Communist front

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A Communist front organization is an organization identified as a front organization under the effective control of a Communist party, the Communist International or other Communist organizations.[1] They attracted politicized individuals who were not Party members but who often followed the Party line and were called Fellow travellers.

Lenin originated the idea in his manifesto of 1902, "What Is to Be Done?". Since the party was illegal in Russia, he proposed to reach the masses through "a large number of other organizations intended for wide membership and, which, therefore, can be as loose and as public as possible,"[2] Generally called "mass organizations" by the Communists themselves,[3] these groups were prevalent from the 1920s through the 1950s, with their use accelerating during the Popular Front period of the 1930s. The term has also been used to refer to organizations not originally Communist-controlled which after a time became so, such as the American Student Union. The term was especially used by anti-communists during the cold war (1947-1991).

Mao Zedong broke bitterly with the Soviet Union in the late 1950s. He set up a network of pro-Chinese, anti-Soviet parties and Communist fronts that directly challenged the pro-Soviet organizations.[4]

International[edit]

Under the leadership of Grigory Zinoviev in the Kremlin, established fronts in many countries in the 1920s and after.[5] To coordinate their activities the Communist International (Comintern) set up various international umbrella organizations (linking groups across national borders), such as the Young Communist International (youth), Profintern (trade unions),[6] Krestintern (peasants), International Red Aid (humanitarian aid), Sportintern (organized sports), etc. In Europe, front organizations were especially influential in Italy[7] and France, which in 1933 became the base for Communist front organizer Willi Münzenberg.[8] These organizations were dissolved the late 1930s or early 1940s.

Communist fronts typically attracted well-known and prestigious artists, intellectuals and other "fellow travelers" who were used to advance Party positions. Often they came to the USSR for closely controlled tours, then returned home to praise the future as revealed in the Soviet experiment.[9]

According to Kennedy (1957), after the war, especially as the Cold War took effect around 1947, the Kremlin set up new international coordination bodies including the World Federation of Democratic Youth, International Union of Students, World Federation of Trade Unions, Women's International Democratic Federation, and the World Peace Council. Kennedy says the, "Communist 'front' system included such international organizations as the WFTU, WFDY, IUS, WIDF and WPC, besides a host of lesser bodies bringing journalists, lawyers, scientists, doctors and others into the widespread net."[10]

The International Federation of Resistance Fighters – Association of Anti-Fascists (FIR) was designated by government agencies as a communist-influenced organization.[11]

The World Federation of Scientific Workers (WFSW) is an international federation of scientific associations. It was a Cold War-era Communist front.[12][13] The group was composed of scientists who supported communism.[12] The federation opposed nuclear tests conducted by the United States.[14]

The Union for repatriation of Russians abroad was Soviet front organization aimed at infiltration and control of the exiled community of White Russians.[15]

The International Organization of Journalists (IOJ) was one of dozen front organizations launched by the Soviet Union in the late 1940s and early 1950s.[16][17] It was controlled in Prague by the Central Committee of the Czechoslovak Communist Party and with many KGB agents on board was a "long hand" of Moscow.[18]

The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in 1945 to unite trade union confederations across the world; it was based in Prague. While it had non-Communist unions it was largely dominated by the Soviets. In 1949 the British, American and other non-Communist unions broke away to form the rival International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. The labor movement in Europe became so polarized between the Communists unions and the Social Democratic and Christian labor unions, and front operations could no longer hide the sponsorship and they became less important.[19]

The then president, Ronald Reagan, in 1984, on the grounds of supposedly pro-Soviet trends, left the UNESCO.[20][21][22]

With the end of the Cold War in 1989, and the demise of the Soviet Union in 1991, funding and support systems collapsed and many front organizations shut down or were exposed. For example, post-Communist Moscow newspapers reported the World Peace Council, based in Helsinki, Finland, had received policy guidance and 90% of its funding from Moscow.[23]

The Berlin Conference of European Catholics, originally the Berlin Conference of Catholic Christians from European countries, was a conference held on the 17 and 18 November 1964 in East Berlin and organized with the support of the GDR government and the cooperation of the GDR state security. The historian Clemens Vollnhal arranges them as a Communist front organization.[24]

Members of the Christian Peace Conference were churches from the socialist countries as well as church communities and individuals from other countries. In the face of their initiation with the help of socialist states, which Christians were difficult to discriminate against and partly pursue, and the proximity to Marxism, the Christian Peace Conference is regarded as controversial.[25] Historians and the media classify CPC as a Communist front organization.[26][27][28][29][30][31]

Asia[edit]

The Pan-Pacific Trade Union Secretariat (PPTUS) was set up in 1927 by the Profintern (the Comintern's trade union arm) with the mission of promoting Communist trade unions in China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Australia, New Zealand and other nations in the western Pacific.[32] Trapeznik (2009) says the PPTUS was a "Communist-front organization" and "engaged in overt and covert political agitation in addition to a number of clandestine activities." [33]

There were numerous Communist front organizations in Asia, many oriented to students and youth.[34]

In Japan in the labor union movement of the 1920s, according to one historian, "The Hyogikai never called itself a communist front but in effect, this was what it was." He points out it was repressed by the government "along with other communist front groups."[35] In the 1950s, Scalapino argues, "The primary Communist-front organization was the Japan Peace Committee." It was founded in 1949.[36]

Consentrasi Gerakan Mahasiswa Indonesia ('Unified Movement of Students of Indonesia', abbreviated CGMI) was an organization of university students in Indonesia, linked to the Communist Party of Indonesia. CGMI was founded in 1956, through the merger of communist-led university student groups in Bogor, Bandung and Yogyakarta (which had emerged in the early 1950s). At the time of its founding, CGMI had a membership of around 1,180.[37]

Fadjar Harapan ('Dawn of Hope') was a short-lived Indonesian pioneer organization, linked to the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). Fadjar Harapan was founded in 1959, albeit that there already was an existing Scouting movement initiated by the Communist Party.[37] However, the organization was officially not connected to any political party (according to the constitution of the organization) and was open to all children between the ages of six and thirteen. The initiative to found the new organization was taken by the party leader Aidit. Cadres of the Communist Party and Pemuda Rakjat (the youth wing of the Communist Party) were given the task to study how pioneer movements functioned in other countries, but adapting Fadjar Harapan to Indonesian conditions.[38]

Gerwani’s affiliation with the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) eventually led to their demise after the events of Gerakan 30 September, G30S and the “attempted” coup. The arrest and imprisonment of Gerwani members was justified by the fabricated involvement of Gerwani in the killings of the six Generals during G30S. The Lubang Buaya myth, as described as discussed by historians, claimed that Gerwani had performed sadistic, sexual crimes before and after killing the six Generals during G30S. More seriously, Lubang Buaya was used to justify the mass killings of communists in the period immediately after the G30S – an incident that also led to the demise of Gerwani.

