Comparison of Afrikaans and Dutch

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Dutch and Afrikaans

Afrikaans is a daughter language of Dutch[1][2][3][4][5] and—unlike Netherlands Dutch, Belgian Dutch and Surinamese Dutch—a separate standard language rather than a national variety.[6][7][8] As an estimated 90 to 95% of Afrikaans vocabulary is ultimately of Dutch origin,[9][10][11] there are few lexical differences between the two languages;[12] however, Afrikaans has a considerably more regular morphology,[8] grammar, and spelling.[13]

Contents

Mutual intelligibility[edit]

There is a high degree of mutual intelligibility between the two languages,[8][14][15] particularly in written form.[7][13][16] Research suggests that mutual intelligibility between Dutch and Afrikaans is better than between Dutch and Frisian[17] or between Danish and Swedish.[16] Mutual intelligibility tends to be asymmetrical, as it is easier for Dutch speakers to understand Afrikaans than for Afrikaans speakers to understand Dutch.[16]

Intelligibility of Afrikaans to Dutch speakers[edit]

Cognate words[edit]

Despite Afrikaans having acquired some lexical and syntactical borrowings from other languages such as Malay, Portuguese, Khoisan languages.[18] Also, Bantu languages[19] and to a lesser extent, Low German, Dutch speakers are confronted with fewer non-cognates when listening to Afrikaans than the other way round.[16]

For example, the Afrikaans sentence ons is uit die Land van Israel ("we are from the Land of Israel") would be understood by a Dutch speaker as meaning "us is from that Land of Israel", whereas the Dutch equivalent we zijn van het Land Israël would be less readily understood by an Afrikaans speaker as there are no words cognate with we or het.

In Afrikaans, het is the inflection of the verb ("to have" from Dutch hebben) although sy (cognate with zijn) is used as the subjunctive of "to be", while we in Dutch is cognate with "we" in English, a language widely understood by Afrikaans speakers. Conversely, wees, meaning "to be" in Afrikaans, is used as the imperative in Dutch, although it is used as the imperative in religious contexts in Afrikaans (e.g. wees genadig, meaning "be merciful" or "have mercy").

Verb forms[edit]

The simplification of verbs in Afrikaans, with almost all verbs being regular and the absence of the simple past tense, means that while the phrase ek het gedink ("I have thought" or "I thought") would be understood by Dutch speakers as "I have thought", the Dutch phrases ik heb gedacht and ik dacht would not be as readily understood by speakers of Afrikaans.

Similarly, the resemblance of Afrikaans verbs like lees ("to read", Dutch lezen) to the first person singular and verbs like gaan ("to go") to infinitive forms in Dutch means that julle lees ("you [plural] read") or ek gaan ("I go") would be understood by Dutch speakers more readily than jullie lezen or ik ga would be by Afrikaans speakers.

Unmarked and marked forms of words[edit]

As Afrikaans no longer has unmarked and marked forms of words, instead using words derived from the marked forms in Dutch, the Afrikaans words for "there" and "now", daar and nou, are more intelligible to speakers of Dutch than the unmarked Dutch forms er and nu are to Afrikaans speakers.

For example, nou is daar, meaning "now there is" in Afrikaans,[20] is sometimes encountered in Dutch[21] although nou is used more colloquially for emphasis, in the sense of the English "well".[22] In Dutch, "now there is" would be translated as nu is er, using the unmarked forms, which do not exist in Afrikaans.[23]

Intelligibility of Dutch to Afrikaans speakers[edit]

Loanwords vs purisms[edit]

Afrikaans uses purisms or loan translations where Dutch would use loans from French, Latin or English. Owing to the exposure of Afrikaans speakers to English, Dutch words like computer, lift and appartement are more readily understood by them than Afrikaans equivalents like rekenaar, hysbak and woonstel are by Dutch speakers.

Similarly, Dutch words such as favoriet ("favourite"), film, and station are intelligible to Afrikaans speakers on account of their resemblance to their English equivalents, whereas the Afrikaans gunsteling, rolprent, and stasie (cognate with Dutch statie), while intelligible to Dutch speakers, would be considered old-fashioned.

Words of Dutch and non-Dutch origin[edit]

In addition, while Afrikaans may use words of non-Dutch origin unintelligible to Dutch speakers (such as those derived from Malay like baie, meaning "very" or "much", and amper meaning "almost" or "nearly"), their Dutch equivalents, or cognates, are also used in Afrikaans, and would therefore be more intelligible to Afrikaans speakers.

For example, although baie, from banyak[24] has no cognate in Dutch, heel as in heel goed ("very good") is used in Afrikaans as well as Dutch.[25] The word amper is unrelated to the Dutch word amper ("scarcely" or "sour"), being derived from the Malay hampir,[24] but the Dutch word bijna, also meaning "almost" or "nearly",[26] is cognate with byna in Afrikaans.[27]

Orthographic differences[edit]

Orthographic differences between Dutch and Afrikaans are mainly due to phonetic evolutions and spelling simplifications in Afrikaans, and the more conservative character of and recent changes to modern Dutch orthography.

However, some aspects of Afrikaans orthography also resemble those of older forms of Dutch, for example, whereas "God be with you" in modern Dutch would be God zij met u, God sy met u, used in Afrikaans, was also used in 18th century Dutch.[28] The current Dutch spelling, using ⟨z⟩ and the digraph ⟨ij⟩, became prevalent from the 19th century.[29]

Other simplifications in Afrikaans had earlier been proposed for Dutch by R.A Kollewijn, but were either not adopted until 1934, such as changing ⟨sch⟩ to ⟨s⟩ (hence Nederlandsch to Nederlands), or rejected, such as changing ⟨isch⟩ to ⟨ies⟩ (hence logisch to logies) and ⟨ijk⟩ to ⟨ik⟩ (hence moeilijk to moeilik).[30]

Afrikaans simplifications[edit]

Replacement of ⟨c⟩ and ⟨ch⟩[edit]

Afrikaans uses ⟨k⟩ for the Dutch hard ⟨c⟩, both pronounced [ k ]; compare Dutch cultuur ("culture") with Afrikaans kultuur. Before the 1990s major spelling reform, the latter spelling was also accepted in Dutch,[31] although other Dutch words such as commissie ("commission") were already spelt with ⟨c⟩, which in Afrikaans would be kommissie.[32]

Words in Dutch with the letter combination ⟨cc⟩, when pronounced as [ kk ] are transliterated in Afrikaans using ⟨kk⟩, for example, acclimatiseren and accommodatie in Dutch become Afrikaans akklimatiseer and akkommodasie. Those in which ⟨cc⟩ is pronounced as ⟨ks⟩, such as Dutch accent and accepteren, become aksent and aksepteer in Afrikaans.[33]

Similarly, Afrikaans uses ⟨s⟩ for the Dutch soft ⟨c⟩, both pronounced [ s ]; compare Dutch centraal ("central") and ceremonie ("ceremony") with Afrikaans sentraal and seremonie. Afrikaans also uses ⟨s⟩ instead of ⟨c⟩ in words like spesiaal ("special") and spesifiek ("specific") which in Dutch would be speciaal and specifiek.

Most Afrikaans words using ⟨c⟩ begin with the digraph ⟨ch⟩, pronounced [ x ], such as Christelik ("Christian") or chemie ("chemistry") with some exceptions like confetti, although Afrikaans dictionaries may also list more phonetic alternative spellings using ⟨k⟩ or ⟨sj⟩, such as kronies for chronisch ("chronic") and sjirurg for chirurg ("surgeon").[34]

However, although the Dutch words China and Chinees (inflected as Chinese) are transliterated in Afrikaans using ⟨sj⟩ as Sjina, Sjinees, and Sjinese respectively,[35] the Dutch spellings are also used, particularly in the media.[36] In some Afrikaans dictionaries, China is standard, while Sjinees is listed as an alternative spelling to Chinees.[34]

Transliteration of loanwords[edit]

French loanwords in Dutch beginning in ⟨ch⟩ (pronounced [ ʃ ]), are transliterated in Afrikaans using ⟨sj⟩; compare Dutch champagne and chic with Afrikaans sjampanje and sjiek.[37] Afrikaans also changes ⟨gn⟩, encountered in French loanwords in Dutch like campagne and compagnie to ⟨nj⟩, hence kampanje and kompanjie.

When ⟨ch⟩ (pronounced [ ʃ ]) appears within a Dutch word, in its Afrikaans equivalent, it is replaced by ⟨sj⟩; compare machine with masjien.[38] This also applies to word endings; compare Dutch Jiddisch ("Yiddish") with Afrikaans Jiddisj,[39] although the latter is also encountered in Dutch.[40] In Dutch, hasjiesj ("hashish") is always written with ⟨sj⟩ similar to hasjisj in Afrikaans.[37]

The Dutch word cheque, in which ⟨ch⟩ is pronounced as [ tʃ ], is written in Afrikaans as tjek, while the Italian-derived word cello is written as tjello. Both languages also use ⟨tsj⟩ (also pronounced as [ tʃ ]) in some geographical names, despite other differences in spelling; compare Dutch Tsjaad ("Chad") with Afrikaans Tsjad.

Use of ⟨k⟩ instead of soft ⟨c⟩[edit]

Another difference between the two languages concerns verbs derived from Latin or French, with Dutch using a soft ⟨c⟩ ([s]) and Afrikaans using ⟨k⟩, hence communiceren[41] and provoceren[42] ("to communicate" and "to provoke") in Dutch become kommunikeer[43] and provokeer[44] in Afrikaans, although kommuniseren was also used in 18th century Dutch.[45]

The word kommuniseer was also previously used in Afrikaans to mean kommunisties maak or "to make communist".[46] However, provoseer is accepted as a synonym for provokeer.[47] By contrast, related nouns in both languages contain the [k] sound, hence communicatie[48] and provocatie[49] in Dutch and kommunikasie[50] and provokasie[51] in Afrikaans.

