election, the party maintained its alliance with the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre) and formed coalition governments in the centre and six out of the seven provinces. According to the power sharing agreement, CPN (UML) would lead governments in Province No. 1, Province No. 3, Province No. 4 and Province No. 5.[28]

In the National Assembly elections on 6 February 2018, the party again became the largest party by winning 27 of the 56 elected seats.[29] Party chairman Khadga Prasad Oli was elected as the party's parliamentary party leader in the House of Representatives and was appointed as prime minister on 15 February 2018.[30] Bidhya Devi Bhandari was also re-elected as president on 13 March 2018.[31]

After 8 months of planning, the Unification Coordination Committee met to finalize plans for merging Nepal's two dominant leftist parties. On the 17th of May 2018, the party dissolved. Its members joined the Nepal Communist Party, a merger with the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre).[32]


Madan Bhandari proposed a new theory based on the then International Historical State and the state of national class struggle. The relevance of the theory is the leading principle of the Nepalese Revolution up to this time.

PMD is of the view that the Nepalese people cannot gain success in this globalized world without gaining political and economic power. The only means to have a successful state is through the maintenance of the People's vote not from Armed Struggle.[citation needed] All people must, therefore, be made aware of this and be united to cast vote for Communist parties. The Communist parties along with their leaders and activists should work to gain popular support. The new Nepalese state cannot be a People's Democracy without the popular vote.

Electoral performance[edit]

Nepalese Legislative Elections[edit]

Election Leader Votes Seats Position Resulting government
# % # +/-
1991 Madan Bhandari 2,040,102 27.98
69 / 205
2nd Congress
1994 Man Mohan Adhikari 2,352,601 30.85
88 / 205
Increase 19 Increase 1st CPN (UML) minority
1999 Madhav Kumar Nepal 2,728,725 31.66
71 / 205
Decrease 17 Decrease 2nd Congress
2008 Madhav Kumar Nepal 2,229,064 21.63
108 / 601
Increase 37 Decrease 3rd CPN (Maoist)–CPN (UML)–MJFN
2013 Jhala Nath Khanal 2,492,090 27.55
175 / 575
Increase 67 Increase 2nd Congress–CPN (UML)–RPP
2017 Khadga Prasad Oli 3,173,494 33.25
121 / 275
Decrease 54 Increase 1st CPN (UML)–CPN (Maoist Centre)

Provincial Assembly Elections[edit]

As of the 2017 provincial elections, CPN (UML) is the largest party in six out of seven provinces and heads the government in four provinces.

Province Seats in 2017
Province No. 1
51 / 93
Province No. 2
21 / 107
Province No. 3
58 / 110
Province No. 4
27 / 60
Province No. 5
41 / 87
20 / 40
Province No. 7
25 / 53


Khadga Prasad Oli: current party chairman and Prime Minister of Nepal


General Secretaries[edit]

Prime Ministers of Nepal[edit]

Name Portrait Periods in office
Man Mohan Adhikari 1994–1995
Madhav Kumar Nepal Madhav Kumar Nepal 2009-09-23.jpg 2009–2011
Jhala Nath Khanal J.n (2).jpg 2011
Khadga Prasad Oli KP Oli.jpg 2015–2016, 2018–current

Chief Ministers[edit]

Province Portrait Name Periods in office
Province No. 1 Sherdhan Rai.jpg Sher Dhan Rai[33] 2018–present
Province No. 3 Dormani Poudel[34] 2018–present
Province No. 4 Prithvi Subba Gurung[35] 2018–present
Province No. 5 Shankar Pokhrel[36] 2018–present