Peasants Front of Indonesia (Indonesian: Barisan Tani Indonesia) was a peasant mass organization connected to the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI). BTI was founded November 25, 1945. The previous peasant organization of PKI had been the Peasants Union (Serikat Tani) formed in 1945.

Bharatiya Khet Mazdoor Union literally 'Indian Land Workers Union' is a trade union of agricultural labourers in India. BKMU is politically tied to the Communist Party of India (CPI). BKMU is independent from both the main trade union central of CPI, the All India Trade Union Congress, as well as the farmers' organisation of CPI, the All India Kisan Sabha.

National Federation of Indian Women is a women's organisation. It was established in 1954 by several leaders from Mahila Atma Raksha Samiti including Aruna Asaf Ali.[39][40]

Latin America[edit]

Poppino argued that the effectiveness of Communist propaganda in Latin America "depends largely on the existence of a wide range of interlocking front groups that supplement and draw upon the Communist-led mass organizations."[41]

When nations turned toward the Soviet Union, they typically joined in numerous international front organizations, as Nicaragua did under the Sandinistas (Socialists) in 1983.[42]

Sino-Soviet split[edit]

Mao Zedong broke bitterly with the Soviet Union in the late 1950s, accusing Nikita Khrushchev especially of revisionism and betrayal of true Marxist-Leninist dogma.[43] Mao set up a network of pro-Chinese, anti-Soviet parties and Communist fronts that directly challenged the pro-Soviet organizations in parts of Asia, Africa, and Latin America.[44][45] In Thailand, the pro-Chinese Communist fronts were organized with a violent revolutionary goal in mind, but they were based in local Chinese enclaves and failed to connect with the larger population.[46]

Germany[edit]

West Germany (and West Berlin) were centers of East-West conflict during the Cold War, and numerous Communist fronts were established. For example, the Society for German–Soviet Friendship (GfDSF) had 13,000 members in West Germany, but it was banned in 1953 by some Länder as a Communist front.[47] The Democratic Cultural League of Germany started off as a series of genuinely pluralistic bodies, but in 1950–51 came under the control of Communists. By 1952 the U.S. Embassy counted 54 'infiltrated organizations', which started independently, as well as 155 'front organizations', which had been Communist inspired from their start.[48]

The Association of the Victims of the Nazi Regime was set up to rally West Germans under the antifascist banner, but had to be dissolved when Moscow discovered it had been infiltrated by Zionist agents.[49]

The Deutsche Friedens-Union (DFU) the German Communist Party (DKP) was close and was also financed[50][51] by the SED, which was however denied.[50]

The Bund der Deutschen (BdD) was founded in 1953. Wirth and Elfes led the party, but there was also a strong influence of communist forces.[52] The SED saw in the BdD a chance, similar to the concept of the National Front in the GDR, bourgeois and "national-minded" forces as a coalition partner to win. The core program of the BdD was a neutrality policy, which turned against the rearmament and the Westintegration of Germany. In contrast to the Federal Government, an agreement was reached with the Soviet Union. With the founding of the German Peace Union in 1961, in which numerous BdD politicians were involved, the BdD no longer existed as an independent political force, but was essentially limited to the publication of the German Volkszeitung. He also ran no longer in elections but sent candidates to the list of the DFU. Double memberships in BdD and DFU were expressly permitted.[53] The constitutional protection of North Rhine-Westphalia, which observes the BdD, classified the BdD as a front-run cadre organization of the DFU in 1964. On 2 November 1968, the DKP, DFU, BdD and other left-wing groups decided to join the Joint Action Action for Democratic Progress (ADF) on the West German federal election, 1969. The membership stock, which Helmut Bausch had estimated to be around 12,000 for the years 1953 to 1955, according to a note to the Ulbricht office in 1965, have amounted to only 2,000 to 3,000.

In the peak of the Cold War in 1960, the chairman of the German wing of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF) referred to the Internationale Frauenliga für Frieden und Freiheit (IFFF) (and hundreds of other members of the IFFF), headed by the CDU politician Rainer Barzel together with Franz Josef Strauss (CSU) and headed by Barzel, as "communist-controlled". On the other hand, the IFFF successfully filed a complaint and Barzel had to withdraw his allegation. However, numerous women left the organization, only local groups remained in West Berlin, Hamburg, Bremen, Munich and Duisburg.[54]

The Republikanische Club (RC) was put up, among others, by Hubertus Knabe in his book "Die Unterhanderte Republik", that the RC as a whole was influenced by the GDR or even controlled. Actually, however, the relationship between the RC and the GDR was rather disincentive, in particular one refused an approach to the SEW, the West Berlin offshoot of the SED. They and the GDR were seen as an obstacle to the new beginning of a left movement. Recent research on files from the BStU as well as from the estates of prominent members confirms that state security was active in West Berlin and also in the RC. It did not, however, aim at countervailing assumptions, but on a moderation of the extra-parliamentary opposition in order to be able to control them in the form of a party formation under the influence of SEW. This strategy failed, however, and the attempts to influence remained unaffected.

The Social Democratic Action (SDA), later Socialist Action, had been an opposition party in the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), controlled by the SED since 1948. The work of the SDA started first in the SPD, which was authorized by the Occupying Council to build the walls throughout the city. The SDA was active both in the east and in the west of the city. In East Berlin, she temporarily appointed magistrates, mayors and other functionaries, and was even represented in the Volkskammer until 1954 with deputies. Since 1950, the organization also tried to gain a foothold in the Federal Republic of Germany, but remained a splinter group. Membership in it was declared incompatible with employment in the public service in 1950 by the Federal Government. In 1956, it was banned in the course of the KPD ban in the Federal Republic. After the erection of Berlin Wall in 1961 it also dissolved itself in the GDR.