Changes to digraph ⟨ij⟩[edit]

The Dutch digraph ⟨ij⟩ was converted to ⟨y⟩ in Afrikaans, although pronunciation remained [ɛi]. An example is prijs (price), which is spelt prys in Afrikaans. Dutch words ending in ⟨lijk⟩, however, end in ⟨lik⟩ in Afrikaans, not ⟨lyk⟩, for example lelijk (ugly) in Dutch becomes lelik in Afrikaans. In both languages, this suffix is pronounced [lək], with a schwa.

In Dutch, in which ⟨ij⟩ is treated as a separate letter of the alphabet, IJ often features in place names in the Netherlands like IJsselmeer, or in the Dutch name for Iceland, IJsland. Afrikaans similarly uses Ysland,[52] which was also used in 18th century Dutch.[53]

However, few place names in South Africa of Dutch origin begin with Y, with the exception of Yzerfontein in the Western Cape. The spelling of name of the town, which means iron fountain, is based on the old Dutch word for iron, yzer.[54] It was also previously written as Ijsterfontein.[55] The modern Afrikaans word for iron is yster, while in Dutch it is ijzer.

In modern Dutch, ⟨y⟩ is now typically used in words of Greek origin like cyclus ("cycle") replaced by ⟨i⟩ in its Afrikaans equivalent siklus, although both are pronounced as [i]. However, unlike the ⟨y⟩ in Dutch syndroom ("syndrome"), the ⟨i⟩ in Afrikaans sindroom is pronounced as [ə], as is the rule for the short i in Afrikaans in general.

Mergers of digraphs or trigraphs[edit]

Afrikaans merged Dutch trigraphs ⟨tie⟩, ⟨cie⟩ and ⟨sie⟩ to a single spelling ⟨sie⟩. Apart from ⟨tie⟩, generally pronounced as [tsi] in the Netherlands, there is no difference in pronunciation; compare Dutch provincie ("province") and politie ("police") with Afrikaans provinsie and polisie. However, words ending in ⟨tie⟩ in Dutch are often pronounced as [si] particularly in Flanders.[56]

Afrikaans merged Dutch digraphs and trigraphs ⟨ou⟩, ⟨ouw⟩, ⟨au⟩, and ⟨auw⟩ (pronounced identically by many Dutch speakers) to a single spelling ⟨ou⟩; vrouw ("woman") and dauw ("dew") in Dutch become vrou and dou in Afrikaans respectively. Similarly, some Dutch words beginning with ⟨au⟩, such as autonomie are written with ⟨ou⟩, hence outonomie.

The Dutch cluster ⟨tion⟩ became ⟨sion⟩ in Afrikaans. Compare nationaal ("national") with nasionaal. In Dutch, the pronunciation differs from region to region and include [tsiɔn], [siɔn], and [ʃon].

Conversely, the Afrikaans cluster ⟨si⟩ in words such as spesiaal ("special") and pensioen ("pension") is pronounced as [ʃi] with an extra syllable ⟨i⟩, but in Dutch, both the ⟨ci⟩ in spesiaal and ⟨si⟩ in pensioen are pronounced as [ʃ], although the pronunciation [šj] is encountered in the Southern Netherlands.[57]

Dropping of final letters[edit]

At the end of words, Afrikaans often dropped the ⟨n⟩ in the Dutch cluster ⟨en⟩ (pronounced as a schwa, [ə]), mainly present in plural nouns and verb forms, to become ⟨e⟩ Compare Dutch leven (life) and mensen (people) to Afrikaans lewe and mense. Also in Dutch, final -n is often deleted after a schwa, but the occurrence and frequency of this phenomenon varies between speakers, and it is not recognised in spelling.

Phonetically induced spelling differences[edit]

Simplification of consonant clusters[edit]

Afrikaans has frequently simplified consonant clusters in final position that are still present in Dutch, although they are used in inflected forms of adjectives, for example, bes ("best") in Afrikaans is still inflected as beste, as in Dutch, hence beste man ooit (best man ever) is correct in both languages.

At the end of words, Dutch clusters ⟨cht⟩ and ⟨st⟩ were reduced in Afrikaans to ⟨g⟩ and ⟨s⟩ respectively, with lucht ("air", pronounced [lʏxt]) and dienst (service, pronounced [dinst]) in Dutch becoming lug ([ləχ]) and diens ([dins]) in Afrikaans. Between two vowels, ⟨cht⟩ is replaced with ⟨gg⟩; compare Dutch echtgenoot ("husband") with Afrikaans eggenoot.

Similarly, whereas Dutch words like technologie ("technology") and monarchie contain ⟨ch⟩ (in this case pronounced as [χ]) their Afrikaans equivalents use ⟨g⟩, hence tegnologie and monargie. In other cases, ⟨ch⟩ is replaced with ⟨gg⟩, compare Tsjechische Republiek ("Czech Republic") in Dutch with Tsjeggiese Republiek in Afrikaans.

At the end of words, Dutch cluster ⟨ct⟩ was reduced to ⟨k⟩ in Afrikaans, hence Dutch contact and perfect with Afrikaans kontak and perfek. Similarly, ⟨ctie⟩ in Dutch (pronounced [ktsi]) is replaced by ⟨ksie⟩ (pronounced [ksi]); compare reactie ("reaction") and connectie ("connection") in Dutch with reaksie and konneksie in Afrikaans.

Consonant mergers[edit]

As a result of Afrikaans merging Dutch consonants ⟨z⟩ and ⟨s⟩ to a single sound [s], spelt ⟨s⟩, the use of ⟨z⟩ in Afrikaans is confined to words of non-Dutch origin, such as Zoeloe ("Zulu") and zero, or country names like Zambië ("Zambia"), while use of ⟨z⟩ is preserved only in Dutch place names in South Africa like Zonnebloem and Zeerust.

However, although Suid-Afrika ("South Africa") is used in Afrikaans rather than Zuid-Afrika as in Dutch, South Africa adopted "ZA" as its international vehicle registration code in 1936, which later became the country's ISO country code, with .za becoming the country's internet domain.

In the middle of words, Afrikaans merged Dutch ⟨v⟩ and ⟨w⟩ to a single sound [v] and consequently to a single spelling, ⟨w⟩. Compare Dutch haven (port) with Afrikaans hawe, both pronounced [ɦaːvə].

Afrikaans merged Dutch fricatives ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨g⟩ to a single sound [χ], spelt ⟨g⟩, except when preceded by ⟨s⟩, in which case ⟨sk⟩ (pronounced [sk]) is used where Dutch uses ⟨sch⟩ (pronounced [sx], [sχ] or [sç]; hence "school" is school in Dutch but skool in Afrikaans, but Dutch misschien ("maybe") is written with ⟨ss⟩, while Afrikaans miskien is written with ⟨s⟩.

Consonant omissions[edit]

Between two vowels, the Dutch ⟨g⟩ is omitted in Afrikaans; hence Dutch uses hoger ("higher"), pronounced [ˈɦoːɣər] and "regen" ("rain"), pronounced [ˈreː.ɣə(n)] while Afrikaans uses hoër ([ˈɦoːər]) and reën ([ˈreː.ən]), in which the second vowel requires a trema to avoid confusion with the digraphs ⟨oe⟩ ([u]) and ⟨ee⟩ ([eə]).

This also applies to Afrikaans nouns that, while ending in ⟨g⟩ as in Dutch, end with ⟨eë⟩ in the plural; while "railway" in both languages is spoorweg, "railways" is spoorwegen in Dutch ([spoːrʋeːɣə(n)]) but spoorweë ([spʊərveːə]) in Afrikaans.

Between two vowels, Dutch ⟨v⟩ is omitted in Afrikaans; compare Dutch avond ("evening"), pronounced [ˈaː.vɔnt] and over ("over"), pronounced [ˈoːvər], with Afrikaans aand ([ɑːnt]) and oor ([ʊər]), with ⟨aa⟩ and ⟨oo⟩ being [ɑː] and [ʊə] respectively. In Afrikaans, as in Dutch, oor also means "ear".

Where ⟨ov⟩ precedes final ⟨en⟩ in Dutch, as in boven ("above") pronounced [boːvən] and geloven ("believe") pronounced [ɣəˈloːvə(n)], in Afrikaans they merge to form the diphthong [ʊə], resulting in bo ([bʊə]) and glo ([χlʊə]). Similarly, open and samen ("together") in Dutch become oop ([ʊəp]), and saam ([sɑːm]) in Afrikaans.

At the end of words, Dutch ⟨g⟩ is sometimes omitted in Afrikaans, which opens up the preceding vowels, now written with a circumflex. For example, the Dutch verb form zeg ("say", pronounced [zɛx]) became ([sɛː]) in Afrikaans, as did the infinitive zeggen, pronounced [ˈzɛɣə(n)]. Another example is the Dutch leggen ("to lay", pronounced [lɛɣə(n)]), which becomes ([lɛː]) in Afrikaans.

Alternatively, Dutch verb form vraag ("ask", pronounced [ˈvraːɣ]) became vra ([ˈfrɑː]) in Afrikaans, which is also the equivalent of the Dutch verb vragen, "to ask". Unlike Dutch, vraag in Afrikaans, pronounced [ˈfrɑːχ], is only used as a noun meaning "question", with vrae, pronounced [ˈfrɑːə], being the plural form.

The word for "day" in both languages is dag, but whereas the plural in Dutch is dagen ([daːɣə(n)]), in Afrikaans it is dae ([dɑːə]). By contrast, wagen or "wagon" in Dutch, pronounced [ˈʋaːɣə(n)], became wa in Afrikaans, ([ˈvɑː]), with the plural form, wagens, pronounced [ˈʋaːɣəns], became waëns ([ˈvɑːəns]).

