Community reinforcement approach and family training
Community reinforcement approach and family training (CRAFT) is a behavior therapy approach for treating addiction. The original community reinforcement approach (CRA), developed by Nate Azrin in the 1970s, uses operant conditioning to help people learn to reduce the power of their addictions and enjoy healthy living. CRAFT combines CRA with family training, which equips families and friends with supportive techniques to encourage their loved ones to begin and continue treatment, and provides defenses against addiction's damaging effects on loved ones.
- 1 Introduction
- 2 Description
- 3 CRA procedures
- 4 Communication
- 5 Al-Anon
- 6 Intervention
- 7 Research and outcomes
- 8 History
- 9 Professional organizations
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 External links
The community reinforcement approach (CRA) was "originally developed for individuals with alcohol use disorders, [but] has been successfully employed to treat a variety of substance use disorders for more than 35 years. Based on operant conditioning [a type of learning], CRA helps people rearrange their lifestyles so that healthy, drug-free living becomes rewarding and thereby competes with alcohol and drug use."
"CRA is a time-limited treatment." "In time-limited therapy, a set number of sessions (for example, 16 sessions) or time limit (for example, one year) is decided upon either at the very beginning of therapy or within the early stages of therapy."
Community reinforcement and family training (CRAFT) is CRA that "works through family members." It "is designed to increase the odds of the substance user who is refusing treatment to enter treatment, as well as improve the lives of the concerned family members. CRAFT "teaches the use of healthy rewards to encourage positive behaviors. Plus, it focuses on helping both the substance user and the family."
CRAFT is a motivational model of family therapy. It is reward-based—that is, based on positive reinforcement. CRAFT is aimed at the families and friends of treatment-refusing individuals who have a substance abuse problem. "CRAFT works to affect [influence] the substance users’ behavior by changing the way the family interacts with them."
In the model, the following terms are used:
- Identified Patient (IP) – the individual with the substance abuse problem who is refusing treatment, and
- Concerned Significant Others (CSOs) – the relevant family members and friends of the IP.
"CRAFT grew out of the understanding that although individuals who truly need help with substance use problems often are strongly opposed to treatment. On the other hand, the concerned significant others (CSOs) of the substance abuser are commonly highly motivated to get help for them."
When a loved one is abusing substances and refusing to get help, CRAFT is designed to help families learn practical and effective ways to accomplish these three goals:
- Move their loved one toward treatment,
- Reduce their loved one’s alcohol and drug use, and
- Simultaneously improve their own lives.
One experiment compared CRAFT with Al-Anon and Nar-Anon facilitation therapies for their impacts on addicts to enter treatment. The finding was that concerned significant others who participated in Al-Anon and Nar-Anon facilitation therapy engaged 29.0% of addicts into treatment, whereas those who went through CRAFT engaged 67.2%. Another study compared CRAFT, Al-Anon facilitation therapy designed to encourage involvement in the 12-step program, and a Johnson intervention. The study found that all of these approaches were associated with similar improvements in the functioning of concerned significant others and improvements in their relationship quality with the addicts. However, the CRAFT approach was more effective in engaging initially unmotivated problem drinkers in treatment (64%) as compared with the Al-Anon (13%) and Johnson interventions (30%).
Robert J. Meyers, PhD wrote about the influence that concerned family members have in treatment of the substance user, and the benefits for themselves:
The Community Reinforcement Approach and Family Training (CRAFT) intervention ... method was developed with the belief that since family members can, and do make important contribution[s] in other areas of addiction treatment (i.e. family and couples therapy), that the CSO can play a powerful role in helping to engage the substance user who is in denial to submit to treatment. In addition, it is often the substance user who reports that family pressure or influence is the reason [they] sought treatment. Also, CSOs who attend the CRAFT program also benefit by becoming more independent and reducing their depression, anxiety and anger symptoms even if their loved one does not enter treatment.
The following CRA procedures and descriptions are from Meyers, Roozen, and Smith for the substance user::382–384
- Functional Analysis of Substance
- Explore the antecedents of a client’s substance use.
