Comparison of CRT, LCD, Plasma, and OLED displays

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Technology
Parameter
CRT LCD Plasma OLED
Static Contrast ratio Typical 200-300:1[1][2] 150 to 6,600:1[3][4] 3,800:1[5] "∞" "Inf:1"[6] Unable to be calculated as black levels are zero.
Peak Luminosity 176 cd/m²[1] 200–4000 cd/m²[7][8] 50–200 cd/m²[1] 100–700 cd/m²[9]
Color depth 8-bit per subpixel resolution; offers better resolution for grayscale 6 to 10-bit per subpixel panels;[10] smaller dot pitch, better detail[11] 6 to 8-bit per subpixel panels 8 to 10-bit per subpixel, with some HDR models capable of 12-bit per subpixel.[12]
Response time 0.01 ms[13] to less than 1 µs[14] 1–8 ms typical (according to manufacturer data), older units could be as slow as 35 ms[15] Typically less than 0.001 ms, as low as 0.00001 ms[13] Estimates varying from under 0.01 ms to as low as 0.001 ms.[16][17]
Frame rate (Refresh rate) 60–85 fps (Hz) typically, some CRTs can go even higher (200 fps at reduced resolution[18]);
internally, display refreshed at input frame rate speed
60 fps (Hz) typically, gaming monitors can do up to 360 fps;
internally, display refreshed at up to 360 Hz[19][20]
60 fps typically, some can do 120 fps;
internally, display refreshed at e.g. 480 or 600 Hz[21]
60 fps typically. Up to 120 fps. (Hz)
Flicker Perceptible on lower refresh rates (60 Hz and below)[22] Depends; in 2013 most LCDs used PWM (strobing) to dim the backlight[23] However, since then many flicker free LCD computer monitors were introduced. [24] Does not normally occur due to a high refresh rate higher than FPS[25] Does not normally occur at 100% brightness level. At levels below 100% flicker often occurs with frequencies between 60 and 255hz, since often pulse-width modulation is used to dim OLED screens.[26] [27]
Risk of image persistence or burn-in High[28] Low[28] High[28] Medium[29]
Energy consumption and heat generation High[30] Low[30]
Varies with brightness but usually higher than LCD[31][32][33][34] Varies based on image brightness and color. For the majority of images it will consume 60–80% of the power of an LCD.

OLED displays use 40% of the power of an LCD displaying an image that is primarily black as they lack the need for a backlight,[35] while OLED can use more than three times as much power to display a mostly white image compared to an LCD.[36]

Environmental influences Sensitive to ambient magnetic fields, which can adversely affect convergence and color purity. Prone to malfunctions on both low (below -4 °F/-20 °C) or high (above 45 °C/113 °F) temperatures[37] High altitude pressure difference may cause poor function or buzzing noises[38] Can have poor brightness.
Electro-magnetic radiation emission Can emit a small amount of X-ray radiation. Only emits non-ionizing radiation.[39] Emits strong radio frequency electromagnetic radiation[40] No, control circuitry may emit radio interference
Size Up to 43" (1.09 m)[41] Up to 120" (3.04 m)[42] Up to 150" (3.8 m)[43] (152" experimental)[44] Up to 88" (2.24 m)[45]
Maintenance Hazardous to repair or service due to high-voltage,
requires skilled convergence calibration and adjustments for geographic location changes.[46] Glass display tube is evacuated and carries risk of implosion if improperly handled.
Risky and expensive to repair due to complexity of the display;[47] units with mercury CCFL backlight lamps are a environmental health hazard[48] Screen itself cannot be repaired if the gas used to generate images leaks[49]
Other No native resolution. Currently, the only display technology capable of multi-syncing (displaying different resolutions and refresh rates without the need for scaling).[50] Display lag is extremely low due to its nature, which does not have the ability to store image data before output, unlike LCDs, plasma displays and OLED displays.[51] Extremely bulky and heavy construction in comparison to other display technologies. Large displays would be unsuitable for wall mounting. New models are no longer produced. The LCD grid can mask effects of spatial and grayscale quantization, creating the illusion of higher image quality. [52]
Is the cheapest display technology currently produced, with some entry-level models selling for less than $100.
Screen-door effects are more noticeable than LCD when up close, or on larger sizes. [53] New models are no longer produced. Coloured sub-pixels may age at different rates, leading to a colour shift. Sensitive to UV light from direct sunlight. Is considered the highest quality but also the most expensive display technology currently produced, with products rarely being available for less than $1000.

References[edit]

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