Circumflex[edit]

In contrast to Dutch, where the use of the circumflex is essentially limited to French borrowings, like enquête, Afrikaans makes frequent use of ⟨ê⟩, ⟨ô⟩, and ⟨û⟩; examples include nêrens ("nowhere", Dutch nergens), môre ("morning", Dutch morgen), and brûe ("bridges", Dutch bruggen).

As a result of the disappearance of consonants found in equivalent Dutch words, particularly ⟨g⟩, Afrikaans uses circumflexes with single vowel letters in open syllables to indicate the long monophthongal pronunciations [eː] or [ɛː], [ɔː], and [œː], as opposed to the vowel letters without a circumflex, pronounced as [ɪə], [ʊə] and [yː], respectively.

The circumflex is also used in ⟨î⟩, appearing only in wîe ("wedges", Dutch wiggen), where it denotes a long pronunciation [əː], keeping the digraph ⟨ie⟩ from being pronounced i.

Diminutive[edit]

In diminutive forms, Afrikaans uses ⟨tjie⟩ and ⟨etjie⟩ (normally pronounced [ki] and [əki]) where Standard Dutch would use ⟨tje⟩ (pronounced [cə] or [tjə]). For example, whereas the diminutive of beet ("bit") in Dutch would be beetje (pronounced [beːtjə]), in Afrikaans, the diminutive of biet would be bietjie (pronounced [biːki]).

In Belgium and the Southern Netherlands, the diminutive is often realised as [kə] in the spoken language. Conversely, in the Western Cape, it is common to hear it realised as [tji]. The diminutive of words ending in ⟨k⟩ in Afrikaans is ⟨ie⟩, hence whereas doek in Dutch becomes doekje, in Afrikaans, it becomes doekie.

Where Dutch would use ⟨je⟩, ⟨pje⟩ and ⟨mpje⟩ (pronounced [jə], [pjə] and [mpjə]) Afrikaans would use ⟨ie⟩, ⟨pie⟩ and ⟨mpie⟩ (pronounced [i], pi] and [mpi]) hence the diminutives of glas, kop and probleem in Dutch would become glaasje, kopje and probleempje, while in Afrikaans they would be glasie, koppie and probleempie, with an extra ⟨p⟩ being added to kop.

Other words formed from diminutives in Dutch ending in ⟨tje⟩ may have different equivalents in Afrikaans; for example, the Dutch term of endearment schatje (the diminutive of schat or "sweetheart", literally "treasure") is skattie, of which skatjie is used either as the diminutive or to mean "little treasure".[58]

In both languages, the word for "niece" is a diminutive of the word for "female cousin", but owing to the simplification of consonant clusters in Afrikaans, nig becomes niggie, using ⟨gie⟩ in contrast to Dutch, in which nicht becomes nichtje. The adjectives saggies and zachtjes, both meaning "softly", are diminutives of Afrikaans sag and Dutch zacht respectively.

Other spelling differences[edit]

Unlike Dutch, the names of months in Afrikaans are capitalised, hence 2 June 2016 would be written as 2 Junie 2016,[59] whereas in Dutch, it would be written as 2 juni 2016.[60]

Phonetic differences[edit]

Afrikaans pronunciation tends to be closest to the dialects of the province of South Holland, in particular that of Zoetermeer.[5]

Consonant mergers[edit]

Afrikaans merged Dutch consonants ⟨z⟩ and ⟨s⟩ to a single sound [s], spelt ⟨s⟩, with zorg ("care") and zout ("salt") in Dutch becoming sorg and sout in Afrikaans. A similar phonetic evolution can be found in the Northern Netherlands.

At the start of words, Afrikaans often merged Dutch voiced [v] with voiceless [f], as in ver ("far"), pronounced [fɛr] in Afrikaans and [vɛr] in Standard Dutch. The same merger is present though in the areas around Amsterdam, where all voiced consonants merged with the voiceless ones, pronounced as the latter ones.

Afrikaans merged Dutch voiced [w] with voiced [v], as in werk ("work"), pronounced [vɛrk] in Afrikaans and [wɛrk] in Belgium and Suriname or [ʋɛrk] in the Netherlands. A similar near-assimilation of ⟨w⟩ to ⟨v⟩ can also be found in the Northern Netherlands, where ⟨w⟩ is pronounced [ʋ], and ⟨v⟩ [v].

Fricative mergers[edit]

In Afrikaans, Dutch fricatives ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨g⟩ were merged to a single sound [χ]. A similar phonetic evolution can be heard in the Northern Netherlands, where the sounds have also been merged to [χ] or [x], although the spelling difference has been retained. In Belgium and Suriname, however, the phonetic distinction between ⟨ch⟩ and ⟨g⟩ has been preserved.[61]

Afrikaans uses only [sk] (written as ⟨sk⟩) in initial syllables where Dutch uses [sx], [sχ] or [sç] (written as ⟨sch⟩), hence skoonheid ("beauty") in Afrikaans is schoonheid in Dutch. However, in some Dutch dialects, notably Southern West Flemish, ⟨sk⟩ can also be heard, in the middle of words as well as syllable-initially.[62]

Grammatical differences[edit]

Grammatical differences are arguably the most considerable difference between Afrikaans and Dutch, as a result of the loss of inflections in Afrikaans, as well as the loss of some verb tenses, leading to it being greatly simplified in its grammar compared to Dutch.

Unlike Dutch, Afrikaans has no grammatical gender, and therefore only has one form of the definite article die, while standard Dutch has two (de for both masculine and feminine nouns and het for neuter ones) and Dutch dialects in the Southern Netherlands have a third, den, used for masculine nouns.

The verb "to be" in Afrikaans is wees (from Dutch wezen); the Dutch zijn only survives in Afrikaans in the form of the subjunctive sy, as in God sy met u ("God be with you").[63] In Dutch, as in Afrikaans, wees is used as an imperative, hence wees sterk! ("be strong!") while wezen is used as a less formal form of to be than zijn.

Verb conjugations[edit]

In Afrikaans verbs, the same form is generally used for both the infinitive and the present tense, with the exception of wees ("to be") conjugated as is and ("to have") conjugated as het, and there is no inflection for person; contrast ek gaan ("I go") with ik ga, hy doen ("he does") with hij doet, and julle was ("you (plural) were") with jullie waren.

The past participle is usually regularly formed by adding the prefix ge- to the verb, hence gedoen ("done") is formed from doen in Afrikaans, although Dutch gedaan survives in Afrikaans as welgedaan! ("well done!") One exception is the verb ("to have") of which the past participle is gehad.

All other verbs use the existing form as the past participle. For example, "to pay" is betaal and "I have paid" is "ek het betaal", while "to translate" is "vertaal" and "he has translated" is hy het vertaal; Dutch would use betaald (from betalen) and vertaald (from vertalen) respectively.

Verb tenses[edit]

Afrikaans has dropped the simple past tense for all but eight verbs, of which five are modals, the three others being rarely used; instead it uses either the present perfect or the present tense, depending on context, the latter being used as the historical present. It has also lost the pluperfect, with the present perfect being used instead.

Consequently, the sentence ek het die boek vir haar gegee in Afrikaans can be translated into Dutch as ik heb het boek aan haar gegeven ("I have given the book to her") ik gaf het boek aan haar ("I gave the book to her") or ik had het boek aan haar gegeven ("I had given the book to her").

Whereas Dutch distinguishes between verbs that use zijn ("to be") and verbs that use hebben ("to have") in the present perfect, Afrikaans has dropped this distinction, instead using ("to have"), hence "he has been" is hy het gewees in Afrikaans, while hij is geweest would be used in Dutch.

The past tense of the passive voice in Afrikaans uses is, the present tense of wees instead of word, hence dit word geskryf ("it is written") becomes dit is geskryf ("it was/has been written").[64] In Dutch, the passive voice can be constructed by both zijn and worden, hence het is/wordt geschreven, and het was/werd geschreven.

Unlike Dutch, which, like English, has a continuous tense using the verb zijn ("to be") with aan het ("on the") and the infinitive, Afrikaans has no direct equivalent. However, "I am reading", which in Dutch is ik ben aan het lezen, may be expressed periphrastically in Afrikaans as ek is besig om te lees (literally "I am busy to read") or "I am busy reading".[65]

(The statement above that Afrikaans has no direct equivalent to the continuous tense as it is used in Dutch, is however disputed by native speakers of Afrikaans. They point to many places on the web where, for instance, a phrase such as "is hard aan die werk" is used, meaning "is working hard".[66] Another possible example would be "is vas aan die slaap", which means "is fast asleep".)

Omitting of subordinate conjunctions[edit]

In Afrikaans, as in English, it is possible to omit the subordinate conjunction dat ("that"); for example, the phrase "I believe [that] she has done it" can be translated into Afrikaans as either ek glo dat sy dit gedoen het or ek glo sy het dit gedoen (note the change in position of the auxiliary verb het), but in Dutch it is not possible to do so, hence the sentence would be translated as ik geloof dat ze het gedaan heeft.[67]

Merger of marked and unmarked forms of words[edit]

Whereas Dutch has unmarked and marked forms for pronouns, adverbs and indicatives, Afrikaans uses only one form; for example, whereas Dutch uses er to mean "here" or "there", Afrikaans only uses hier for "here" and daar for "there", as well as hiervan ("hereof") for "of this/these" and daarvan ("thereof") for "of that/those/them" , not ervan as in Dutch.

Pronouns in Afrikaans, whether subjects, objects or possessives, have only one form, derived from the Dutch marked forms; compare my in Afrikaans, which can be used either as the object "me" or the possessive "my", with Dutch marked forms mij and mijn, the unmarked forms being me for "me" and m'n for "my" respectively.

