Comparison of Asian national space programs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Several Asian national space programs are attempting to achieve the scientific and technological advancements necessary for regular spaceflight, as well as to reap the strategic and economic benefits of space capability. This is sometimes referred to as the Asian space race in popular media,[1] an allusion to the Cold-War-era Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.

As in the previous Space Race, between the United States and the USSR, the motivations for the current push into space include national security, national pride, and commercial gain. As a result, several Asian countries have sent both unmanned satellites and humans into geocentric orbit and beyond.[2]

Although many Asian nations have taken steps toward a significant presence in space, three countries are forerunners: China, India, and Japan.[3]

Asian space agencies and programs[edit]

  Human Lunar Exploration (includes Space station capability, etc.)
  Space station (includes Human spaceflight capability, etc.)
  Human spaceflight (includes Extraterrestrial Probes capability, etc.)
  Extraterrestrial Probes (includes Launch Capability, etc.)
  Launch Capability (includes Satellites capability)
  Uses capabilities of other nations
Country Official Name Acronym Founded Terminated Capabilities Remarks
Astronauts Operates Satellites Sounding Rockets capable Recoverable Biological Sounding Rockets capable
 Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization SPARRSO 1980 No Yes No No [4]
 People's Republic of China China National Space Administration
(Chinese: 国家航天局)
CNSA 22 April 1993 Yes Yes Yes Yes [5]
 India Indian Space Research Organisation
(Hindi: भारतीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन)
ISRO
इसरो
15 August 1969 Yes Yes Yes Yes [6][7][8]
 Indonesia Indonesian: Lembaga Antariksa dan Penerbangan Nasional
(National Institute of Aeronautics and Space)
LAPAN 27 November 1964 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Iran Iranian Space Agency
(Persian: سازمان فضایی ایران‎)
ISA 2003 Yes Yes Yes Yes [9][10][11]
 Israel Israeli Space Agency
(Hebrew: סוכנות החלל הישראלית‎)
ISA
סל"ה
April 1983 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Japan Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
(Japanese: 宇宙航空研究開発機構)
JAXA 1 October 2003 Yes Yes Yes Yes [12][13]
 Malaysia Malaysian National Space Agency
(Malay: Agensi Angkasa Negara)
ANGKASA 2002 Yes Yes No No [14]
 North Korea Korean Committee of Space Technology
(Korean: 조선우주공간기술위원회)
KCST 1980s 2013 No Yes Yes No [15][16][17]
 Pakistan Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
(Urdu: پاکستان خلائی و بالا فضائی تحقی‍قاتی کمیشن‎)
SUPARCO
سپارکو
16 September 1961 No Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Philippines Philippine Space Agency PhilSA 8 August 2019 No Yes No No [18]
 South Korea Korea Aerospace Research Institute
(Korean: 한국항공우주연구원)
KARI 10 October 1989 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Republic of China National Space Organization
(Chinese: 國家太空中心)
NSPO 3 October 1991 No Yes Yes No [19]
 Thailand Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency
(Thai: สำนักงานพัฒนาเทคโนโลยีอวกาศและภูมิสารสนเทศ)
GISTDA
สทอภ
3 November 2002 No Yes No No [20]

Asian space powers[edit]

The countries that have independently and successfully launched satellites into orbit include Japan (1970), China (1970), India (1980), Israel (1988), Iran (2009), and North Korea (2012). Of these six Asian agencies, three countries—China, India, and Japan—possess the ability to launch heavy payloads into geosynchronous orbits, launch multiple and recoverable satellites, deploy cryogenic engines, and operate extraterrestrial exploratory missions.[citation needed]

China's first crewed spacecraft entered orbit in October 2003, making China the first Asian nation to send a human into space.[21] India expects to send its own vyomanauts into space in the Gaganyaan capsule by 2022.[22]

The achievements of these space programs do not yet rival those of the former Soviet Union and the United States, although some experts[who?] believe Asia may soon lead the world in space exploration.[23]