- Explore the positive and negative consequences of a client’s substance use.
- Sobriety Sampling
- A gentle movement toward long-term abstinence that begins with a client’s agreement to sample a time-limited period of abstinence.
- CRA Treatment Plan
- Establish meaningful, objective goals in client-selected areas.
- Establish highly specified methods for obtaining those goals.
- Tools: Happiness Scale, and Goals of Counseling form.
- Behavior Skills Training
- Teach three basic skills through instruction and role-playing:
- Break overwhelming problems into smaller ones.
- Address smaller problems.
- Communication skills
- A positive interaction style
- Drink/drug refusal training
- Identify high-risk situations.
- Teach assertiveness.
- Job Skills Training
- Provide basic steps for obtaining and keeping a valued job.
- Social and Recreational Counseling
- Provide opportunities to sample new social and recreational activities.
- Relapse Prevention
- Teach clients how to identify high-risk situations.
- Teach clients how to anticipate and cope with a relapse.
- Relationship Counseling
- Improve the interaction between the client and his or her partner.
(For details, please see the article: "The Community Reinforcement Approach: An Update of the Evidence" published in the Alcohol Research and Health journal by NIAAA.)
With CRAFT, families/friends (CSOs) are trained in various strategies, including positive reinforcement, various communication skills, and natural consequences. "One of the big pieces that has a lot of influence over all the other strategies is positive communication. "There are seven steps in the CRAFT model for implementing positive communication strategies."
- Be Brief
- Be Positive
- Refer to Specific Behaviors
- Label your Feelings
- Offer an Understanding Statement – For example, "I appreciate that you have these concerns, ... [or] I understand that you really want to talk right now, and that this feels urgent, ... [or] I would love to be there for you."
- Accept Partial Responsibility – This step "is really designed to decrease defensiveness on the part of your loved one. ... It's not about accepting responsibility for things you are not responsible for. ... [Rather, it's to] direct you towards the piece that you can own for yourself. ... [For example, ] what you can take responsibility for are the ways that you communicate," etc.
- Offer to Help
"The overarching goals for the strategies for communicating are to help decrease defensiveness on the part of the loved one that you are speaking to, and increase the chances that your message is really going to be heard—so, increasing the ability that you have to really get across the message that you want." In fact, the title of Robert J. Meyers' and Brenda L. Wolfe's book based on CRAFT is, Get Your Loved One Sober: Alternatives to Nagging, Pleading, and Threatening.
"Consequences being in place is really important and helpful in terms of communicating your message, but it's also really important, maybe even moreso, to be consistent in following through with those consequences and rewards."
Al-Anon does not currently adopt, hold, or promote the view that concerned significant others (CSOs) can, with any certainty, make a positive, direct, and active contribution to arrest compulsive drinking. However, Al-Anon says that by CSOs improving their own attitudes, and offering support and encouragement to the user, the "family situation is bound to improve." On the other hand, the premise of CRAFT is that deliberate, positive interactions can increase willingness and decrease resistance of users to treatment. Al-Anon recognizes that while increased willingness and decreased resistance may be a happy by-product of detaching from the adverse behaviors of alcoholics, there are no guarantees that this will occur. Al-Anon is a fellowship with a focus on helping families and friends, themselves, without promoting a direct intervention process for alcoholics (see Al-Anon/Alateen). Because "no one ever graduates" from Al-Anon, Al-Anon can be viewed as an open-ended program, not time-limited, whereas CRAFT is more specific.
- Powerlessness. Al-Anon's First Step promotes a powerless view for families and friends, "We admitted we were powerless over alcohol—that our lives had become unmanageable."
- Disease. Al-Anon writes, "As the American Medical Association will attest, alcoholism is a disease." Al-Anon also states, "Although it can be arrested, alcoholism has no known cure."
- Three C's. Al-Anon has a dictum called "the Three C's—I didn't cause alcoholism; I can't control it; and I can't cure it."
- Detach with Love. Al-Anon "advocates 'loving detachment' from the substance abuser" (see sidebar: Engaging v. Detaching).