Dutch uses an apostrophe in some unmarked possessive pronouns instead of the digraph ⟨ij⟩, hence zijn "his" or "its" becomes z'n, whereas in Afrikaans, sy is not abbreviated. In Afrikaans sy also means "she", but Dutch equivalents ze (unmarked) and zij (marked) mean either "she" as in ze/zij is ("she is"), or "they", as in ze/zij zijn ("they are").

Similarly, Afrikaans uses only jy as the subject "you" (singular) where Dutch uses je or jij, jou as the object "you" where Dutch uses je or jou, and as the possessive "your" where Dutch would use jou or jouw.

Personal pronouns[edit]

Afrikaans, unlike Dutch, has no unmarked or marked forms of pronouns; whereas Dutch distinguishes between je/jij and ze/zij for "you" (singular) and "she" as subject pronouns, Afrikaans uses only jy and sy, while whereas me/mij and je/jou are the Dutch unmarked or marked forms of object pronouns for "me" and "you", Afrikaans only uses my and jou.

It also lacks the distinction between the subject and object form for plural personal pronouns; the first person plural pronoun in Afrikaans differs markedly from Dutch, with ons meaning either "we" or "us", in contrast to Dutch we and wij, hence "we go to the beach" is ons gaan na die strand as opposed to we gaan naar het strand.

Similarly, the third person plural pronoun in Afrikaans is hulle, used to mean "they" or "them", in contrast to Dutch in which ze and zij are used as plural pronouns, hence "they are the best" is hulle is die beste as opposed to ze zijn de beste, although hullie is encountered in Dutch dialects, particularly in North Brabant and North and South Holland.[68]

Other possessive pronouns like ons ("our", inflected as onze in Dutch and onse in Afrikaans) and Dutch jullie ("your" plural, julle in Afrikaans) work in a similar fashion in both languages.

Demonstrative pronouns[edit]

The word die is used in Afrikaans as a definite article, but in Dutch, it is used as a demonstrative pronoun meaning "that" or "those", or as a relative pronoun meaning "who", "which" or "that", for which Afrikaans would use wat; compare Afrikaans die man wat weet ("the man who knows") with Dutch de man die weet.

For demonstratives, Afrikaans uses hierdie for "this" or "these" and daardie for "that" or "those", which are shortened to dié (with an acute accent) and daai.[69] In Dutch, dit is used as the word for "this", whereas in Afrikaans it is the third-person singular impersonal pronoun meaning "it", with dis being a contraction of dit is, similar to "it's" in English.

Genitive[edit]

As Afrikaans has no genitive forms of nouns, the official titles of most countries include the word van, although this was considered optional, hence Republiek van Malta (as opposed to Republiek Malta as in Dutch) although Republiek van Suid-Afrika was previously considered an anglicism.[70] However, the Union of South Africa was known in Dutch and Afrikaans as Unie van Zuid-Afrika and Unie van Suid-Afrika respectively.[71]

The title "Kingdom of the Netherlands", which refers to the entire realm including its Caribbean islands, is known in Afrikaans as Koninkryk van die Nederlande, a direct translation of the Dutch title Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, which uses the genitive article der meaning "of the".[71]

Afrikaans may form compounds where Dutch would use separate words using the genitive or equivalent, or vice versa. For example, the Salvation Army is known in Afrikaans as Heilsleër,[72] but in Dutch as Leger des Heils; conversely "Member of Parliament" in Afrikaans is Lid van Parlement, similar to English,[73] while in Dutch, the term is parlementslid or kamerlid. However, in both languages, a member of a council or councillor is raadslid.[74]

Possessive[edit]

Whereas Dutch uses an apostrophe with an "s" as in English to form the genitive, or alternatively an "s" without an apostrophe, Afrikaans uses se, hence Maria's huis and haar broers probleem would be Maria se huis and haar broer se probleem respectively.

Afrikaans, like Dutch, has possessive pronouns to indicate ownership, hence joune and jouwe, although Afrikaans omits the use of the definite article, hence is dit jou glas of syne? ("is that your glass or his?") in contrast to is dat jouw glas of het zijne? in Dutch.

Similarly, van or "of" is also omitted in Afrikaans; compare dit is my fiets, waar is joune? ("that is my bike, where is yours?") to Dutch dat is mijn fiets, waar is die van jou?

Plural[edit]

While Afrikaans uses -e as the plural of most nouns, similar to Dutch -en, it also uses the -s ending where Dutch would use -en, hence the plural of seun ("son") being seuns, in contrast to Dutch, in which the plural of zoon is zonen, zoons being used as a plural in eighteenth century Dutch.[75]

Similarly, -ers is used as a double plural instead of -eren, hence the plural of kind ("child") is kinders, not kinderen, although the plural kinders being used in nineteenth century forms of Dutch,[76] including West Flemish.[77]

Double negative[edit]

A notable feature of Afrikaans is its use of a double negative, which is absent in standard Dutch (yet still exists in some dialects like West Flemish).[78] For example, Dutch Ik spreek geen Engels (I do not speak English) in Afrikaans becomes Ek praat nie Engels nie. Similar constructions can be found in French (Je ne parle pas anglais) but also in West Flemish (k en klappe geen Engels) as well as in other Dutch dialects in the southern part of Holland (Ik praat geen Engels nie)

Adjective inflections[edit]

Like Dutch, adjectives in Afrikaans are generally inflected (with a number of exceptions) in the attributive position (when preceding the noun) and not in the predicative. Unlike Dutch, this inflection depends only on position, not grammatical gender; for example, nasionaal, when followed by party becomes nasionale, hence Nasionale Party.[79]

This also applies to adjectives from which the final "t" has been dropped, for example, while "first" is eers, not eerst, "first time" is eerste keer in both languages;[80][81] similarly, while "bad" is sleg in Afrikaans (instead of Dutch slecht), the "t" is reintroduced in inflected form, hence slegte tye[82] ("bad times") similar to slechte tijden.[83]

Similarly, just as Dutch adjectives ending with -ief, such as positief, are inflected to end with -ieve, for example, positieve reactie[84] ("positive reaction") their equivalents in Afrikaans end in -iewe, hence positiewe reaksie, despite the differences in spelling.[85]

Vocabulary differences[edit]

Owing to the geographical and later political isolation of South Africa from the Netherlands, Afrikaans vocabulary diverged from that of Dutch, coining purisms or using loan translations rather than adopting terms found in English, as English was perceived as being a greater threat to Afrikaans in South Africa than it was to Dutch in the Netherlands.

French and Latin influence[edit]

While Dutch, like English, increasingly borrowed vocabulary from Latin or French, Afrikaans resisted such borrowing and instead favoured older Germanic equivalents, albeit with some exceptions; one of these is the Afrikaans word for "hospital", hospitaal, which, while understood in Dutch, is less widely used than ziekenhuis (literally "sick house").

For example, the word for "magistrate" in Afrikaans, landdros, comes from the Dutch term landdrost, a legacy of the old court system of the Dutch Cape Colony which survived its abolition and replacement by magistrate's courts under British rule, but the term is no longer officially used in the Netherlands, where the Latin-derived term magistraat is used instead.[86]

Conversely, the Dutch word procureur, referring to a kind of lawyer, became obsolete in 2008,[87] whereas in Afrikaans, prokureur is still used to mean "attorney", "solicitor" or "lawyer", especilly in the sense of Prokureur-Generaal or "Attorney-General".[88] The spelling prokureur was also previously used in Dutch.[89] By contrast, whereas advocaat in Dutch means "lawyer", in Afrikaans, advokaat is only used to mean "advocate" or "barrister", hence "Senior Counsel" in Afrikaans being Senior Advokaat.[90]

Similarly, the South African Navy is known in Afrikaans as the Suid-Afrikaanse Vloot, the word vloot (meaning "fleet") having been used in Dutch for the navy of the Dutch Republic, known as Staatse vloot, but the modern Dutch navy is known as the Koninklijke Marine, marine being a French loanword.

In Afrikaans, Eerste-Minister ("first minister") was the official title of the Prime Minister of South Africa[91] (before the post was abolished in 1984) and is still the official Dutch title of the Prime Minister of Belgium,[92] but in the Netherlands, the term premier is used as a generic term for a prime minister or equivalent office holder, the official title of the Prime Minister of the Netherlands being minister-president.[93]

In South Africa, the term premier is now more typically used in Afrikaans to refer to the head of government in each of the nine provinces, whereas eerste-minister is used for foreign leaders, and is used by the Afrikaans-language media in Namibia to refer to the country's Prime Minister.[94]

Some French loanwords are common to Afrikaans as well as Dutch, such as regisseur, used in both languages to mean director of a play or film, although the use of rolprent in Afrikaans instead of "film" is considered old-fashioned in Dutch.[95] The word redakteur ("editor") is used in Afrikaans as well as Dutch, but in the latter it is now written as redacteur.