In East Germany front operations were not directly controlled by Moscow. They were instead operated by The German Communist Party (DKP), which was in power after 1945. It took political and financial[55] support from the SED and worked closely with the Socialist Unity Party of West Berlin (SEW), which was controllede[56] and financed by the SED.

Canada[edit]

The Association of United Ukrainian Canadians (AUUC) is a national cultural-educational non-profit organization established for Ukrainians in Canada. With branches throughout Canada it sponsors such cultural activities as dance groups, orchestras, choirs and children's activities within the Association. The organization was procommunist.

The Canadian Labour Defence League was a legal defence organization founded and led by Reverend A.E. Smith. The league was in 1925 as a civil rights organization dedicated to protecting striking workers from persecution. It was allied with the Communist Party of Canada and functioned as a front for the party. The group was the Canadian affiliate of International Red Aid.

The Dominion Communist–Labor Total War Committee was a front organization of the then-banned Communist Party of Canada.

The Federation of Russian Canadians is a left-leaning cultural organization for Russian immigrants to Canada and their descendants. It is the successor of the Russian Farmer-Worker Clubs which were closed by the government at the beginning of World War II as a suspected subversive organization due to its links with the Communist Party of Canada. In 1942, after the Nazi invasion of the USSR, the organization reappeared as the Federation of Russian Canadians, known also by its Russian initials as the FRK.[57]

Finnish Organization of Canada (FOC, Finnish: Kanadan Suomalainen Järjestö) is a Finnish Canadian cultural organization. It was established in 1911 as the Finnish Socialist Organization of Canada (Kanadan Suomalainen Sosialistinen Järjestö). FOC is the oldest nationwide cultural organization for Finns in Canada.[58] It was first connected with Social Democratic Party of Canada and later with Communist Party of Canada. Today FOC is no longer associated with politics. It has fewer than 200 members, who are mostly senior citizens in the areas of Toronto, Vancouver, Sudbury and Thunder Bay.[59]

The Relief Camp Workers' Union (RCWU) was the union into which the inmates of the Canadian government relief camps were organized in the early 1930s. It was affiliated with the Workers' Unity League, the trade union umbrella of the Communist Party of Canada. The organization is best known for organizing the On-to-Ottawa Trek during the Great Depression.

The United Jewish People's Order is a secular socialist Jewish cultural, political and educational fraternal organization in Canada. The UJPO traces its history to 1926 and the founding of the Labour League. It was for many years associated with the Labor-Progressive Party, as the Communist Party of Canada was known.

Australia[edit]

Davidson argues that in Australia with the onset of the Great Depression, "Support for Communist front organizations increased."[60] Examples include the Movement Against War and Fascism and the Australian Writers' League.

British intelligence infiltrated several Communist fronts in Australia, looking for organized efforts to block Britain's Cold War policies.[61]

United States[edit]

The Hollywood Anti-Nazi League was a communist front organization, run by the American popular front, it attracted broad support in Hollywood from both members and nonmembers of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA). Like many such communist front groups, it ceased all anti-Nazi activities immediately upon the signing of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in August 1939.

Contemporary Historians Inc. was a 1937 active American film company, who financed a single film, The Spanish Earth by Joris Ivens, during their existence. Joris Ivens came from the Netherlands, alongside the "Contemporary Historians", the United States John Dos Passos, Archibald MacLeish, Clifford Odets, Lillian Hellman, Herman Shumlin and Ernest Hemingway, the latter largely independently, while all remaining in contact with the Communist Party USA or one of their communist front organizations. In 1931, during his time with Mezhrabpomfilm Otto Katz, Ivens had become acquainted with the Machtergreifung in Hollywood through his lectures Anti-fascist and the Comintern took a footing there.

A report of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities of the United States House of Representatives published a four-pronged definition of a "Communist front" in March 1944. Frequently repeated in official government documents, this definition asserted that Communist fronts shared (1) a common origin; (2) organization upon a "Communist pattern"; (3) interlocking personnel; and (4) methods intended to deceive the public.[62]

Historian Bernard K. Johnpoll states:

Thousands of Americans joined Communist fronts during the 1930s. Few of them realized the true nature of the organizations they joined. The fronts paraded as independent, nonpartisan groups under the facade of non-Communist control. They were actually satellites of the Communist Party whose primary aim was to create the impression of mass support for an essential part of the party line. To maintain the illusion of non- Communist control, the formal leadership of these organizations was almost invariably composed of non-party members; the actual control was, however, in the hands of party activists.[63]

In the late 1940s, at the start of the Cold War, the House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) and the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee (SISS) investigated and listed a number of suspected organizations. In 1955, SSIS published a list of what it described as the 82 most active and typical sponsors of Communist fronts in the United States; some of those named had literally dozens of affiliations with groups that had either been cited as Communist fronts or had been labelled "subversive" by either the Subcommittee or the House Committee on Un-American Activities.[64]

Schrecker says that anti-Communist leaders believed that the Party used front groups to attract "fellow travelers," who were "unsuspecting liberals and well-meaning dupes drawn into the Communist orbit without realizing that the Party was using them for its own purposes." Schrecker says that on the contrary, "most of these people knowingly collaborated with the party, believing it to be the most effective ally they could find."[65] Theodore Draper asks, "To what extent was it possible, at least in the nineteen-twenties, to belong to a Communist front without being a Communist sympathizer?" His answer is that, "Only the most naive could have belonged to a front for any considerable length of time without realizing its political coloration. The top leaders of the early fronts were not merely Communists; they were top-ranking Communists."[66]

Attorney General list of alleged Communist fronts, 1948[edit]

Starting in 1939, Attorney General Biddle began compiling a list of Fascist and Communist front organizations. It was called "Attorney General's List of Subversive Organizations" (AGLOSO), but was not at first made public.[67] Political pressures from Congress forced President Harry S. Truman to act.[68] Truman's Attorney General Tom C. Clark expanded the list, which was officially authorized by presidential Executive Order 9835 in 1947 and was administered by the new Loyalty Review Board. The Board became part of the Civil Service Commission.[69] The list was used by federal agencies to screen appointments during the Truman Administration. The program investigated over 3 million government employees, of whom 300 were dismissed as security risks. Adverse decisions could be appealed to the Loyalty Review Board, a government agency set up by President Truman.[70][71]

On March 20, 1948 the Loyalty Review Board published the previously secret Attorney General's "List of Communist classified organizations" in The Federal Register. This list included the name and date founded, as well as headquarters address and names of chief officers for active groups.[72] The complete list included about 200 organizations.