Although Japan was the first program on Earth to launch a mission that returned samples from an asteroid,[citation needed] the existence of a space race in Asia is still debated, due to the lack of true spaceflight milestones. Although China denies that there is an Asian space race, there was competition between China and India in their attempts to be the first to launch a probe to Earth's moon within the first decade of the 21st century.[24] In January 2007, China became the first Asian space power to send an anti-satellite missile into orbit, destroying an aging Chinese Feng Yun 1C weather satellite in polar orbit. The resulting explosion sent a wave of debris hurtling through space at more than 6 miles per second.[25][26] In 2019, India, in operation Mission Shakti, did the same, shooting down its own Microsat-R satellite.[27] China and India tested their anti-satellite weapons in 2007 and 2019 respectively, making them the only countries other than the US and the USSR/Russia, to possess ASAT weapons.[citation needed]

A month later, Japan's space agency launched an experimental communications satellite designed to enable super-high-speed data transmission in remote areas.[25]

After the successful attainment of geostationary technology, India's ISRO launched its first moon mission, Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008, when it discovered ice water on the Moon.[28]

In addition to enhancing national prestige, countries are economically motivated to operate in space, frequently launching commercial satellites to enable communications, weather forecasting, and atmospheric research. According to a 2006 report by the Space Frontier Foundation, the "space economy" is estimated to be worth about $180 billion, with more than 60% of space-related economic activity coming from commercial goods and services.[2]

China[edit]

Several rockets of the Long March family
Several rockets of the Long March family
Chang'e 3 lander on lunar surface
Chang'e 3, China's first lunar lander, landed on the Moon
Yutu-2, the first ever rover deployed on the far side of the Moon, working duing Chang'e 4 mission
Yutu-2, the first ever rover deployed on the far side of the Moon, working duing Chang'e 4 mission

China successfully completed its first orbital launch with Long March 1 rocket in 1970. With increased economy and technology strength in the following decades, especially since early 21st century, China has made significant achievements in many aspects of space activities. It has developed a sizable family of Long March rockets, including Long March 5, the launch vehicle with highest payload capacity in Asia since 2016. Starting from year 2010, China has been conducting more orbital launches than all other Asian countries combined every year. [29]

As of 2021, China is the only Asian country who has independent human spaceflight capability. Following Shenzhou 5, the first successful crewed spaceflight mission in 2003, China has developed critical capabilities including EVA, space docking and berthing and space station. The construction of Tiangong space station, the long-term Chinese space station, began in year 2021, marked by the successful launch of Tianhe core module in April 2021.

As the first step of distance outer space exploration, the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program was approved in 2004. It launched two lunar orbiters: Chang'e 1 and Chang'e 2 in 2007 and 2010 respectively. On 14 December 2013, China successfully soft-landed Chang'e 3 Moon lander and its rover Yutu on Moon surface, becoming the first Asian country capable to do so, followed by Chang'e 4, the first ever soft landing on the far side of the Moon, in 2019 and Chang'e 5, the first lunar sample return mission conducted by an Asian country, in 2020, marking the completion of the three goals (orbiting, landing, returning) of the first stage of the program which no other Asian country has achieved previously.

China began its first interplanetary exploration attempt in 2011 by sending Yinghuo-1, a Mars orbiter, in a joint mission with Russia. Yet it failed to leave Earth orbit due to the failure of Russian launch vehicle.[30] As a result, the Chinese space agency then embarked on its independent Mars mission. In July 2020, China launched Tianwen-1, which included an orbiter, a lander, and a rover, on a Long March 5 rocket to Mars. The Tianwen-1 was inserted into Mars orbit on 10 February 2021, followed by a successful soft landing of the lander and Zhurong rover on 14 May 2021, making China the second country in the world and the first country in Asia which successfully soft-landed a fully operational spacecraft on Mars surface.