Purisms and loan translations[edit]

As the influence of English was perceived as a threat to Afrikaans, there was a trend to coin purisms rather than to borrow from English or international vocabulary; whereas the word for "computer" in Dutch is simply computer, in Afrikaans it is rekenaar, from reken, meaning "to count".[96]

Other purisms were less successful; beeldradio, a word for "television", proposed before its introduction in the 1970s, was abandoned in favour of televisie, already used in Dutch.[96] In South Africa and Namibia, the TV licence is known in Afrikaans as TV-lisensie,[97] whereas in the Netherlands and Flanders, the now defunct equivalent was known in Dutch as kijkgeld ("viewing money") or omroepbijdrage ("broadcasting subsidy").[98]

There are some instances of Afrikaans using calques or loan translations where Dutch uses an English loanword, such as the word for "milkshake", melkskommel, from melk ("milk") and skommel ("shake" or "shuffle") in contrast to Dutch, in which the original English word is untranslated.[99]

Similarly, English has influenced such terms in Afrikaans as bestuurslisensie, from bestuur ("driving") and lisensie ("licence") and grondboontjiebotter, literally "peanut butter". By contrast, the Dutch term rijbewijs, translates as "driving certificate", but while ry is used in Afrikaans to mean "driving", bewys means "evidence" or "proof".[100]

The Dutch term for peanut butter, pindakaas (literally "peanut cheese"), was coined because when it was first sold in the Netherlands, the term boter was a protected name and could only be used for products containing actual butter.[101] The word pinda, a loanword from Papiamentu, spoken in the Dutch Caribbean, is ultimately of Kongo origin.[102]

Comparison of vocabulary[edit]

Afrikaans Dutch English
aand avond evening
aartappelskyfies (aardappel)chips potato chips (US)
crisps (UK)
afkappingsteken, apostroof weglatingsteken, afkappingsteken, apostrof apostrophe
amper bijna amper in some dialects nearly, almost
amptelik officieel, ambtelijk official
as als if
asem adem (asem also used in Belgium) breath
asseblief alsjeblieft, alstublieft please
baadjie, jas jasje, vest jacket
baba baby, kindje baby
baie heel, zeer, veel very, much
bakkie pick-up pick-up truck
beeldpoetser media-adviseur media spokesperson
press officer
bergie zwerver vagrant
bestuurslisensie rijbewijs driving licence (UK)
driver's license (US)
blokkiesraaisel kruiswoordraadsel crossword puzzle
bobbejaan baviaan baboon
bokkie schatje, liefje baby, darling
bolla zoet broodje bun
botsing aanrijding collision
braai barbecue barbecue
Brittanje Groot-Brittannië Britain, Great Britain
bromponie bromfiets, scooter moped, scooter
daardie, daai die that, those
dagga marihuana marijuana, cannabis
dankie dank je/u, bedankt thank you, thanks
deur door through
deurmekaar doorelkaar (doormekaar also used in Belgium) mixed up, confused
die de, het the
duikweg tunnel tunnel
dwelms drugs bedwelmen means "intoxicate" drugs
e-pos e-mail email
eiendoms beperk
(Edms.) Bpk.
besloten vennootschap (BV) propriety limited
(Pty.) Ltd.
eksie-perfeksie fantastisch cool, great
ekskuus excuus similar pronunciation sorry, apology
enigiets nog iets anything
enigiemand iedereen anyone
enjin motor engine
gatvol zat zijn fed up
geskenk cadeau, kado (also used in Afrikaans),
geschenk older term
gift, present
glo geloven believe
gogga insect insect, bug
grasperk gazon lawn
grondboontjie pinda peanut
grondboontjiebotter pindakaas peanut butter
gunsteling favoriet gunsteling older term favourite
haas konijn haas means "hare" rabbit
Heilsleër Leger des Heils Salvation Army
hierdie, dié dit, deze this, these
hoender kip less common: hoen, hoender chicken
hoekom? hoezo? waarom? how come? how so? why?
hoezit! (hoe is dit?) hoe gaat het? hoe is het? how's it going?
hoërskool voortgezet onderwijs (Netherlands)
secundair onderwijs (Belgium)
high school, secondary school
Hollands (taal) Nederlands (taal) Dutch (language)
horlosie horloge watch
hospitaal ziekenhuis, hospitaal, gasthuis hospital
hysbak lift lift, elevator
inskrywing abonnement, inschrijving subscription
jol leukheid fun, party
Julie juli July
Junie juni June
kaartjie ticket
(kaartje also used in compounds (e.g., treinkaartje, buskaartje, etc.)
ticket
kameelperd giraffe giraffe
kampanje campagne similar pronunciation campaign
Kanada Canada Canada
Kersfees Kerstmis (Catholic)
Kerstfeest (Protestant)
Christmas
kitsbank geldautomaat, bankautomaat cash machine, ATM
koerant krant courant older term newspaper
kombuis keuken kombuis means "galley". kitchen
konserwatief conservatief conservative
kopiereg kopierecht, copyright, auteursrecht copyright
landdros magistraat magistrate
leggen lie, lay
leër landmacht, leger army
lemoen sinaasappel limoen in Dutch is lime in English orange
Lid van Parlement (LP) parlementslid, kamerlid Member of Parliament (MP)
lirieke songtekst lyrics
lokprent trailer film trailer
lugmag luchtmacht air force
lughawe luchthaven airport
lugpos luchtpost airmail
lugredery luchtvaartmaatschappij airline
lugwardin stewardess air hostess
air stewardess
maalvleis gehakt mincemeat
mal oor gek op mad about
masjienkap motorkap bonnet (UK)
hood (US)
meisie meisje, meid girl
mekaar elkaar (mekaar also used in Belgium) each other
melkskommel milkshake milkshake
moffie homo gay, effeminate man
moltrein metro metro, subway train
moontlik mogelijk possible
muurpapier behang wallpaper
na naar to
na after
naby dichtbij, nabij close to
naweek weekend, weekeinde weekend
nie niet not
niggie nichtje niece
Nieu-Seeland Nieuw-Zeeland New Zealand
nuus nieuws news
nuusblad, nuustydskrif opinieblad, nieuwsblad news magazine, news letter
onderskrifte ondertitels subtitles
oomblik moment, ogenblik moment
oopmaak, maak oop openen to open
oorklanking nasynchronisatie dubbing
oorspronklik origineel, oorspronkelijk original
oos oost east
openbare maatskappy naamloze vennootschap (NV) public limited company
ou, outjie kerel, gozer guy, bloke
outomaties automatisch automatic
padda kikker pad means "toad" frog
passasier passagier passenger
perd paard horse
peuselhappies snacks, hapjes snacks
piesang banaan less common: pisang banana
pikkewyn pinguïn, vetgans penguin
polisiebeampte politieagent police officer
polisiestasie, polisiekantoor politiebureau police station
posbus postbus post office box
poskantoor postkantoor post office
posman postbode postman
prokureur advocaat attorney, solicitor, lawyer
pynappel ananas pineapple
reisagent, reisagentskap reisbureau (Netherlands)
reisagentschap (Belgium), reisagent
travel agent,
travel agency
rolprent film rolprent considered dated film
rubriekskrywer columnist newspaper columnist
sakrekenaar rekenmachine, zakrekenmachine, calculator calculator
sambreel paraplu umbrella
sampioen champignon mushroom
saans 's avonds in the evening
zeggen say
selfoon mobiele telefoon, mobieltje (Netherlands)
GSM (Belgium)
mobile phone(UK)
cellphone(US, South Africa)
sent cent cent
seuntjie jongen zoontje means "(small) son" boy, young man
sinies cynisch cynical
sjokolade chocolade chocolate
skadu, skaduwee schaduw, schaduwbeeld shadow
skakel bellen (schakelen means "to change gear") dial, call (telephone number)
skeelhoofpyn migraine migraine
skootrekenaar laptop laptop
slagoffer slachtoffer victim
slaptjips frieten french fries, chips
sokker voetbal football, soccer
soos als, zoals like, such as
spinnekop spin spider
spoed snelheid speed
staatsdiens civiele dienst (Netherlands)
overheidsdienst (Belgium)
civil service, public service
stasie station station
Statebond Gemenebest van Naties Commonwealth of Nations
stasiewa stationwagen station wagon, estate
streek gewest, regio region
stuurwiel stuurrad steering wheel
suid zuid south
suiwer zuiver clean
suurlemoen citroen lemon
sypaadjie stoep, trottoir, voetpad pavement (UK),
sidewalk (US)
tjek cheque cheque, check
toeter claxon hooter (UK),
horn (US)
troeteldier huisdier pet (animal)
tuisblad homepagina, thuispagina homepage
uitgawe editie, versie, uitgave
uitgaven can also mean "expenditure"
edition, version
uitsaai omroep, uitzending broadcasting
uurglas zandloper hourglass
van achternaam, van surname
vanaand vanavond this evening
vanmôre vanmorgen this morning
vat pakken seize, clutch
verkleurmannetjie kameleon chameleon
vir voor for
vlak, peil niveau, peil level
vlugbeampte, vlugkelner steward air steward, flight attendant
voetsek! (voert sê ek!) verdwijn! get lost! away with you!
vrieskas vrieskist, diepvries, diepvriezer freezer
vuurhoutjie lucifer match, light
wa wagen wagon
wasbak wasbak, wastafel washbasin, sink
wat welke, wie which, who
webwerf website website
weermag krijgsmacht defence force, armed forces
wêreldwyd wereldwijd worldwide
wees zijn, wezen to be
wes west west
woonstel appartement apartment, flat
yskas koelkast, ijskast refrigerator
Ysland IJsland Iceland
yster ijzer iron

Names of languages and countries[edit]

Unlike in Dutch, in Afrikaans, the word Afrikaans is not used to mean "African" in general; instead the prefix Afrika- is used, hence whereas African languages would be referred to in Dutch as Afrikaanse talen, in Afrikaans, they would be called Afrikatale.[70] Conversely, the Afrikaans language is sometimes referred to in Dutch as Zuid-Afrikaans, literally "South African".[103]

Although the Netherlands is formally called Nederland in Afrikaans, it is more colloquially known as Holland, as in English.[104] The term Hollanders is similarly also used to refer to Dutch people in general, particularly in a historical context, while Hollands is used either to refer to the Dutch language or as an adjective, hence the expression die Kaap is weer Hollands ("the Cape is Dutch again") to mean that things are back to normal.[105][106]

In the Netherlands, the former Dutch Reformed Church was known in Dutch as the Nederlandse Hervormde Kerk, but in South Africa, the two Dutch Reformed Churches are known in Afrikaans as the Nederduitse Gereformeerde Kerk and Nederduitsch Hervormde Kerk respectively, as Nederduitsch (or Nederduits) originally referred not to Low German but to any West Germanic language except High German.[107]

Changes in meanings of words[edit]

Although the Afrikaans word as, like als in Dutch, means "if", it is also used as a conjunction to mean "than" with which to make comparisons, instead of dan, used in Dutch, hence "more than" is meer as (similar to mehr als in German) rather than meer dan, although meer als is also encountered in Dutch.[108]

In Dutch, als can also mean "as" or "like", but Afrikaans generally uses soos, similar to zoals ("such as") in Dutch, whereas Dutch would use either als or zoals, hence the Afrikaans troeteldiere soos katte en honde... ("animals, like cats and dogs,...") could be translated into Dutch either as huisdieren als katten en honden or dieren zoals katten en honden....[109]

While the Afrikaans verb heet can be used to mean "to be called",[110] like the Dutch heten, it is less commonly used for that purpose, hence "what is your name?" and "my name is John" would be wat is jou naam? and my naam is John, rather than hoe heet jy? ("how are you called?") and ek heet John.[111] By contrast, Dutch would use hoe heet je? and ik heet John.