Attorney General's list issued in 1955[edit]

Attorney General's consolidated list November 1, 1955, includes also wartime German, Japanese, and Italian influenced organizations as well as white nationalist groups:[73]

  • Abraham Lincoln Brigade
  • Abraham Lincoln School, Chicago, 111.
  • Action Committee To Free Spain Now
  • Alabama People's Educational Association (See Communist Political Association.)
  • American Association for Reconstruction in Yugoslavia, Inc.
  • American Branch of the Federation of Greek Maritime Unions
  • American Christian Nationalist Party
  • American Committee for European Workers' Relief (See Socialist Workers Party.)
  • American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born
  • American Committee for Spanish Freedom
  • American Committee for the Settlement of Jews in Birobidjan, Inc.
  • American Committee for Yugoslav Relief, Inc.
  • American Committee to Survey Labor Conditions in Europe
  • American Council for a Democratic Greece, formerly known as the Greek American Council; Greek American Committee for National Unity
  • American Council on Soviet Relations
  • American Croatian Congress
  • American Jewish Labor Council
  • American League Against War and Fascism
  • American League for Peace and Democracy
  • American Lithuanian Workers Literary Association (Also known as Amerikos Lietuviu Darbininku Literatures Draugija.)
  • American National Labor Party
  • American National Socialist League
  • American National Socialist Party
  • American Nationalist Party
  • American Patriots, Inc.
  • American Peace Crusade
  • American Peace Mobilization
  • American Poles for Peace
  • American Polish Labor Council
  • American Polish League
  • American Rescue Ship Mission (A project of the United American Spanish Aid Committee.)
  • American-Russian Fraternal Society
  • American Russian Institute, New York (Also known as the American Russian Institute for Cultural Relations with the Soviet Union.)
  • American Russian Institute, Philadelphia
  • American Russian Institute of San Francisco
  • American Russian Institute of Southern California, Los Angeles
  • American Slav Congress
  • American Women for Peace
  • American Youth Congress
  • American Youth for Democracy
  • Armenian Progressive League of America
  • Associated Klans of America
  • Association of Georgia Klans
  • Association of German Nationals (Reichsdeutsche Vereinigung)
  • Association of Lithuanian Workers (Also known as Lietuviu Darbininku Susivienijimas.)
  • Ausland-Organization der NSDAP, Overseas Branch of Nazi Party
  • Baltimore Forum
  • Benjamin Davis Freedom Committee
  • Black Dragon Society
  • Boston School for Marxist Studies, Boston, Mass.
  • Bridges-Robertson-Schmidt Defense Committee
  • Bulgarian American People's League of the United States of America
  • California Emergency Defense Committee
  • California Labor School, Inc., 321 Divisadero Street, San Francisco, Calif.
  • Carpatho-Russian People's Society
  • Central Council of American Women of Croatian Descent (Also known as Central
  • Council of American Croatian Women, National Council of Croatian Women)
  • Central Japanese Association (Beikoku Chuo Nipponjin Kai)
  • Central Japanese Association of Southern California
  • Central Organization of the German-American National Alliance (Deutsche-Amerikanische Einheitsfront)
  • Cervantes Fraternal Society
  • China Welfare Appeal, Inc.
  • Chopin Cultural Center
  • Citizens Committee for Harry Bridges
  • Citizens Committee of the Upper West Side (New York City)
  • Citizens Committee to Free Earl Browder
  • Citizens Emergency Defense Conference
  • Citizens Protective League
  • Civil Liberties Sponsoring Committee of Pittsburgh
  • Civil Rights Congress and its affiliated organizations, including:
  • Civil Rights Congress for Texas
  • Veterans Against Discrimination of Civil Rights Congress of New York
  • Civil Rights Congress for Texas (See Civil Rights Congress.)
  • Columbians
  • Comite Coordinador Pro Republica Espanola
  • Comite Pro Derechos Civiles (See Puerto Rican Comite Pro Libertades Civiles.)
  • Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy
  • Committee for Constitutional and Political Freedom
  • Committee for Nationalist Action
  • Committee for Peace and Brotherhood Festival in Philadelphia
  • Committee for the Defense of the Pittsburgh Six
  • Committee for the Negro in the Arts
  • Committee for the Protection of the Bill of Rights
  • Committee for World Youth Friendship and Cultural Exchange
  • Committee To Abolish Discrimination in Maryland (See
    • Congress Against Discrimination;
    • Maryland Congress Against Discrimination;
    • Provisional Committee To Abolish Discrimination in the State of Maryland.)
  • Committee To Aid the Fighting South
  • Committee To Defend Marie Richardson
  • Committee To Defend the Rights and Freedom of Pittsburgh's Political Prisoners
  • Committee To Uphold the Bill of Rights
  • Commonwealth College, Mena, Ark.
  • Communist Party, United States of America, its subdivisions, subsidiaries, and affiliates
  • Communist Political Association, its subdivisions, subsidiaries, and affiliates, including:
  • Alabama People's Educational Association
  • Florida Press and Educational League
  • Oklahoma League for Political Education
  • People's Educational and Press Association of Texas
  • Virginia League for People's Education
  • Congress Against Discrimination (See Committee To Abolish Discrimination in Maryland.)
  • Congress of American Revolutionary Writers
  • Congress of American Women
  • Congress of the Unemployed
  • Connecticut Committee "To Aid Victims of the Smith Act
  • Connecticut State Youth Conference
  • Council for Jobs, Relief, and Housing
  • Council for Pan-American Democracy
  • Council of Greek Americans
  • Council on African Affairs
  • Croatian Benevolent Fraternity
  • Dai Nippon Butoku
  • Daily Worker Press Club
  • Daniels Defense Committee
  • Dante Alighieri Society (between 1935 and 1940)
  • Dennis Defense Committee
  • Detroit Youth Assembly
  • East Bay Peace Committee
  • Elsinore Progressive League
  • Emergency Conference To Save Spanish Refugees (founding body of the North
  • Ameiican Spanish Aid Committee)
  • Everybody's Committee To Outlaw War
  • Families of the Baltimore Smith Act Victims
  • Families of the Smith Act Victims
  • Federation of Italian War Veterans in the U. S. A., Inc. (Associazione Nazionale
  • Combattenti Italiani, Federazione degli Stati Uniti d'Americu)
  • Finnish-American Mutual Aid Society
  • Florida Press and Education League (See Communist Political Association ) Frederick Douglass Educational Center
  • Freedom Stage, Inc.
  • Friends of the New Germany (Freunde des Neuen Deutschlands)
  • Friends of the Soviet Union
  • Garibaldi American Fraternal Society
  • George Washington Carver School, New York City
  • German-American Bund (Ameiikadeutscher Volksbund)
  • German-American Republican League
  • German-American Vocational League (Deutsche-Ameiikanische Berufsgemeinschaft)
  • Guardian Club
  • Harlem Trade Union Council
  • Hawaii Civil Liberties Committee
  • Heimusha Kai, also known as Nokubei Heieki Gimusha Kai, Zaibel Nihonjin. Heiyaku Gimusha Kai, and Zaibei Heimusha Kai (Japanese Residing in America Military Conscripts Association)
  • Hellenic-American Brotherhood
  • Hinode Kai (Imperial Japanese Reservists)
  • Hinomaru Kai (Rising Sun Flag Society—a group of Japanese war veterans) Hokubei Zaigo Shoke Dan (North American Reserve Officers Association)
  • Hollywood Writers Mobilization for Defense
  • Hungarian-American Council for Democracy
  • Hungarian Brotherhood
  • Idaho Pension Union