- Family illness. Al-Anon writes, "Alcoholism is a family disease," and "we believe alcoholism is a family illness and that changed attitudes can aid recovery."
No direct impact
As far as the CSOs having a direct and positive impact on another's sobriety, Al-Anon asks and answers itself:
"But surely," we argue, "sobriety is desirable, and there must be something we can do to help! There has to be something we can say that will make a difference, or some sort of help or support or information we can provide that will convince our alcoholic loved ones to get the help they need or to make sure they continue on the path to recovery!"
Alcoholism is a disease. Would the right word stop the spread of cancer or make chemotherapy more effective? Would our help, good looks, higher income, or cleaner house overcome the progression of Alzheimer's Disease? Our compassion and support might make a loved one's struggle with illness easier to bear, but it is simply not within our power to cure someone else's disease. We are powerless over another's alcoholism.
This answer has these three characteristics:
- Absolute outcomes. Regarding help, Al-Anon's answer tends toward complete and total outcomes, such as the ability for someone to convince, cure or overcome someone else's alcoholism, or that they could guarantee (make sure) that someone continues on the path to recovery. Although this answer may help dispel the notion that someone has permanent, guaranteed power over another's sobriety, it does not answer the question that someone could provide any measure of direct help or support toward someone else's sobriety or treatment of someone else's addiction, which is the basis of CRAFT.
- Incomplete analogies. Al-Anon wrote that the right word can neither make chemotherapy—a bio-chemical process—more effective nor stop cancer. However, the answer does not address the help or support or information that could make cancer treatment more effective or that could have a positive impact against cancer.
- Medical opinion. Modern contrary assessments exist that alcohol (and drug) addiction are not (progressive, incurable) diseases, coming from Dr. Gene Heyman and others (see disease theory of alcoholism). In 1960, Bill Wilson—the co-founder of A.A. (his wife Lois was co-founder of Al-Anon)—called alcoholism a malady or illness and did not view it as a disease (see Alcoholics Anonymous § Disease concept of alcoholism). The diagnostic assessment of alcoholism in someone can include an assessment of co-morbidity, mental illness, and domestic violence.
The work of Robert Meyers' CRAFT Community Reinforcement Approach and Family Training program ... differs significantly from Al-Anon in that it is a behavioral program which advocates that the CSO [Concerned Significant Other] can have a positive impact on the substance abuser. The CRAFT program has been demonstrated in Meyers' research to be more effective than the Vernon Johnson type intervention or Al-Anon, with less negative side-effects and better outcomes, whether or not the substance abuser enters treatment.
The CRAFT program uses a variety of interventions based on functional assessment including a module to prevent domestic violence.
"There are questions about the long-term effectiveness of interventions for those addicted to drugs or alcohol. A study examining addicts who had undergone a standard intervention (called the Johnson Intervention) found that they had a higher relapse rate than any other method of referral to outpatient Alcohol and Other Drug treatment"(see Intervention, section: Controversy).
Smith, Campos-Melady and Meyers describe the Johnson Institute intervention as a "surprise party" that is uncomfortable for many CSOs (families/friends):
The Al-Anon approach’s emphasis upon detaching from the substance abuser is unappealing to many CSOs. On the other end of the spectrum is the Johnson Institute Intervention: a “surprise party” in which the IP is confronted by family members and a therapist with the objective of getting the IP to enter treatment. When the intervention is actually carried out, it often results in a high rate of engagement in treatment, and yet only a small number of CSOs who begin the program ever follow through with the intervention (Liepman, Nirenberg, & Begin, 1989; Miller et al., 1999), and many report feeling uncomfortable with its confrontational nature (Barber & Gilbertson, 1997).:22
Research and outcomes
The community reinforcement approach has considerable research supporting it as effective. Community reinforcement has both efficacy and effectiveness data. Started in the 1970s, community reinforcement approach is a comprehensive operant program built on a functional assessment of a client's drinking behavior and the use of positive reinforcement and contingency management for non-drinking. When combined with disulfiram (an aversive procedure) community reinforcement showed remarkable effects. One component of the program that appears to be particularly strong is the non-drinking club. Applications of community reinforcement to public policy has become the recent focus of this approach.