Sister organizations[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^
  2. ^ "UML and Maoist Centre to form Nepal Communist Party tomorrow". 16 May 2018. 
  3. ^ "Nepal: Left alliance unifies to form single party". 
  4. ^ "Political parties CPN (UML)". 
  5. ^ "Where the Marxist-Leninists are the moderate option". 
  6. ^ "Liberal parties win Nepal's election as Maoist vote crumbles". 
  7. ^ "Nepal: Key people and parties". Insight on Conflict. Peace Direct. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  8. ^ "Healthy turnout, little violence reported in historic poll". RFI. RFI. April 2008. Retrieved 11 September 2017. 
  9. ^ a b c d e 1936-, Brass, Paul. R. (Paul Richard),. Routledge handbook of South Asian politics : India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and Nepal. ISBN 0415716497. OCLC 843078091. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f Tom,, Lansford,. Political handbook of the world 2015. ISBN 9781483371580. OCLC 912321323. 
  11. ^ Pokharel, Tilak; Sengupta, Somini (2008-08-15). "Nepal Elects a Maoist to Be the Prime Minister". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  12. ^ "South Asia | Nepal communists quit in protest". BBC News. May 3, 2009. Retrieved August 18, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Madhav Kumar Nepal sworn-in as PM of Nepal — Livemint". Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  14. ^ Marasini, Prerana. "Nepal Prime Minister resigns". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  15. ^ a b "Nepal: Jhalanath Khanal elected new prime minister". BBC News. 2011-02-03. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  16. ^ "Baburam Bhattarai elected prime minister of Nepal". BBC News. 2011-08-28. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  17. ^ "Nepal parties resign as constitution deadline passes". BBC News. 2012-05-28. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  18. ^ "Sushil Koirala wins vote to be Nepal's prime minister". BBC News. 2014-02-10. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  19. ^ "KP Oli elected UML Chairman — Nepali Headlines,Nepal News, Nepali News, News Nepal". Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  20. ^ "Nepal's new constitution endorsed through Constituent Assembly — Xinhua |". Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  21. ^ Sharma, Bhadra; Barry, Ellen (2015-10-11). "Nepal Elects K.P. Sharma Oli as New Prime Minister". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  22. ^ Sharma, Bhadra (2016-07-24). "Nepal's Prime Minister, K. P. Sharma Oli, Resigns Ahead of a No-Confidence Vote". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-06-26. 
  23. ^ "UML's Shakya elected Kathmandu mayor". Retrieved 2018-04-18. 
  24. ^ "UML wins mayor, deputy mayor in Pokhara Lekhnath metropolis". Retrieved 2018-04-18. 
  25. ^ "CPN-UML and CPN-Maoist Centre form alliance in Nepal". 2017-10-03. Retrieved 2018-04-18. 
  26. ^ "Nepali Communists win landslide, but face big obstacles to win change". Green Left Weekly. 2018-01-05. Retrieved 2018-04-18. 
  27. ^ "Nepal's CPN-UML emerges as largest party in historical elections - Xinhua |". Retrieved 2018-04-18. 
  28. ^ "UML to get 4 chief ministers, Maoist Centre 2". Retrieved 2018-04-18. 
  29. ^ "Left alliance wins 27 seats, Nepali Congress 5 in Nepal polls". The Hindu. PTI. 2017-12-09. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 2018-04-18. 
  30. ^ "KP Sharma Oli appointed Nepal's new prime minister". Retrieved 2018-04-18. 
  31. ^ "Bidya Devi Bhandari re-elected Nepal's president". 2018-03-13. Retrieved 2018-04-18. 
  32. ^ rfpl-MH, teleSUR /. "Nepal: Ruling Leftist Parties Merge into Marxist Leninist Party". Retrieved 2018-05-18. 
  33. ^ "Sher Dhan Rai appointed Province 1 Chief Minister - The Himalayan Times". The Himalayan Times. 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-03-31. 
  34. ^ "UML PP leader Dor Mani Paudel appointed CM of Province 3". The Himalayan Times. 2018-02-11. Retrieved 2018-03-31. 
  35. ^ "Prithvi Subba Gurung appointed as Province 4 CM - The Himalayan Times". The Himalayan Times. 2018-02-12. Retrieved 2018-03-31. 
  36. ^ "Shankar Pokharel appointed Province 5 CM". The Himalayan Times. 2018-02-14. Retrieved 2018-03-31. 

External links[edit]