  • Independent Party (Seattle, Wash.). (See Independent People's Party)
  • Independent People's Party. (See Independent Party.)
  • Independent Socialist League
  • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
  • International Labor Defense
  • International Workers Order, its subdivisions, subsidiaries and affiliates
  • Japanese Association of America
  • Japanese Overseas Central Society (Kaigai Dobo Chuo Kai)
  • Japanese Overseas Convention, Tokyo, Japan, 1940
  • Japanese Protective Association (recruiting organization)
  • Jefferson School of Social Science, New York City
  • Jewish Culture Society
  • Jewish People's Committee
  • Jewish People's Fraternal Order
  • Jikyoku linkai (The Committee for the Crisis)
  • Johnson-Forest Group. (See Johnsonites.)
  • Johnsonites (See Johnson-Forest Group.)
  • Joint Anti-Fascist Refugee Committee
  • Joint Council of Progressive Italian-Americans, Inc.
  • Joseph Weydemeyer School of Social Science, St. Louis, Mo.
  • Kibei Seinen Kai (Association of United States Citizens of who Japanese Ancestry have returned to America after studying in Japan)
  • Knights of the White Camellia
  • Ku Klux Klan
  • Kyffhaeuser, also known as Kyffhaeuser League (Kyffhaeuser Bund) Kyffhaeuser
  • Fellowship (Kyffhaeuser Kameradschaft)
  • Kyffhaeuser War Relief (Kyffhaeuser Kriegshilfswerk)
  • Labor Council for Negro Rights
  • Labor Research Association, Inc.
  • Labor Youth League
  • League for Common Sense
  • League of American Writers
  • Lictor Society (Italian Black Shirts)
  • Macedonian-American People's League
  • Mario Morgantini Circle
  • Maritime Labor Committee to Defend Al Lannon
  • Maryland Congress Against Discrimination (See Committee to Abolish Discrimination in Maryland.)
  • Massachusetts Committee for the Bill of Rights
  • Massachusetts Minute Women for Peace (not connected with the Minute Women of the U. S. A., Inc.)
  • Maurice Braverman Defense Committee.
  • Michigan Civil Rights Federation
  • Michigan Council for Peace
  • Michigan School of Social Science
  • Nanka Teikoku Gunyudan (Imperial Military Friends Group or Southern California War Veterans)
  • National Association of Mexican Americans (Also known as Association Nacional Mexico-Americana.)
  • National Blue Star Mothers of America (Not to be confused with the Blue Star
  • Mothers of America organized in February 1942.)
  • National Committee for Freedom of the Press
  • National Committee for the Defense of Political Prisoners
  • National Committee to Win Amnesty for Smith Act Victims
  • National Committee to Win the Peace
  • National Conference on American Policy in China and the Far East (a Conference called by the Committee for a Democratic Far Eastern Policy.)
  • National Council of Americans of Croatian Descent
  • National Council of American-Soviet Friendship
  • National Federation for Constitutional Liberties
  • National Labor Conference for Peace
  • National Negro Congress
  • National Negro Labor Council
  • Nationalist Action League
  • Nationalist Part}^ of Puerto Rico
  • Nature Friends of America (since 1935)
  • Negro Labor Victory Committee
  • New Committee for Publications
  • Nichibei Kogyo Kaisha (The Great Fujii Theatre)
  • North American Committee to Aid Spanish Democracy
  • North American Spanish Aid Committee
  • North Philadelphia Forum
  • Northwest Japanese Association
  • Ohio School of Social Sciences
  • Oklahoma Committee to Defend Political Prisoners
  • Oklahoma League for Political Education. (See Communist Political Association.)
  • Original Southern Klans, Incorporated
  • Pacific Northwest Labor School, Seattle, Washington
  • Palo Alto Peace Club
  • Partido del Pueblo of Panama (operating in the Canal Zone)
  • Peace Information Center
  • Peace Movement of Ethiopia
  • People's Drama, Inc.
  • People's Educational and Press Association of Texas. (See Communist Political Association.)
  • People's Educational Association. (Incorporated under name Los Angeles Educational Association, Inc., also known as People's Educational Center, People's University, People's School.)
  • People's Institute of Applied Religion
  • Peoples Programs (Seattle, Wash,)
  • People's Radio Foundation, Inc.
  • People's Rights Party
  • Philadelphia Labor Committee for Negro Rights
  • Philadelphia School of Social Science and Art
  • Photo League (New York City)
  • Pittsburgh Arts Club
  • Political Prisoners Welfare Committee
  • Polonia Society of the IWO
  • Progressive German-Americans (also known as Progressive German-Americans of Chicago)
  • Proletarian Party of America
  • Protestant War Veterans of the United States, Inc.
  • Provisional Committee of Citizens for Peace, Southwest Area
  • Provisional Committee on Latin American Affairs
  • Provisional Committee to Abolish Discrimination in the State of Maryland. (See Committee to Abolish Discrimination in Maryland.)
  • Puerto Rican Comite Pro Libertades Civiles (CLC) . (See Comite Pro Derechos Civilies.)
  • Puertorriquenos Unidos (Puerto Ricans United)
  • Quad City Committee for Peace
  • Queensbridge Tenants League
  • Revolutionary Workers League
  • Romanian-American Fraternal Society
  • Russian American Society, Inc.
  • Sakura Kai (Patriotic Society, or Cherry Association—composed of veterans of Russo-Japanese War)
  • Samuel Adams School, Boston, Mass.
  • Santa Barbara Peace Forum
  • Schappes Defense Committee
  • Schneiderman-Darcy Defense Committee
  • School of Jewish Studies, New York City
  • Seattle Labor School, Seattle, Wash.
  • Serbian-American Fraternal Society
  • Serbian Vidovdan Council
  • Shinto Temples. (Limited to State Shinto abolished in 1945.)
  • Silver Shirt Legion of America
  • Slavic Council of Southern California
  • Slovak Workers Society
  • Slovenian-American National Council
  • Socialist Workers Party, including American Committee for European Workers' Relief
  • Socialist Youth League. (See Workers Party.)
  • Sokoku Kai (Fatherland Society)
  • Southern Negro Youth Congress
  • Suiko Sha (Reserve Officers Association, Los Angeles)
  • Syracuse Women for Peace
  • Tom Paine School of Social Science, Philadelphia, Pa.
  • Tom Paine School of Westchester, N. Y.
  • Trade Union Committee for Peace. (See Trade Unionists for Peace.)
  • Trade Unionists for Peace. (See Trade Union Committee for Peace.)
  • Tri-State Negro Trade Union Council
  • Ukrainian-American Fraternal Union
  • Union of American Croatians
  • Union of New York Veterans
  • United American Spanish Aid Committee
  • United Committee of Jewish Societies and Landsmannschaft Federations (also known as Coordination Committee of Jewish Landsmannschaften and Fraternal Organizations)
  • United Committee of South Slavic Americans
  • United Defense Council of Southern California 1
  • United Harlem Tenants and Consumers Organization
  • United May Day Committee
  • United Negro and Allied Veterans of America
  • Veterans Against Discrimination of Civil Rights Congress of New York. (See Civil Rights Congress.)
  • Veterans of the Abraham Lincoln Brigade
  • Virginia League for People's Education. (See Communist Political Association.)
  • Voice of Freedom Committee
  • Walt Whitman School of Social Science, Newark, N. J.
  • Washington Bookshop Association
  • Washington Committee for Democratic Action
  • Washington Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights
  • Washington Commonwealth Federation
  • Washington Pension Union
  • Wisconsin Conference on Social Legislation
  • Workers Alliance (since April 1936)
  • Workers Party, including the Socialist Youth League
  • Yiddisher Kultur Farband
  • Young Communist League
  • Yugoslav-American Cooperative Home, Inc.
  • Yugoslav Seamen's Club, Inc.