"The Community Reinforcement Approach has been found to be extremely effective in outpatient settings as well. In one study, clients treated with CRA and the disulfiram compliance component were abstinent an average of 97% of the days during the last month of the 6-month followup, whereas clients treated with a combination of a 12-step program and the CRA disulfiram compliance training were abstinent an average of 74% of the days. For those clients who received a 12-step program and a prescription for disulfiram, an average of only 45% of the comparable days were abstinent (Azrin, Sisson, Meyers, & Godley, 1982).":5
CRAFT (and Al-Anon, intervention, etc.)
An offshoot of the community reinforcement approach is the community reinforcement approach and family training. This program is designed to help family members of substance abusers feel empowered to engage in treatment. Community reinforcement approach and family training (CRAFT) has helped family members to get their loved ones into treatment. The rates of success have varied somewhat by study but seem to cluster around 70%. CRAFT is one of the only family-aimed treatments with proven results for getting people with drug or alcohol problems into treatment. The program uses a variety of interventions based on functional assessment including a module to prevent domestic violence. Partners are trained to use positive reinforcement, various communication skills and natural consequences.
Alcohol abusers intervention
From an article on the American Psychology Association (APA) website about the success of CRAFT in substance abuse treatment and intervention, these are the success outcomes for engaging drinkers into treatment:
From the article:
Sisson and Azrin (1986) recruited 12 adult women with an alcoholic husband, brother, or father and randomly assigned them either to an early version of CRAFT or to a traditional intervention. Results indicated that CRAFT was considerably more successful in getting the persons with substance abuse into treatment and reducing their alcohol consumption in comparison to the Al-Anon group. Miller et al. (1999) conducted a controlled comparison of CRAFT, the Johnson Intervention, and Al-Anon facilitation (TSF) that randomized 130 caregivers of problem drinkers to receive 12 hours of contact in one of the three conditions. CRAFT and TSF had better retention than the Johnson Intervention. Consistent with previous studies, participants tended to drop out of the latter intervention in order to avoid the family confrontation with the drinker. The CRAFT intervention also engaged substantially more drinkers into treatment (64% vs 23% Johnson and 13% TSF).
Drug abusers intervention
From the same article on the American Psychology Association (APA) website about the success of CRAFT in substance abuse treatment and intervention, these are the success outcomes for persons abusing drugs to enter treatment (the success outcomes were nearly the same as the alcohol abuse outcomes):
- 64% – CRAFT
- 17% – Caregivers' Twelve-step Self-help Group (TSG)
From the article:
Kirby et al. (1999) randomly assigned 32 caregivers of drug users to CRAFT or a 12-step self-help group (TSG). Caregivers who were assigned to CRAFT attended more sessions than those in TSG and were more likely to complete a full course of counseling during which the persons abusing drugs were far more likely to enter treatment (64% vs 17%). Reductions in drug use occurred during the study, but there was no group x time interaction. Meyers et al. (2002) replicated and extended those findings with drug users with similar positive effects on engagement of the drug abusing family members in treatment.
Note: When the articles states "there was no group x time interaction," it simply means the CRAFT outcome (64%) and the TSF outcome (17%) remained the same over time, even though there was a reduction in drug use during the study.
(For details, please see the American Psychological Association (APA) article: "Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT)", published by the APA)
"In a parallel study sponsored by the National Institute on Drug Abuse that focused on abusers of other drugs, family members receiving CRAFT successfully engaged 74 percent of initially unmotivated drug users in treatment (Meyers et al. 1999)."
CRA was designed by Nate Azrin in the early 1970s:
The most influential behaviorist of all times, B. F. Skinner, largely considered punishment to be an ineffective method for modifying human behavior (Skinner 1974). Thus it was no surprise that, many years later, research discovered that substance use disorder treatments based on confrontation were largely ineffective in decreasing the use of alcohol and other substances (Miller and Wilbourne 2002, Miller et al. 1998). Nate Azrin already was convinced of this back in the early 1970s, when he designed an innovative treatment for alcohol problems: the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Azrin believed that it was necessary to alter the environment in which people with alcohol problems live so that they received strong reinforcement for sober behavior from their community, including family, work, and friends. As part of this strategy, the program emphasizes helping clients discover new, enjoyable activities that do not revolve around alcohol, and teaching them the skills necessary for participating in those activities.