In Afrikaans, heet is used to mean "to be said", for example, soos dit heet ("as it is claimed") or, as in Dutch, "to bid", as in ek heet jou welkom ("I bid you welcome" or "I welcome you"). As an adjective, like the Dutch heet, it means "hot", as in "high temperature", and can also mean "fiery temper".[112] In Dutch, heet can also mean "hot" in the sense of "spicy" or "horny".[113]

Like praten in Dutch, the verb praat in Afrikaans means "to talk", but can also mean "to speak", where Dutch uses spreken; compare sy praat vlot Engels ("she speaks English fluently") with zij spreekt vlot Engels. However, Afrikaans uses sprekend as an adjective meaning "speaking", as in Afrikaansprekend ("Afrikaans-speaking").

Like "football" in American and Australian English, the term voetbal is not generally used in Afrikaans to mean soccer, which, unlike in Dutch, is called sokker.[114] Instead, it is used in the context of other codes of football, such as American football, hence Amerikaanse voetbal.[115] In Dutch, soccer is only used to refer to the game when played in the United States.[116]

Changes due to spelling and pronunciation[edit]

The changes in spelling and pronunciation in Afrikaan means that two unrelated words become homophones and are written identically, unlike their Dutch equivalents; bly in Afrikaans, like blij in Dutch is used as an adjective to mean "happy", it is also a verb meaning "to remain", cognate with blijven in Dutch.

In Afrikaans, unlike Dutch, the word (meaning "after") is written with an acute accent, as na (derived from Dutch naar) means "to". Conversely, while the Dutch word for "one" is written as één, to distinguish it from the indefinite article een, in Afrikaans, een ("one") is written without any diacritics as the indefinite article in that language is 'n.

Similarly, the Dutch word for "before", vóór, may be written with acute accents on both vowels to distinguish it from voor, meaning "for", although it is correct to write the word without them irrespective of meaning.[117] By contrast, voor in Afrikaans only means "before", the word for "for" being vir, and so no diacritics are required.

In both languages, oor means "ear", but in Afrikaans oor (derived from Dutch over) can also mean "over" or "about", as in hy praat oor die weer ("he talks about the weather", or in Dutch hij spreekt over het weer).[118] Although Dutch and Afrikaans share a number of words prefixed with ⟨oor⟩, such as oorsprong ("origin"), this is an unrelated word meaning "original".

Although kus in Afrikaans can mean "kiss", as in Dutch, the more usual term is soen, similar to Dutch zoen,[119] as the homophone kus means "coast". In contrast to the Dutch equivalents kus and kust (plural kussen and kusten), it is only in their inflected plural forms kusse and kuste that the two Afrikaans words can be clearly distinguished.[120]

False friends due to English influence[edit]

English language influence has also resulted in changes in the meanings of some Afrikaans words, such as eventueel, which now means "eventual" or "eventually", rather than "possibly", as in Dutch.[121] Consequently, some Afrikaans dictionaries give both meanings, with the entry for eventueel listing uitendelik ("finally") as well as moontlik ("possible") as definitions.[122] However, the latter is described as Nederlandisties or "Dutch-influenced".[123]

By contrast, other Afrikaans words cognate with Dutch ones retain the same meaning, such as aktueel, which, like actueel in Dutch, means "up to date" or "concerned with current affairs", although aktualiteit can also mean "reality" in the sense of the English word "actuality".[124] The Dutch word actualiteit, on the other hand, only means "topicality" or "current events". Dutch also previously spelled both actueel and actualiteit with a "k".[125]

Colloquialisms[edit]

Another consequence of the two languages diverging has been the differences between colloquialisms, meaning that a word in Dutch which has no offensive connotations is used as an expletive or term of abuse in Afrikaans, and vice versa, although other changes in meanings have also arisen.

For example, the Afrikaans phrase die meisie gooi haar flikkers ("the girl throws her sparkle") was highlighted by the Dutch journalist, Derk-Jan Eppink, in an article in the daily NRC Handelsblad, as an example of differences in meaning.[126] In Afrikaans, flikkers by iemand gooi means to flirt with someone,[127] but in Dutch, flikker means a male homosexual, while flikker op! is akin to the British English expletive "bugger off!"[128]

List of words with different meanings[edit]

Word Afrikaans meaning Dutch meaning
aardig pleasant, strange friendly
Afrikaans Afrikaans language African, also Afrikaans language
aftrek(ken) disract deduct, also "to jerk off", male masturbation
amper nearly scarcely
bliksem lightning, also expletive meaning "bastard" (as noun) and "bloody" (as adjective) lightning
die the that one, which, who
dit it this, these
doos box, also expletive "cunt" box, case
een one a, an (indefinite article)
flikker sparkle queer, homo
fok(ken) fuck, fucking to breed, to rear
het have, has the (neuter gender)
Holland Netherlands former province of Holland
houtkop racial slur for black African, literally "wooden head" "wooden head"
kopje small hill cup
na to after
Nederduits Dutch (as in Dutch Reformed Church) Low German Dutch formerly used the term to refer to the Dutch language
neuk(en) strike, hit screw, hump, have sex with
piel expletive "dick", "penis" duckling
poes expletive "cunt" or "pussy" (noun) or "fucking" (adjective) pussycat, tabby (although poesje is used as a vulgar term for "vagina")
rand edge, brink, rim South African currency, reef
vat take grab, seize
voor before for, before (written as vóór in Dutch)

Comparisons of various phrases in Afrikaans and Dutch[edit]

Afrikaans Dutch English
Verstaan jy my? Versta jij mij? / Begrijp je me?[129] Do you understand me?
Ek verstaan dit Ik versta dit / Ik begrijp het[129] I understand it
Wat is jou naam? Hoe heet je? Wat is jouw naam? What is your name?
Wat maak jy? Wat ben je aan het doen?
Compare Dutch Wat maak jij? (What are you making?)
What are you doing?
Dit maak my seer Het doet me pijn It hurts me
Ek hou van haar Ik vind haar leuk I like her
Ek is lief vir jou Ik hou van jou
Compare Dutch Ik ben lief voor jou (I am sweet to you)
I love you
Ek het jou lief Ik heb jou lief / Ik hou van jou
I love you
Is jy honger? Heb je honger? / Heb jij honger? Are you hungry?
Dié boek is vir jou Dit boek is voor jou This book is for you
Ek het al geëet Ik heb al gegeten I have already eaten
Kom jy saam met ons? Kom je met ons mee? Are you coming with us?
Stem jy saam? Ben je het daarmee eens?
Stem jij daarmee in?
Do you agree?
Stem jy [daartoe] in? Stem jij daarmee in? / Ga je daarmee akkoord? Do you agree [to it]?
Oop vanaand Open vanavond Open tonight
Hulle woon hier Ze wonen hier
Dialectal: Hullie wonen hier
They live here
Kan ons die middestad besoek? Kunnen we de binnenstad bezoeken?
Belgium Dutch: Kunnen we de middenstad bezoeken? [130]
Can we visit the city centre?
Ek is halfpad daar Ik ben halverwege I am halfway there
Hierdie vrug proe/smaak sleg Die vrucht hier smaakt slecht This fruit tastes bad
Het jy dat gesê? Heb je dat gezegd? Zei je dat? Did you say that?
Hy het op die lughawe aangekom Hij is op de luchthaven aangekomen He has arrived at the airport
Moenie dit vergeet nie! Vergeet hem niet! Don't forget it!
As dit reën, sal dié sambreel jou beskerm Als het regent, zal deze paraplu jou beschermen[131] * If it rains, this umbrella will protect you
’n Lemoen is ’n oranjekleurige vrug Een sinaasappel is een oranjekleurige vrucht An orange is an orange-coloured fruit
’n Lemmetjie is ’n klein groen sitrusvrug Een limoen is een kleine groene citrusvrucht A lime is a small green citrus fruit
Ons hou daarvan om te braai Wij houden ervan om te barbecueën
Compare Dutch: braden (to roast), Wij houden ervan om te braaien (braaien is a recent loanword from Afrikaans) **
We love to barbecue
Ek kan dit nie glo nie Ik kan dit niet geloven I cannot believe it

* In some Dutch dialects it is also common to pronounce als as as.
** In Dutch, in some dialects d between two vowels tends to degenerate to i (pronounced -[jən]) or w (e.g. goedendag > goeiedag (good day), bloeden > bloeien (bleed), rode > rooie (red), poeder > poeier (powder), loden > looien (lead), lang geleden > lang gelejen (long ago), wij deden > wij dejen (we did), onthouden > onthouwen (remember)), some of which forms are more common and more accepted than others (dialectical, spoken, informal or standard language).