Alleged CPUSA front organizations, c. 1980[edit]

Late in the Cold War, Richard Felix Staar alleged that Soviet intelligence had infiltrated many peace movements in the West, most importantly, the World Peace Council.[74] In addition to WPC, important communist front organizations included its affiliate the U.S. Peace Council, the World Federation of Trade Unions, the World Federation of Democratic Youth, and the International Union of Students.[75] Staar asserted that somewhat less important front organizations included: Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Organisation, Christian Peace Conference, International Association of Democratic Lawyers, International Federation of Resistance Movements, International Institute for Peace, International Organization of Journalists, Women's International Democratic Federation and World Federation of Scientific Workers.[76] Numerous peace conferences, congresses and festivals have been staged with support of those organizations.[77]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Federal Register 13, 20 March 1948: Attorney General's List of Communist classified organizations.

Further reading[edit]

  • Caute, David. The Fellow-Travellers: A Postscript to the Enlightenment (1973). excerpt and text search
  • Chafee, Jr., Zechariah. "The Registration of 'Communist-Front' Organizations in the Mundt-Nixon Bill," Harvard Law ReviewVol. 63, No. 8 (Jun., 1950), pp. 1382–1390 in JSTOR
  • Draper, Theodore. American Communism and Soviet Russia (2003)
  • Heale, M. J. American anticommunism: combating the enemy within, 1830-1970 (1990)
  • Klehr, Harvey. The Heyday of American Communism: The Depression Decade Basic Books, 1984.
  • Klehr, Harvey and John Earl Haynes. The American Communist Movement: Storming Heaven Itself (Twayne, 1992).
  • Klehr, Harvey, Kyrill M. Anderson, and John Earl Haynes. The Soviet World of American Communism (Yale University Press, 1998)
  • McMeekin, Sean. The Red Millionaire: A Political Biography of Willi Münzenberg, Moscow's Secret Propaganda Tsar in the West, 1917-1940 (Yale University Press, 2004)
  • Ottanelli, Fraser M., The Communist Party of the United States: From the Depression to World War II (Rutgers University Press, 1991)
  • Rosswurm, Steve. "Records of the Subversion Activities Control Board, 1950-1972," Journal of American History, March 1991, Vol. 77 Issue 4, pp 1447–1448
  • Schrecker, Ellen. Many Are the Crimes (1999)
  • Schrecker, Ellen. Age of McCarthyism: A Brief History With Documents (2001)
  • Service, Robert. Comrades!: a history of world communism (2007)
  • Sherman, John W. A Communist Front at Mid-Century: The American Committee for Protection of Foreign Born, 1933-1959 (2001)

