Compacted graphite iron

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GJV at a magnification of 100:1

Compacted graphite iron (CGI), also known as vermicular graphite iron (GJV, VG,[1] JV[2] or GGV from the German: "Gusseisen mit Vermiculargraphit"[3]) especially in non-English speaking countries,[4] is a metal which is gaining popularity in applications that require either greater strength, or lower weight than cast iron.

R.D. Schelleng obtained a patent for the production of compacted graphite iron in 1965.[5]


The graphite in compacted graphite iron differs in structure from that in gray iron because the graphite particles are shorter and thicker.[6]


The first commercial application for compacted graphite iron was for the brake discs for high-speed rail trains.[7]

More recently compacted graphite iron has been used for diesel engine blocks. It has proven to be useful in the manufacture of V topology diesel engines where the loading on the block is very high between the cylinder banks, and for heavy goods vehicles which use diesel engines with high combustion pressures.

It is also used for turbo housings and exhaust manifolds, in the latter case to reduce corrosion.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Vermicular Graphite Cast Iron, archived from the original on 2010-01-18, retrieved 2010-01-18.
  2. ^ Martin, Thomas; Weber, Rolf (October 2004), Compacted Vermicular Cast Iron (GJV) for the Audi V6 Diesel Engine, retrieved 2010-01-18.
  3. ^ Roos, E.; Maile, K. (2008), Werkstoffkunde für Ingenieure: Grundlagen, Anwendung, Prüfung (in German) (3rd ed.), Springer, p. 216, ISBN 978-3-540-68398-8.
  4. ^ Dawson, Dr. Steve (2008), "Compacted Graphite Iron – A Material Solution for Modern Diesel Engine Cylinder Blocks and Heads", Archived copy (PDF), World Foundry Congress, Chennai, India, pp. 93–99, archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-26, retrieved 2010-01-18.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  5. ^ "Compacted Graphite Iron".
  6. ^ "Compacted Graphite Iron: Mechanical and Physical Properties for Engine Design" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-13. Retrieved 2009-04-14.
  7. ^ "Why Compacted Graphite Iron?". Archived from the original on December 19, 2007.