The origin of CRAFT:
Drs. Robert J. Meyers and Jane Ellen Smith of the University of New Mexico developed the CRAFT program to teach families how to impact their loved one while avoiding both detachment and confrontation, the respective strategies of Al-Anon (a 12-Step based approach), and traditional (Johnson Institute-style) interventions in which the substance user is confronted by family members and friends during a surprise meeting. While all three approaches have been found to improve family members' functioning and relationship satisfaction, CRAFT has proven to be significantly more effective in engaging loved ones in comparison to the Johnson Institute Intervention or Al-Anon/Nar-Anon facilitation therapy.
Up to 2009, CRAFT and CRA programs were not widespread amongst addiction counselors. Instead, many addiction counselors were tied to a twelve-step model that had much less research support. Recent trends by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) have been to help deploy these intervention techniques. In 2007, CRAFT was being used in 25 clinics in the United States.
Association for Behavior Analysis International
Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies
The Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies (ABCT) also has an interest group in behavior analysis, which focuses on clinical behavior analysis. In addition, ABCT has a special interest group on addictions.
- Cognitive behavior therapy
- SMART Recovery Family & Friends
- National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA)
- American Psychological Association (APA)
- National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)
- Domestic violence
- Meyers, Robert J. "CRAFT: An Alternative to Intervention". http://www.hbo.com/addiction/treatment/371_alternative_to_intervention.html: HBO.
- "Different types of therapy". United Kingdom: Brighton Therapy Works.
- Meyers, Robert J.; Roozen, Hendrik G.; Smith, Jane Ellen (2011). "The Community Reinforcement Approach: An Update of the Evidence". Alcohol Research & Health. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 33 (4). Retrieved January 20, 2014.p. 380
- Smith, Jane Ellen; Campos-Melady, Marita; Meyers, Robert J. (2009). "CRA and CRAFT" (PDF). Journal of Behavior Analysis of Sports, Health Fitness and Behavioral Medicine. 1. Behavior Analyst Online (published Spring 2009). 2 (1). Archived from the original (pdf) on December 29, 2010. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- Foote, Jeff; Manuel, Jennifer K. (2009). "Adapting the CRAFT approach for use in group therapy". Journal of Behavior Analysis in Health, Sports, Fitness and Medicine. 2 (1): 110. doi:10.1037/h0100378.
- Meyers, Robert J.; Miller, William R.; Smith, Jane Ellen; Tonigan, J. Scott (2002). "A randomized trial of two methods for engaging treatment-refusing drug users through concerned significant others". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. American Psychological Association (APA). 70 (5): 1182–1185. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.70.5.1182. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- Cf. Kirby, Kimberly C; Marlowe, Douglas B; Festinger, David S; Garvey, Kerry A; LaMonaca, Vincent (1999). "Community reinforcement training for family and significant others of drug abusers: a unilateral intervention to increase treatment entry of drug users". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. Elsevier BV. 56 (1): 85–96. doi:10.1016/s0376-8716(99)00022-8. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- Miller, William R.; Meyers, Robert J.; Tonigan, J. Scott (1999). "Engaging the unmotivated in treatment for alcohol problems: A comparison of three strategies for intervention through family members". Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. American Psychological Association (APA). 67 (5): 688–697. doi:10.1037/0022-006x.67.5.688. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
- "CRAFT". www.robertjmeyersphd.com. Robert J. Meyers, PhD. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- Miller, William (1998). "Toward a Motivational Definition and Understanding of Addiction". Motivational Interviewing Newsletter for Trainers. International Association of Motivational Interviewing Trainers. 5 (3): 2–6. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