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sheila Suess Kennedy, Free Expression in America: A Documentary History (Greenwood Press, 1999) pp. 111-122.
  2. ^ Quoted in Theodore Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia (2003) p 172
  3. ^ Donald Hindley, The Communist Party of Indonesia 1951-1963 (1966) p. 56
  4. ^ Alaba Ogunsanwo (1974). China's Policy in Africa 1958-71. Cambridge UP. p. 96. 
  5. ^ Robert Service, Comrades!: a history of world communism (2007)
  6. ^ Ian Birchall, "Profintern: Die Rote Gewerkschaftsinternationale 1920–1937," Historical Materialism, 2009, Vol. 17 Issue 4, pp 164-176, review (in English) of a German language study by Reiner Tosstorff.
  7. ^ Joan Urban, Moscow and the Italian Communist Party: from Togliatti to Berlinguer (1986) p. 157
  8. ^ Julian Jackson, The Popular Front in France (1990) p. x
  9. ^ Michael David‐Fox, "The Fellow Travelers Revisited: The 'Cultured West' through Soviet Eyes," Journal of Modern History (2003) 75#2 pp. 300-335 in JSTOR
  10. ^ Malcolm Kennedy, History of Communism in East Asia (Praeger Publishers, 1957) p 126
  11. ^ Facts about international Communist front organisations (1958) S. 85–86
  12. ^ a b Louis Francis Budenz (1 June 1977). The techniques of communism. Ayer Publishing. pp. 242–. ISBN 978-0-405-09942-7. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  13. ^ communist propaganda techniques. Taylor & Francis. pp. 112–. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  14. ^ Lawrence S. Wittner (1997). Resisting the bomb: a history of the world nuclear disarmament movement, 1954-1970. Stanford University Press. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-0-8047-2918-5. Retrieved 25 March 2012. 
  15. ^ Stephen Schwartz (January 24, 1988). "Intellectuals and Assassins - Annals of Stalin's Killerati". New York: New York Times. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
  16. ^ Jeffrey T. Richelson (1997). A century of spies: intelligence in the twentieth century. p. 252. 
  17. ^ Ralph And Brown Fred R. Sanders (2008). National Security Management: Global Psychological Conflict. p. 31. 
  18. ^ Political posters in Central and Eastern Europe, 1945-95: signs of the times. James Aulich, Marta Sylvestrová. p. 66
  19. ^ Anthony Carew, "The Schism within the World Federation of Trade Unions: Government and Trade-Union Diplomacy," International Review of Social History, Dec 1984, Vol. 29 Issue 3, pp 297-335
  20. ^ Erklärung des US-Außenministeriums: USA verlassen die Unesco/
  21. ^ Streit um Palästina: USA treten aus Unesco aus
  22. ^ Amerikas Abkehr
  23. ^ Jan S. Adams, A Foreign Policy in Transition: Moscow's Retreat from Central America and the Caribbean, 1985-1992 (Duke University Press, 1992) pp 69-70
  24. ^ Clemens Vollnhals, 1996: Die Kirchenpolitik von SED und Staatssicherheit: eine Zwischenbilanz, Band 7 von Analysen und Dokumente, Ch. Links Verlag, ISBN 3-86153-122-4, S. 115 ([1], p. 115, at Google Books).
  25. ^ vgl. etwa Hedwig Richter: Der Protestantismus und das linksrevolutionäre Pathos. Der Ökumenische Rat der Kirchen in Genf im Ost-West-Konflikt in den sechziger und siebziger Jahren, in: Geschichte und Gesellschaft 3 (2010), S. 408–436; Hebe Charlotte Kohlbrugge: Zwei mal zwei ist fünf. Mein unbeschriebenes Leben seit 1914. Leipzig 2003; Gerhard Besier, Armin Boyens, Gerhard Lindemann: Nationaler Protestantismus und ökumenische Bewegung: kirchliches Handeln im Kalten Krieg (1945 - 1990) Berlin 1999 (=Zeitgeschichtliche Forschungen, Bd. 3).
  26. ^ Clemens Vollnhals, 1996: Die Kirchenpolitik von SED und Staatssicherheit: eine Zwischenbilanz, Band 7 von Analysen und Dokumente, Ch. Links Verlag, ISBN 3-86153-122-4, S. 116 ([2], p. 116, at Google Books).
  27. ^ Holger Kremser (1993): Der Rechtsstatus der evangelischen Kirchen in der DDR und die neue Einheit der EKD. J.C.B. Mohr, Tübingen. S. 157 ([3], p. 157, at Google Books).
  28. ^ "Den Heiner nimmt uns keiner", Der Spiegel, 15 October (50), 1991 
  29. ^ https://www.welt.de/print/die_welt/politik/article10980281/Das-Geheimnis-des-CDU-Chronisten.html
  30. ^ Rainer Eckert: Verstrickungen der Humboldt-Uni mit dem MfS
  31. ^ https://books.google.de/books?id=_ROpAAAAQBAJ&pg=PT66
  32. ^ Harvey Klehr, John Earl Haynes, and Fridrikh Igorevich Firsov, The Secret World of American Communism (1996) p 42
  33. ^ Alexander Trapeznik, "'Agents of Moscow' at the Dawn of the Cold War: The Comintern and the Communist Party of New Zealand," Journal of Cold War Studies Volume 11, Number 1, Winter 2009 pp. 124-49 quote on p 144
  34. ^ For listings of front organizations in East Asia see Malcolm Kennedy, History of Communism in East Asia (Praeger Publishers, 1957) pp 118, 127-8, 130, 277, 334, 355, 361-7, 374, 415, 421, 424, 429, 439, 444, 457-8, 470, 482
  35. ^ Stephen S. Large, Organized Workers and Socialist Politics in Interwar Japan (2010) p. 85
  36. ^ Robert A. Scalapino, The Japanese Communist Movement 1920-1967 (1967) p 117
  37. ^ a b Hindley, Donald. The Communist Party of Indonesia, 1951-1963. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964. pp. 196-197
  38. ^ Hindley, Donald. The Communist Party of Indonesia, 1951-1963. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1964. p. 199
  39. ^ Menon, Parvathi. Breaking Barriers: Stories of Twelve Women. New Delhi: LeftWord, 2005. p. 37
  40. ^ Overstreet, Gene D., and Marshall Windmiller. Communism in India. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1959. p. 402
  41. ^ Rollie E. Poppino, International communism in Latin America: a history of the movement, 1917-1963 (Free Press, 1966) p 133
  42. ^ Jan S. Adams, A Foreign Policy in Transition: Moscow's Retreat from Central America and the Caribbean, 1985-1992 (1992) p 109