In addition to outer space explorations, China's space activities also plays important role in the national economic activities. China is operating multiple satellite systems, including communication, Earth imaging, weather forecast, ocean monitoring. BeiDou Navigation Satellite System, the satellite navigation system developed, launched, and operated by China, is one of the four core system providers and the only Asian provider of International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems.[31]

As part of international space collaboration, China has collaborative projects with Russia, the ESA, and Brazil, launching commercial satellites for other countries. Some analysts suggest that the Chinese space program is linked to the nation's efforts at developing advanced military technology.[32]

In conjunction with public sector space programs, there are also privately owned Chinese companies dedicated on space activities. The private company i-Space achieved Asia's first successful private sector orbital launch in 2019.[33]

India[edit]

GSLV Mk III D2 on launch pad carrying GSAT-29

India's interest in space travel began in the early 1960s, when scientists launched a Nike-Apache rocket from TERLS, Kerala.[34][35] Under Vikram Sarabhai, the program focused on the practical uses of space in increasing the standard of living by sending remote sensing and communications satellites into orbit.[36]

India's space launch vehicles are SLV, ASLV, PSLV, GSLV, SSLV, ULV, RLV, HLV and some Sounding Rockets such as Rohini. Some of them are retired and not in operation and some of them are under developmental progress.

The first Indian to travel in space was Rakesh Sharma, who flew aboard Soyuz T-11, launched 2 April 1984 from the USSR.[37]

Just several days after the aforementioned mission, China said that it would send a human into orbit in the second half of 2003; Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee publicly urged his country's scientists to work towards sending a man to the Moon.[38] India successfully sent its first probe to the Moon, known as Chandrayaan-1, in October 2008, which helped to find the presence of water in the Moon.[39] The nation also launched its second Moon mission, Chandrayaan-2, to the south pole of the Moon.[40][41]

ISRO launched its Mars Orbiter Mission (informally called "Mangalyaan") on November 5, 2013, successfully entering orbit around Mars on September 24, 2014. India is the first country in Asia, and the fourth in the world, to perform a successful Mars mission. It is also the only one to do so on the first attempt, at a record low cost of $74 million. And it is functioning till date.[42]

All of these have been launched successfully by PSLVs so far, meaning that the country's scientists have gained significant expertise in space technologies. In June 2016, India set a record by launching 20 satellites simultaneously.[43] The PSLVs possess a success rate of more than 90%, having had their 35th successful mission in a row, out of 39 total missions, as of February 2017.[citation needed]

India broke the world record by successfully placing 104 satellites in Earth's orbit from a single rocket launch (PSLV-C37) on February 15, 2017, which almost tripled the previous record of 37, which had been held by Russia.[44][45]

Japan[edit]

The H-IIA F11 launch vehicle lifts off from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan

North Korean nuclear and Chinese military programs represent a serious issue for Japan's foreign relations.[46] Japan is working on military and civilian space technologies, developing missile defense systems and new generations of military spy satellites, as well as planning for the implementation of crewed stations on the Moon.[47] The North Korean government claimed the missile was merely launching a satellite into space, accusing Japan of causing an arms race.[48] Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution, adopted after World War II, limits military activities to defensive operations; although in May 2007, Prime Minister Shinzo Abe called for a bold review of the Japanese Constitution to allow the country to take a larger role in global security and foster a revival of national pride.[49] Japan has not yet developed its own crewed spacecraft and does not have a program in place to develop one. The Japanese did develop a space shuttle, HOPE-X, to be launched by the conventional space launcher H-II, but the program was postponed and eventually cancelled. Then, the simpler crewed capsule Fuji was proposed but not adopted. Pioneer projects—including the single-stage to orbit, reusable launch vehicle, horizontal-takeoff-and-landing ASSTS[citation needed] and the vertical takeoff and landing Kankoh-maru—were developed but have also not been adopted. A new, more conservative JAXA crewed spacecraft project is supposed to be launched by 2025 as part of Japan's plan to send human missions to the Moon. Shinya Matsuura is doubtful about the Japanese human Moon project, suspecting the project is a euphemism for participation in the American Constellation program.[50] JAXA planned to send a humanoid robot, such as ASIMO, to the Moon within the next decade, in the hopes of using both automated and remote-controlled machines to build their planned moon base.[50][51]