Comparison of sample text[edit]

Below is a comparison of the Afrikaans words of the first stanza of "Die Stem van Suid-Afrika" (formerly the national anthem of South Africa) with the Dutch translation.

Afrikaans Dutch English translation (literal)
Uit die blou van onse hemel, Uit het blauw van onze hemel From the blue of our sky
Uit die diepte van ons see, Uit de diepte van onze zee, From the depths of our sea,
Oor ons ewige gebergtes Over onze eeuwige gebergtes, Over our eternal mountains
Waar die kranse antwoord gee. Waar de rotsen antwoord geven. Where the cliffs give answer
Deur ons vêr verlate vlaktes Door onze ver verlaten vlaktes Through our far-deserted plains
Met die kreun van ossewa. Met het gekreun van ossenwagens With the groan of ox-wagon
Ruis die stem van ons geliefde, Ruist de stem van ons geliefde, Rouses the voice of our beloved,
Van ons land Suid-Afrika. Van ons land Zuid-Afrika. Of our country South Africa
Ons sal antwoord op jou roepstem, We zullen antwoorden op je roepen We will answer to your calling,
Ons sal offer wat jy vra: We zullen offeren wat jij vraagt We will sacrifice what you ask
Ons sal lewe, ons sal sterwe, We zullen leven, we zullen sterven We will live, we will die
Ons vir jou, Suid-Afrika. Wij voor jou, Zuid-Afrika. We for Thee, South Africa.