- Dr. Bob Meyers, PhD: "CRAFT Technique" Creator (2007). Craft Video Clip (wmv (Windows Media Video)). krqe.com (video). Albuquerque, New Mexico: KRQE News. Retrieved January 23, 2014. Time: 1:20 to 2:09
- Dr. Josh King, Psy. D., Center for Motivation and Change (CMC), and Dr. Nicole Kosanke, PhD, Director of Evaluations and Family Services at CMC. CRAFT Series: Positive Communication When You're Angry 1/3 (video). The Center for Motivation and Change (CMC). Event occurs at 2:41 to 3:26, 12:12 to 12:30. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Dr. Josh King, Psy. D., Center for Motivation and Change (CMC), and Dr. Nicole Kosanke, PhD, Director of Evaluations and Family Services at CMC. CRAFT Series: Positive Communication When You're Angry 2/3 (video). The Center for Motivation and Change (CMC). Event occurs at 0:30 to 1:06, 1:15 to 1:18, 7:35 to 8:21. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- "LCCN Permalink 2003057149". www.loc.gov. Library of Congress. 2004. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Dr. Josh King, Psy. D., Center for Motivation and Change (CMC), and Dr. Nicole Kosanke, PhD, Director of Evaluations and Family Services at CMC. CRAFT Series Part 3: Negative Consequences vs Detaching (4/5) (video). The Center for Motivation and Change (CMC). Event occurs at 5:59 to 8:17. Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Miller, William R.; Meyers, Robert J.; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, Susanne (1999). "The Community-Reinforcement Approach" (pdf). Alcohol Research and Health. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. 23 (2).p. 119
- Broughton, June B. (July 1978). "Alanon: Help, But 'No One Graduates'" (PDF). Potsdam Courier and Freeman. Potsdam, N.Y., Lawrence, N.Y.: Northern New York Historical Newspapers. Archived from the original (pdf) on February 3, 2014.
- How Al-Anon Works for Families and Friends of Alcoholics. Virginia Beach, Virginia: Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters, Inc. 1995. p. 45. ISBN 0-910034-26-5. OCLC 32951492.
- How Al-Anon Works for Families and Friends of Alcoholics. Virginia Beach, Virginia: Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters, Inc. 1995. p. 17. ISBN 0-910034-26-5. OCLC 32951492.
- How Al-Anon Works for Families and Friends of Alcoholics. Virginia Beach, Virginia: Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters, Inc. 1995. p. 158. ISBN 0-910034-26-5. OCLC 32951492.
- Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters, Inc. "Detachment" (PDF). Virginia Beach, Virginia: Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters, Inc. Retrieved January 17, 2014.
- Al-Anon Family Groups. "Suggested Al-Anon Preamble to the Twelve Steps". www.al-anon.alateen.org. Virginia Beach, Virginia: Al-Anon Family Group Headquarters, Inc. Retrieved January 18, 2014.
- Hartman, Rosemary (2007). "Detachment with Love Gains New Meaning". Hazelden Betty Ford Foundation. Retrieved February 16, 2017.
Al-Anon, a mutual-help group for people with alcoholic friends or family members, pioneered the idea of detachment with love.
- Heyman, Gene M. (2010). Addiction: A Disorder of Choice (paperback). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (published October 2010). ISBN 978-0-674-05727-2. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- Smith, J.E. & Meyers, R.J. (2004) Motivating Substance Abusers to Enter Treatment: Working with Family Members; Guilford Press
- Meyers, RJ & Wolfe, B. (2004) Get Your Loved One Sober: Alternative to Nagging, Pleading and Threatening by Meyers, Hazelden Press
- "The Johnson intervention and relapse during outpatient treatment". American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 22.n3 (August 1996): pp36
- Smith, J.E., Milford, J.L. & Meyers, R.J. (2004) CRA and CRAFT: Behavioral Approaches to Treating Substance-Abusing Individuals. The Behavior Analyst Today, 5 (4), Page 391–403 
- JANE E. BRODY (February 4, 2013). "Effective Addiction Treatment". New York Times.
Other validated treatment methods include Community Reinforcement and Family Training, or Craft, an approach developed by Robert J. Meyers and described in his book, “Get Your Loved One Sober,” with co-author Brenda L. Wolfe.