Other Asian nations[edit]

Iran[edit]

Iranian Simorgh (rocket) SLV

Iran has developed its own satellite launch vehicle, named the Safir SLV, based on the Shahab series of IRBMs. On 2 February 2009, Iranian state television reported that Iran's first domestically manufactured satellite, Omid (from the Persian امید, meaning "hope") had been successfully launched into low Earth orbit by a version of Iran's Safir rocket, the Safir-2.[52] The launch coincided with the 30th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution. Iran is also developing a new rocket, named Simorgh.[citation needed]

Israel[edit]

Shavit, the Israeli orbital launch system

On 19 September 1988, Israel became the eighth country in the world to build its own satellite and launcher. Israel launched its first satellite, Ofeq-1, using an Israeli-built Shavit three-stage launch vehicle.[53] The launch was the high point of a process that began in 1983 with the establishment of the Israel Space Agency under the aegis of the Ministry of Science. Space research by university-based scientists had begun in the 1960s, providing a ready-made pool of experts for Israel's foray into space. Since then, local universities, research institutes, and private industry, backed by the Israel Space Agency, have made progress in space technology. The agency's role is to support "private and academic space projects, coordinate their efforts, initiate and develop international relations and projects, head integrative projects involving different bodies, and create public awareness for the importance of space development."[54]

North Korea[edit]

North Korea has many years of experience with rocket technology, which it has passed along to Pakistan and other countries.[citation needed] On 12 December 2012, North Korea placed its first satellite in orbit with the launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2. On 12 March 2009, North Korea signed the Outer Space Treaty and the Registration Convention,[55] after a previous declaration of making preparations for the launch of Kwangmyongsong-2. North Korea twice announced satellite launches: Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 on 31 August 1998 and Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 on 5 April 2009. Neither of these claims were confirmed by the rest of the world, but the United States and South Korea believe they were tests of military ballistic missiles.[citation needed] The North Korean space agency is the Korean Committee of Space Technology, which operates the Musudan-ri and Tongch'ang-dong Space Launch Center rocket launching sites, and has developed the Baekdusan-1 and Unha (Baekdusan-2) space launchers and Kwangmyŏngsŏng satellites. In 2009 North Korea announced several future space projects, including human space flights and the development of a crewed, partially reusable launch vehicle.[56] The successor to the Korean Committee of Space Technology, National Aerospace Development Administration (NADA), successfully launched an Unha-3 launch vehicle in February 2016, placing the Kwangmyŏngsŏng-4 satellite in orbit.[citation needed]

Indonesia[edit]

LAPAN is responsible for long-term civilian and military aerospace research for Indonesia, which in July 1976 became the first developing country to operate its own domestic satellite system.[57] In October 1985, Indonesian scientist, Pratiwi Sudarmono was selected to take part in the NASA Space Shuttle mission STS-61-H as a Payload Specialist. Taufik Akbar was her backup on the mission.[citation needed] However, after the Challenger disaster the deployment of commercial satellites—such as the Indonesian Palapa B-3, planned for the STS-61-H mission—was canceled; and so the mission never took place.[citation needed] The satellite was later launched with a Delta rocket.[58] For over two decades, Indonesia has managed satellites and domain-developed small scientific-technology satellites LAPAN and telecommunication satellites Palapa, which were built by Hughes (now Boeing Satellite Systems) and launched from the US on Delta rockets or from French Guiana using Ariane 4 and Ariane 5 rockets.[citation needed] It has also developed sounding rockets and has been trying to develop small orbital space launchers.[citation needed] The LAPAN A1 in 2007 and LAPAN A2 satellites were launched by India in 2015.[59] Indonesia has undertaken programs to develop and use their own small space launch vehicle Pengorbitan (RPS-420).[60][61]

South Korea[edit]