  43. ^ Jeremy Friedman, "Soviet policy in the developing world and the Chinese challenge in the 1960s." Cold War History (2010) 10#2 pp: 247-272.
  44. ^ Michael D. Gambone (2001). Capturing the Revolution: The United States, Central America, and Nicaragua, 1961-1972. Greenwood. p. 129. 
  45. ^ Alaba Ogunsanwo (1974). China's Policy in Africa 1958-71. Cambridge UP. p. 96. 
  46. ^ Gregg A. Brazinsky (2017). Winning the Third World: Sino-American Rivalry during the Cold War. University of North Carolina Press. p. 252. 
  47. ^ Patrick Major, The Death of the KPD: Communism and Anti-Communism in West Germany, 1945-1956 (Oxford University Press, 1997) p. 215
  48. ^ Major, The Death of the KPD: Communism and Anti-Communism in West Germany, 1945-1956 pp 217–18
  49. ^ Vojtech Mastny, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years (Oxford U.P., 1998) p. 162
  50. ^ a b Christoph Stamm: Bestand B 422 Die Deutsche Friedens-Union, S. 48.
  51. ^ Heike Amos: Die SED-Deutschlandpolitik 1961 bis 1989: Ziele, Aktivitäten und Konflikte, Vandenhoeck & Rupprecht, Göttingen 2015, S. 228. Amos zitiert nach den Verhandlungen des Deutschen Bundestags, Band 502 (1994, 12. Wahlperiode), Dokument 537, S. 2167–2171.
  52. ^ Dirk Mellies: Trojanische Pferde der DDR? Das neutralistisch-pazifistische Netzwerk der frühen Bundesrepublik und die Deutsche Volkszeitung, 1953–1973. Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2006, ISBN 3-631-55825-2 (Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe 3: Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften, 1039), S. 41ff. Vgl. auch Udo Baron: Kalter Krieg und heißer Frieden. Der Einfluss der SED und ihrer westdeutschen Verbündeten auf die Partei ‚Die Grünen‘. Lit, Münster 2003, S. 37f.
  53. ^ Rolf Schönfeldt: Die Deutsche Friedens-Union. In: Richard Stöss (Hrsg.): Parteien Handbuch. Die Parteien der Bundesrepublik Deutschland 1945–1980. Band 1: AUD–EFP. Westdeutscher Verlag, Opladen 1983, ISBN 3-531-11570-7, S. 848–876 (Schriften des Zentralinstituts für sozialwissenschaftliche Forschung der Freien Universität Berlin, 38). Vgl. auch Dirk Mellies: Trojanische Pferde der DDR? Das neutralistisch-pazifistische Netzwerk der frühen Bundesrepublik und die Deutsche Volkszeitung, 1953–1973. Lang, Frankfurt am Main u. a. 2006, ISBN 3-631-55825-2 (Europäische Hochschulschriften. Reihe 3: Geschichte und ihre Hilfswissenschaften, 1039).
  54. ^ [4]
  55. ^ Deutscher Bundestag, Drucksache, 12/7600, Bonn, S. 505 f. (PDF)
  56. ^ Hannes Schwenger: Die willigen Helfer in West-Berlin. tagesspiegel.de, 5. Oktober 2009; abgerufen am 27. Oktober 2011.
  57. ^ Russians, Canadian Encyclopedia
  58. ^ Finns Historica Canada. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  59. ^ Paul R. Magocsi: "Encyclopedia of Canada's Peoples", p. 519–521. Retrieved 10 January 2014.
  60. ^ Alastair Davidson, The Communist Party of Australia: a short history (1969) p. 46
  61. ^ Richard C. S. Trahair, Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies and Secret Operations. (Greenwood Press, 2004) p 22
  62. ^ This definition is probably the work of Dies Committee investigator J. B. Matthews. See: Committee on Un-American Activities, US House of Representatives, Guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications (and Appendices): Revised and Published December 1, 1961 to supersede Guide published on January 2, 1957: (Including Index). Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, 1961; pg. 1.
  63. ^ Bernard K. Johnpoll, ed., A Documentary History of the Communist Party of the United States - Vol. 3 (1994) p 191 online
  64. ^ Page 90-100 "COMMUNIST FRONT ORGANIZATIONS",The communist party of the United States of America, what it is, how it works; a handbook for Americans (1955) SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY, UNITED STATES SENATE, DECEMBER 21, 1955, 1955 UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE WASHINGTON : 1955
  65. ^ Ellen Schrecker, The age of McCarthyism: a brief history with documents (2002) p 8
  66. ^ Theodore Draper, American Communism and Soviet Russia (2003) p. 185
  67. ^ Robert Justin Goldstein, "Prelude to McCarthyism," Prologue, Fall 2006, Vol. 38 Issue 3, pp 22-33
  68. ^ Francis H. Thompson, The Frustration of Politics: Truman, Congress, and the Loyalty Issue, 1945-1953 (1979)
  69. ^ Henry L. Shattuck, "The Loyalty Review Board Of The U.S. Civil Service Commission, 1947-1953," Massachusetts Historical Society Proceedings, 1966, Vol. 78, pp 63-80
  70. ^ Robert J. Donovan, Conflict and crisis: the presidency of Harry S. Truman, 1945-1948 (1996) p 295
  71. ^ Tim McNeese, The Cold War and Postwar America 1946-1963 (2010) p 63
  72. ^ Federal Register 13, 20 March 1948: Attorney General's List of Communist classified organizations.
  73. ^ Pages 722 to 727 Scope of Soviet Activity in the United States HEARINGS BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE TO INVESTIGATE THE ADMINISTRATION OF THE INTERNAL SECURITY ACT AND OTHER INTERNAL SECURITY LAWS OF THE COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY UNITED STATES SENATE EIGHTY-FOURTH CONGRESS SECOND SESSION ON SCOPE OF SOVIET ACTIVITY IN THE UNITED STATES APRIL 10, 11, AND 12, 1956 PART 13, United States Government Printing Office, 1956
  74. ^ Richard Felix Staar, Foreign policies of the Soviet Union, Hoover Press, 1991, ISBN 0-8179-9102-6, p.79, p.84
  75. ^ Richard Felix Staar, Foreign policies of the Soviet Union, Hoover Press, 1991, ISBN 0-8179-9102-6, p.84
  76. ^ Richard Felix Staar, Foreign policies of the Soviet Union, Hoover Press, 1991, ISBN 0-8179-9102-6, p.80-81
  77. ^ Richard Felix Staar, Foreign policies of the Soviet Union, Hoover Press, 1991, ISBN 0-8179-9102-6, p.85

External links and further reading[edit]