- Dutcher, L. W., Anderson, R., Moore, M., Luna-Anderson, C., Meyers, R.J., Delaney, Harold D., and Smith, J.E. (2009). Community Reinforcement and Family Training (CRAFT): An Effectiveness Study. Journal of Behavior Analysis of Sports, Health Fitness and Behavioral Medicine, 2 (1), "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 29, 2010. Retrieved January 21, 2014.
- Hunt, G.M. & Azrin, N.H. (1973). A community-reinforcement approach to alcoholism. Behavior Research and Therapy, 11, 91–104.
- Azrin, N.H., Sisson, R.W., Meyers, R.J., & Godley, M.D. (1982). Alcoholism treatment by disulfiram and community reinforcement therapy. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 3, 105–112.
- Mallams, J.H., Godley, M.D., Hall, G.M., & Meyers, R.J. (1982). A social-systems approach to resocializing alcoholics in the community. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 43, 1115–1123.
- Jaime L. Milford, Julia L. Austin, and Jane Ellen Smith (2007): Community Reinforcement and the Dissemination of Evidence-based Practice: Implications for Public Policy. International Journal of Behavioral Cconsultation and Therapy, 3 (1), 77–87 .
- Meyers, R.J., Smith, J.E. & Lash, D.N. (2005): A Program for Engaging Treatment-Refusing Substance Abusers into Treatment: CRAFT. IJBCT, 1 (2), Page 90–100 BAO
- Kirby, K.C., Marlowe, D.B., Festinger, D.S., Garvey, K.A., & LaMonaca, V. (1999). Community reinforcement training for family and significant others of drug abusers: Aunilateral intervention to increase treatment entry of drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 56, 85–96.
- Meyers, R.J., Miller, W.R., Hill, D.E., & Tonigan, J.S. (1999). Community reinforcement and family training (CRAFT): Engaging unmotivated drug users in treatment. Journal of Substance Abuse, 10, 1–18.
- Miller, W.R., Meyers, R.J., & Tonigan, J.S. (1999). Engaging the unmotivated in treatment for alcohol problems: A comparison of three strategies for intervention through family members. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67, 688–697.
- Meyers, Robert J.; Wolfe, Brenda L. (2004). "The Program". Get Your Loved One Sober (Paperback). Center City, Minn.: Hazelden. p. 11. ISBN 1-59285-081-2. LCCN 2003057149.
- Meyers, Robert J.; Wolfe, Brenda L. (2004). "The Road Map". Get Your Loved One Sober (Paperback). Center City, Minn.: Hazelden. p. 37. ISBN 1-59285-081-2. LCCN 2003057149.
- "CRAFT". American Psychology Association. Retrieved 20 January 2014.
- Dr. Bob Meyers, PhD: "CRAFT Technique" Creator (2007). Craft Video Clip (wmv (Windows Media Video)). krqe.com (video). Albuquerque, New Mexico: KRQE News. Retrieved January 23, 2014. Time: 0:37 to 0:59
- "What Is CRAFT". www.motivationandchange.com. The Center for Motivation and Change (CMC). Retrieved January 23, 2014.
- Purvis, G., and MacInnis, D.M. (2009). Implementation of the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA) in a Long-Standing Addictions Outpatient Clinic. Journal of Behavior Analysis of Sports, Health, Fitness and Behavioral Medicine, 2 (1), 33–44 BAO Archived December 29, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Robert J. Meyers, PhD (2007). Getting an Addict into Treatment: The CRAFT Approach (Video). HBO. Retrieved January 22, 2014.
CRAFT is currently being used in 25 clinics in the United States.
- Robert J. Meyers, PhD – CRAFT
- Parent CRAFT – Online Video Course developed by Robert J. Meyers, PhD
- Community Reinforcement Approach at Drug & Alcohol Rehab Asia (DARA), Thailand
- SMART Recovery Family & Friends
- Community Reinforcement Approach and Family Training (CRAFT) at the American Psychological Association
- The Community Reinforcement Approach: An Update of the Evidence at the NIAAA