South Korea is a more recent player in the Asian space race.[62] In August 2006 South Korea launched its first military communications satellite, the Mugunghwa-5.[citation needed] The satellite was placed in geosynchronous orbit and collects surveillance information about North Korea.[63] The South Korean government is spending hundreds of millions of dollars on space technology and was due to launch its first space launcher, the Korea Space Launch Vehicle, in 2008.[64][needs update] South Korea's government justifies the cost by pointing to the long-term commercial benefits, as well as enhanced national pride. South Korea has long seen North Korea's significantly longer missile range as a serious threat to its national security. With the nation's first astronaut launched into space, Lee So-yeon, South Korea gained confidence in entering the Asian space race. They have completed the construction of Naro Space Center. South Korea is now attempting to build satellites and rockets with local technology.[65] South Korea is pursuing a space program that could defend the peninsula while lessening their dependency on the United States.[citation needed]

Turkey[edit]

Turkey's first Göktürk satellite was launched on December 18, 2012. The satellite is capable of taking images which have a resolution of over two meters per pixel[citation needed] Turkey is also developing an orbital launch system known as UFS.[66]

Pakistan[edit]

On 7 June 1962, with the launch of the Rehbar-I rocket, Pakistan became the first country in the Islamic world and South Asia, third in Asia, and tenth in the world to successfully launch an unmanned spacecraft. SUPARCO has launched several sounding rockets. Pakistan's first satellite, Badr-I, was launched from China in 1990. Badr-B was launched in 2001 from Baikonur Cosmodrome, using a Ukrainian Zenit-2 rocket. In 2011, Paksat-1R—which was contracted for, built, and launched by China—became Pakistan's first communication satellite.[67] Under its Space programme 2040, Pakistan aims to operate five geostationary and six low-earth-orbit satellites.

Other nations and regions[edit]

In 2018, with the launch of the Bangabandhu-1 satellite, which was purchased abroad, Bangladesh began operating its first communication satellite. The Bangladesh Space Agency intends to launch satellites after 2020. Bangladesh's government has stressed that the country seeks an "entirely peaceful and commercial" role in space.[68]

Since 2002, Malaysia has had an active space program that, since 2019, is overseen by the Malaysian Space Agency.

Timeline of national firsts[edit]