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jansen, Carel; Schreuder, Robert; Neijt, Anneke (2007). "The influence of spelling conventions on perceived plurality in compounds. A comparison of Afrikaans and Dutch" (PDF). Written Language & Literacy 10:2. Radboud University Nijmegen. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  2. ^ Mennen, Ineke; Levelt, Clara; Gerrits, Ellen (2006). "Acquisition of Dutch phonology: an overview" (PDF). Speech Science Research Centre Working Paper WP10. Queen Margaret University College. p. 1. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  3. ^ Booij, Geert (2003). "Constructional idioms and periphrasis: the progressive construction in Dutch" (PDF). Paradigms and Periphrasis. University of Kentucky. p. 5. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 May 2011. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  4. ^ Hiskens, Frans; Auer, Peter; Kerswill, Paul (2005). "The study of dialect convergence and divergence: conceptual and methodological considerations" (PDF). Lancaster University. p. 19. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  5. ^ a b Wilbert Heeringa, Febe de Wet (2007). "The origin of Afrikaans pronunciation: a comparison to west Germanic languages and Dutch dialects" (PDF). University of Groningen. pp. 445–467. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 April 2011. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  6. ^ Geerts, G.; Clyne (ed.) (editor), Michael G. (1992). Pluricentric languages: differing norms in different nations. Walter de Gruyter. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  7. ^ a b Sebba, Mark (2007). Spelling and society: the culture and politics of orthography around the world. Cambridge University Press. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  8. ^ a b c Holm, Jdohn A. (1989). Pidgins and Creoles: References survey. Cambridge University Press. p. 338. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  9. ^ Mesthrie, Rajend (1995). Language and Social History: Studies in South African Sociolinguistics. New Africa Books. p. 214. Retrieved 2008-08-23. 
  10. ^ Brachin, Pierre; Vincent, Paul (1985). The Dutch Language: A Survey. Brill Archive. p. 132. Retrieved 2008-11-03. 
  11. ^ Mesthrie, Rajend (2002). Language in South Africa. Cambridge University Press. p. 205. Retrieved 2010-05-18. 
  12. ^ Sebba 1997, p. 161
  13. ^ a b Sebba, Mark (1997). Contact languages: pidgins and creoles. Palgrave Macmillan. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  14. ^ Baker, Colin; Prys Jones, Sylvia (1997). Encyclopedia of bilingualism and bilingual education. Multilingual Matters Ltd. p. 302. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  15. ^ Egil Breivik, Leiv; Håkon Jahr, Ernst (1987). Language change: contributions to the study of its causes. Walter de Gruyter. p. 232. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  16. ^ a b c d Gooskens, Charlotte (2007). "The Contribution of Linguistic Factors to the Intelligibility of Closely Related Languages" (PDF). Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, Volume 28, Issue 6 November 2007. University of Groningen. pp. 445–467. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  17. ^ ten Thije, Jan D.; Zeevaert, Ludger (2007). Receptive Multilingualism: Linguistic analyses, language policies and didactic concepts. John Benjamins Publishing Company. p. 17. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  18. ^ Language Standardization and Language Change: The Dynamics of Cape Dutch. Ana Deumert. John Benjamins Publishing Company. 2004. p. 22. Retrieved 2008-11-10. 
  19. ^ Niesler, Thomas; Louw, Philippa; Roux, Justus (2005). Phonetic analysis of Afrikaans, English, Xhosa and Zulu using South African speech databases (PDF). Southern African Linguistics and Applied Language Studies. 23. pp. 459–474. 
  20. ^ Tim du Plessis: Nou is daar geen keuse meer nie, Netwerk 24, 13 March 2016
  21. ^ Het leukste bericht van deze maand kwam van vliegbasis Volkel., NU.nl, 27 March 2015
  22. ^ Dubbel Dutch, Kevin Cook, Kemper Conseil Publishing, 2002, page 166
  23. ^ 'Nu is er helemaal geen flow bij PSV', De Telegraaf, 22 November 2016
  24. ^ a b Language and Social History: Studies in South African Sociolinguistics, Rajend Mesthrie New Africa Books, 1995, page 214
  25. ^ 'Dit gaan 'heel goed' met die ekonoom Dawie Roodt ná mesaanval', Netwerk24, 25 July 2015
  26. ^ A Contrastive Grammar of English and Dutch / Contrastieve grammatica Engels / Nederlands, F. G. A. M. Aarts, H. Chr. Wekker Springer, 2013, page 199
  27. ^ Vrou verloor byna baba, Netwerk24, 6 September 2016
  28. ^ Groot placaat en charter-boek van Vriesland, Volume 1, Georg Frederik baron Schwartzenberg en Hohenlansberg gedrukt by Willem Coulon, 1768, page 276
  29. ^ Hersilia's jeugd, of Verhaal van een in vele verzoekingen braaf gebleven meisje: een boek voor jonge dochters, Friedrich Philipp Wilmsen, J.F. Thieme, 1832, page 90
  30. ^ Dutch: Biography of a Language, Roland Willemyns, Oxford University Press USA, page 170
  31. ^ Als gegrift, NRC Handelsblad, 18 May 1990
  32. ^ Beëindig wederkeer der spellingcommissies, NRC Handelsblad, 27 January 1994
  33. ^ Afrikaans-English, English-Afrikaans Dictionary, Jan Kromhout, Hippocrene Books, 2001, page 9
  34. ^ a b Afrikaans-English, English-Afrikaans Dictionary, Jan Kromhout, Hippocrene Books, 2001, page 30
  35. ^ Skool vir Basiese Wetenskappe verken Sjinees-Japanese geskiedenis, North-West University, 16 September 2014
  36. ^ China raak sku vir SA ingelegde vrugte, Landbou, 18 December 2015
  37. ^ a b Colloquial Afrikaans: The Complete Course for Beginners, Bruce Donaldson, Routledge, 2014, page 6
  38. ^ 'Niks kan Trump-masjien nou stuit', Netwerk24, 4 May 2016
  39. ^ n Vaste plek vir Afrikaans: taaluitdagings op kampus, Hermann Buhr Giliomee, Lawrence Schlemmer, African Sun Media, 2006, 19
  40. ^ Kroniek van het Jiddisj: taalkundige aspecten van achttiende-eeuws Nederlands Jiddisj, Ariane Zwiers, Eburon, 2003
  41. ^ Medewerkers ok leren beter te communiceren, Algemeen Dagblad, 1 August 2017
  42. ^ NAVO-generaal: de Russen intimideren en provoceren, NOS, 4 July 2016
  43. ^ Tuis Met Lewensvaardighede, Belinda Train, Pearson South Africa, 1999, page 14
  44. ^ Servamus, Volume 97, SARP-Uitgevers, 2004, page 72
  45. ^ Naauwkeurige berigten nopens de grondvesting des christendoms onder de heidenen op de kust van Choromandel en Malabaar, door de Deensche missionarissen op Tranquebar, Daniel van Lunenburg, en Mattheus Gaillard, 1739, page 69
  46. ^ Die kennis gids tot moderne Afrikaans, E. P. Du Plessis, Human & Rousseau, 1979, page 98
  47. ^ Makro Blokraaisels Woordeboek, L.L. Pansegrouw, Pearson South Africa, 1998, page 525
  48. ^ Trump geeft zichzelf een zesje voor zijn communicatie, NOS, 28 February 2017
  49. ^ Noord-Korea schiet weer raketten in zee na 'provocatie', Algemeen Dagblad, 21 March 2016
  50. ^ Komma: Kommunikasie Vlak 4, Module 25, Pearson South Africa, 1996, page 4
  51. ^ South African Law Reports, Volume 2, Juta, 1993, page 81
  52. ^ My besoek aan Ysland, Sarie, 12 August 2013
  53. ^ Beschryving van Ysland, Groenland en de Straat Davis, Johann Anderson, D. J. J., Niels Horrebow, Johann Dietrich Winckler, Jan van Dalen, 1756
  54. ^ Lexicon Hieroglyphicum Sacro-Profanum Of Woordboek Van Gewyde en Ongewyde Voor- En Zinnebeelden, Martinus Koning, Van Braam, 1717, page 97
  55. ^ Records of the Cape Colony, George McCall Theal, Clowes, 1837-1919
  56. ^ Één taal, twee uitspraaknormen, Onze Taal, June 1999, pages 148-150
  57. ^ Nederlands in het perspectief van uitspraakverwerving en contrastieve taalkunde, Laurent Rasier, Academia Press, 2011, page 108
  58. ^ A Grammar of Afrikaans, Bruce C. Donaldson, Walter de Gruyter, 1993, pages 89-93
  59. ^ Huisgenoot | 2 Junie 2016
  60. ^ nrc.next van donderdag 2 juni 2016
  61. ^ van Reenen, Pieter; Huijs, Nanette (2000). "De harde en de zachte g, de spelling gh versus g voor voorklinker in het veertiende-eeuwse Middelnederlands" (PDF). Taal en Tongval, 52 (in Dutch). pp. 159–181. Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  62. ^ West-Vlaams, Magda Devos, Reinhild Vandekerckhove, Lannoo Uitgeverij, 2005, page 54
  63. ^ A Grammar of Afrikaans, Bruce C. Donaldson, Walter de Gruyter, 1993, page 293
  64. ^ A Grammar of Afrikaans, Bruce C. Donaldson, Walter de Gruyter, 1993, pages 257-258
  65. ^ Focus on South Africa, Vivian De Klerk, John Benjamins Publishing, 1996, page 110
  66. ^ https://mymatzikama.com/vanrhynsdorp-munisipaliteit-hard-aan-die-werk/ https://www.oudtshoorncourant.com/News/Article/General/dromers-hard-aan-die-werk-20170711 https://www.georgeherald.com/news/Sport/Rugby/73519/swd-sewesafrigter-hard-aan-die-werk-20170711 Some of the many places where the Afrikaans phrase "is hard aan die werk" ("is working hard") may be found on the web .
  67. ^ The Germanic Languages, Ekkehard Konig, Johan van der Auwera, Routledge, December 2013, page 499
  68. ^ Taalkunde voor de tweede fase van het vwo, Hans Hulshof, Maaike Rietmeijer, Arie Verhagen, Amsterdam University Press, 2006, page 223
  69. ^ Dink 2 keer oor daai glas wyn, News24, 16 October 2016
  70. ^ a b A Grammar of Afrikaans, Bruce C. Donaldson, Walter de Gruyter, 1993, page 108
  71. ^ a b Notawisseling tussen de Nederlandse en de Zuid-Afrikaanse Regering houdende een overeenkomst [...] het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden en de Unie van Zuid-Afrika, Kaapstad, 20-02-1935, wetten.overheid.nl, 20 February 1935
  72. ^ Afrikaans-English, English-Afrikaans Dictionary, Jan Kromhout, Hippocrene Books, 2001, page 316
  73. ^ Afrikaans-English, English-Afrikaans Dictionary, Jan Kromhout, Hippocrene Books, 2001, page 173
  74. ^ Afrikaans-English, English-Afrikaans Dictionary, Jan Kromhout, Hippocrene Books, 2001, page 175
  75. ^ Nieuwe Nederlandsche jaerboeken, 1784, page 9
  76. ^ De Fransche taal gemakkelyk gemaakt, of duidelyke en korte manier om het Fransch te leeren en te onderwyzen, Johan Rudolph Wurstysen, St.-Jacobs-straat, No. 753, 1806, page 267
  77. ^ Annales de la Société d'Emulation de Bruges, Société d'Emulation pour l'Histoire et les Antiquités de la Flandre Occidentale, 1866, page 148
  78. ^ Bernini, Giuliano; Ramat, Paolo (2007). Negative sentences in the languages of Europe: a typological approach. Walter de Gruyter. Retrieved 2010-05-19. 
  79. ^ Die Nasionale Party: die eerste bewindsjare 1924-1934, J. H. Le Roux, P. W. Coetzer, Instituut vir Eietydse Geskiedenis, U.O.V.S. Academica, 1980, page 2
  80. ^ Wawrinka wint voor eerste keer titel op US, NU.nl, 12 September 2016
  81. ^ Dodelike pes tref SA tamaties eerste keer, News24, 3 November 2016
  82. ^ Rapport sê: Slegte tye? Reaksie is ons keuse, Rapport, 26 April 2015
  83. ^ Goede Tijden Slechte Tijden gaat nog vier jaar door, RTL, 16 June 2015
  84. ^ Positieve reactie op btw-verlaging, NRC Handelsblad, 31 May 2016
  85. ^ Positiewe reaksie op negatiewe kritiek, Die Republikein, 12 November 2013
  86. ^ AIVD geleid door "vooroordeel tegen oudere homoseksuele man", NRC Handelsblad, 22 August 2015
  87. ^ Verordening tot wijziging van diverse verordeningen in verband met de afschaffing van het verplichte procuraat, Staatscourant, 26 June 2008
  88. ^ South African Law Reports, Volume 1, Juta, 1995, page 455
  89. ^ Wetboek van Strafvordering, 1811, page 80
  90. ^ International Bar Journal, Volume 1, International Bar Association, 1970
  91. ^ Geredigeerde toesprake van die sewende Eerste Minister van Suid-Afrika: 1953-1974, Balthazar Johannes Vorster, O. Geyser Instituut vir Eietydse Geskiedenis, UOVS, 1976
  92. ^ Charles Michel Eerste minister van België, Government of Belgium
  93. ^ Rutte ontvangt de Britse premier May, Government of the Netherlands, 10 October 2016
  94. ^ Beweerde gekonkel met nuwe kantore vir eerste minister, Die Republikein, 27 July 2016
  95. ^ film, rolprent, NRC Handelsblad
  96. ^ a b Language contact and linguistic change: The influence of English on Afrikaans, B Donaldson in Language and Social History: Studies in South African Sociolinguistics, Rajend Mesthrie, New Africa Books, 1995, page 225
  97. ^ Wen met jou TV-lisensie, Die Republikein, 15 September 2016
  98. ^ Omroepbijdrage wordt afgeschaft, Trouw, 20 November 1999
  99. ^ Broers uit UK beginnen milkshakezaak in Rotterdam, Metro, 13 June 2016
  100. ^ Afrikaans-English, English-Afrikaans Dictionary, Hippocrene Books, 2001, page 22
  101. ^ Der Nederlanden: Calvé, pindakaas van;Calvinisme, Volkskrant, 30 October 2010
  102. ^ Nederlands Etymologisch Woordenboek, Jan De Vries, BRILL, 1987, pag 521
  103. ^ Ik creëer toeval, NRC Handelsblad, 24 May 2014
  104. ^ Prins van Holland oorlede, Netwerk24, 12 August 2013
  105. ^ HAT: verklarende handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse taal, edited by F. F. Odendal, R. H. Gouws, Pearson South Africa, 2005, page 413
  106. ^ 'De Kaap is weer Hollands', NOS, 5 July 2010
  107. ^ Beknopt Nederduitsch taalkundig woordenboek, Petrus Weiland, Blusse en van Braam, 1829, page 236
  108. ^ Zoveel of meer als / dan, Taalunie
  109. ^ Als / zoals, Taalunie
  110. ^ Afrikaans for All, Jan Nieuwoudt Tromp, Dent, 1952, page 41
  111. ^ A Grammar of Afrikaans, Bruce C. Donaldson, Walter de Gruyter, 1993, page 324
  112. ^ HAT: verklarende handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse taal, edited by F. F. Odendal, R. H. Gouws, Pearson South Africa, 2005, page 380
  113. ^ The New Routledge Dutch Dictionary: Dutch-English/English-Dutch, N. E. Osselton, R. Hempelman Routlege, 2003, page 158
  114. ^ Euro 2016: Meer as sokker op die spel vir Frankryk, NRC Handelsblad, 10 June 2016
  115. ^ Keniaan 'verruil Kings vir Amerikaanse voetbal', Netwerk 24, 26 July 2013
  116. ^ Soccer is leuk én lucratief, ontdekken ook de Amerikanen, NRC Handelsblad, 4 July 2014
  117. ^ Vóór / voor, Taalunie
  118. ^ Hy praat oor die weer, en meer, Netwerk24, 28 November 2014
  119. ^ Massahisterie volg nadat Victoria Beckham haar dogtertjie soen, Huisgenoot, 14 July 2016
  120. ^ HAT: verklarende handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse taal, edited by F. F. Odendal, R. H. Gouws, Pearson South Africa, 2005, page 639
  121. ^ A Grammar of Afrikaans, Bruce C. Donaldson, Walter de Gruyter, 1993, page 207
  122. ^ Makro Blokraaisels Woordeboek, L.L. Pansegrouw, Pearson South Africa, 1998, page 166
  123. ^ HAT: verklarende handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse taal, edited by F. F. Odendal, R. H. Gouws, Pearson South Africa, 2005, page 226
  124. ^ HAT: verklarende handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse taal, edited by F. F. Odendal, R. H. Gouws, Pearson South Africa, 2005, page 226
  125. ^ Middeleeuwse wijsbegeerte: traditie en vernieuwing, Uitgeverij Van Gorcum, 1977, page 198-199
  126. ^ Artikel ontketent polemiek over Afrikaans; Maagbom voorkaaskop, NRC Handelsblad, 27 March 1990
  127. ^ HAT: verklarende handwoordeboek van die Afrikaanse taal, edited by F. F. Odendal, R. H. Gouws, Pearson South Africa, 2005, page 147
  128. ^ Flikker op met je punt op de horizon, NRC Handelsblad, 1 November 2016
  129. ^ a b Both sentences have different connotations.
  130. ^ "Woordenboek – Betekenis van middenstad". Woorden-boek.nl. Retrieved 2015-04-02. 
  131. ^ Dutch does have the word sambreel meaning "parasol".

External links[edit]