  – Indigenous crewed missions       – Human missions   – Lunar or Interplanetary missions   – Other missions
Date Nation Name Asian First World achievements
11 February 1970  Japan Ohsumi Satellite The smallest satellite launch vehicle (L-4S; 9.4t weight, 0.74m diameter) until SS-520
24 February 1975  Japan Taiyo Solar observatory
26 October 1975  China FSW-0 Satellite recovery[69]
26 October 1975  China FSW-0:
– 10m (1975)
FSW-1B:
– 4m (1992)[70]
Beidou:
– 0.5m (till 2007)[71]
High resolution imaging satellite
8 July 1976  Indonesia Palapa A1 Geosynchronous satellite (launched by NASA)
23 February 1977  Japan N-I Geosynchronous launch
21 February 1979  Japan Hakucho Space observatory
23 July 1980  Vietnam Phạm Tuân Asian in space (Soyuz 37)
20 September 1981  China FB-1 Simultaneous satellite launch[72]
8 January 1985  Japan Sakigake Leaving Earth orbit, comet fly-by First interplanetary launch from a country other than the USSR or US, using a solid-fuel rocket (M-3SII)
18 March 1990  Japan Hiten Lunar fly-by First lunar probe from a country other than the USSR or US
19 March 1990  Japan Hagoromo Reach lunar orbit (assumed)
7 April 1990  China CZ-3 Commercial launch (AsiaSat 1)
2 December 1990  Japan Toyohiro Akiyama Private space traveler (Soyuz TM-11) First commercial sponsor (Tokyo Broadcasting System) for a human spaceflight
12 September 1992  Japan Mamoru Mohri First astronaut trained by an Asian space program (STS-47)
10 April 1993  Japan Hiten Intentional lunar impact The first aerobraking test[73]
8 July 1994  Japan Chiaki Mukai Asian woman in space (STS-65)
11 February 1996  Japan HYFLEX Lifting body spaceplane demonstrator
19 November 1997  Japan Takao Doi Spacework (STS-87)
28 November 1997  Japan ETS-VII Rendezvous docking
3 July 1998  Japan Nozomi Martian mission (Failure)
30 October 2000  China Beidou Satellite navigation system
10 September 2002  Japan Kodama[74] Indigenous Tracking & Data Relay Satellite System
15 October 2003  China Yang Liwei First man in space launched by an Asian space program
15 October 2003  China Shenzhou 5 Crewed spacecraft
19 November 2005  Japan Hayabusa Soft-landed probe on extraterrestrial object. First sample return mission by an Asian country. The first asteroid ascent, sample return from an asteroid
11 January 2007  China FY-1C ASAT test Highest in history with altitude 865 km, also the fastest with speed 18k miles
23 February 2008  Japan WINDS Internet satellite The fastest internet satellite[75]
11 March 2008  Japan Japanese Experiment Module Crewed space station module (STS-123, STS-124, STS-127) The world's largest pressurized volume in space[76]
25 April 2008  China Tianlian I First Asian TDRS system to support crewed missions
27 September 2008  China Zhai Zhigang (Shenzhou 7) Indigenous EVA
27 September 2008  China BanXing Crewed spacecraft-launched satellite
23 January 2009  Japan GOSAT Greenhouse gas explorer[77]
10 September 2009  Japan HTV-1 Dedicated cargo spacecraft
20 May 2010  Japan Akatsuki First Asian Venus mission
21 May 2010  Japan IKAROS Solar sail The first spacecraft to successfully demonstrate solar-sail technology in interplanetary space
25 August 2011  China Chang'e 2 Lunar probe with extended deep space missions (asteroid mission to 4179 Toutatis).
29 September 2011  China Tiangong-1 First independent Asian space station
18 June 2012  China Shenzhou 9 First crewed space docking by an Asian country (with Tiangong-1)
14 December 2013  China Chang'e 3/Yutu First lunar soft landing and lunar rover by an Asian country First lunar soft landing in 21st century
24 September 2014  India Mars Orbiter Mission First successful Mars mission by an Asian country First Martian mission by a country to succeed on the first attempt. Third individual country to do so after the USSR and the USA.
20 October 2018  Japan Mio First Asian Mercury mission (with ESA), planned orbital insertion in December 2025
3 January 2019  China Chang'e 4 First soft landing on the far side of the Moon First soft landing on the far side of the Moon by any country. Landed with Yutu-2 rover.
5 December 2020  China Chang'e 5 First lunar ascent, lunar rendezvous and docking and lunar sample return by an Asian country First automated lunar rendezvous and docking by any country. Lunar sample-return mission.
15 May 2021  China Tianwen-1/Zhurong First successful Mars soft landing and Mars rover by an Asian country. Second country in history to deploy a Mars rover.

Other achievements[edit]

Timeline of the heaviest satellite launch vehicle in Asia
First success LEO GTO / GEO Notes
11 Feb 1970 Japan L-4S (26 kg) First launch was 1966 (failed 4 times).
24 Apr 1970 China CZ-1 (0.3 t) First launch failed in 1969.
26 Jul 1975 China FB-1 (2.5 t) Suborbital flight was performed in 1972.
ChinaCZ-2A (LEO 2t) failed in 1974.
12 Aug 1986 Japan United States H-I (LEO 3.2 t / GTO 1.1 t) First stage was a license-built Delta rocket.
16 Jul 1990 China CZ-2E (LEO 9.2 t / GTO 3.5 t)
3 Feb 1994 Japan H-II (LEO 10.1 t / GTO 3.9 t)
20 Aug 1997 China CZ-3B (LEO 12 t / GTO 5.2 t)
18 Dec 2006 Japan H-IIA204 (LEO 15 t / GTO 5.8 t)
10 Sep 2009 Japan H-IIB (LEO 19 t / GTO 8 t)
3 Nov 2016 Japan H-IIB (LEO 19 t) China CZ-5 (GTO 14 t)[80]
5 May 2020 China CZ-5 (LEO 25 t / GTO 14 t)

Comparison of key technologies[edit]

Records of each country are listed by chronological order unless otherwise noted.

Launch vehicle technology[edit]

First successful independent launches (rocket/satellite)
Country Year Mission
 Japan 1970 Lambda-4S/Ohsumi
 China 1970 Long March 1/Dong Fang Hong I
 India 1980 SLV/Rohini D1
 Israel 1988 Shavit/Ofeq 1
 Iran 2009 Safir-1/Omid
 North Korea 2012 Unha-3/Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2
Solid fuel rockets
Country Rocket Burn time Specific impulse (Vac.) Thrust (Vac.)
 India S200 booster rocket stage[81] 130s 274.5s 5,150 kN (1,160,000 lbf)
 Japan SRB-A series solid fueled rocket boosters 100s 280s 2,260 kN (510,000 lbf)
 Israel Shavit's first stage 82s 280s 1,650 kN (370,000 lbf)
 China Kuaizhou series of launch vehicles
 China Long March 11 launch system 248s (SL.) 1,188 kN (267,000 lbf) (SL.)
Cryogenic and semi-cryogenic rocket engines
Country Engine Thrust (vac.) Stage Cycle Active Status
 Japan LE-5 cryogenic engine LE-5 — 102.9 kN (23,100 lbf)
----------
LE-5A — 121.5 kN (27,300 lbf)
----------
LE-5B — 144.9 kN (32,600 lbf)
Upper stage 5 — Gas generator
5A and 5B — Expander
1986 — present In service
LE-7 cryogenic engine LE-7 — 1,078 kN (242,000 lbf)
----------
LE-7A — 1,074 kN (241,000 lbf)
Booster Staged combustion 1994 — present In service
 China YF-73 cryogenic engine 44.15 kN (9,930 lbf) Upper stage Gas generator 1987–2000 Retired
YF-75 cryogenic engine 78.45 kN (17,640 lbf) Upper stage Gas generator 1994 — present In service
YF-75D cryogenic engine 88.36 kN (19,860 lbf) Upper stage Expander 2016 — present In service
YF-77 cryogenic engine 700 kN (160,000 lbf) Booster Gas generator 2016 — present In service
YF-90 cryogenic engine 2,200 kN (490,000 lbf) Upper stage Staged combustion ~2028 Under development
YF-100 semi-cryogenic engine 1,340 kN (300,000 lbf) Booster Staged combustion 2015 — present In service
YF-115 semi-cryogenic engine 180 kN (40,000 lbf) Upper stage Staged combustion 2015 — present In service
YF-130 semi-cryogenic engine 4,800 kN (1,100,000 lbf) (SL.) Booster Staged combustion ~2028 Under development
 India CE-7.5 cryogenic engine 73.5 kN (16,500 lbf) Upper stage Staged combustion 2014 — present In service
CE-20 cryogenic engine 200 kN (45,000 lbf) Upper stage Gas-generator 2017 — present In service
SCE-200 semi-cryogenic engine 2,030 kN (460,000 lbf) Booster Staged combustion After 2022 Under development
Capability of Launch Vehicle (in active)
Country Highest payload capacity
LEO GTO
Launch Vehicle Payload capacity Active since Launch Vehicle Payload capacity Active since
 China CZ-5B 25,000 kg (55,000 lb) 2016 CZ-5 14,500 kg (32,000 lb) 2016
 Japan H-IIB 16,500 kg (36,400 lb) 2009 H-IIB 8,000 kg (18,000 lb) 2009
 India GSLV MkIII 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) 2017 GSLV MkIII 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) 2017
 Israel Shavit 800 kg (1,800 lb) 1988 Not any yet
 North Korea Unha-3 200 kg (440 lb) 2009 Not any yet
 Iran Safir-1B 50 kg (110 lb) 2008 Not any yet
Biggest multi-satellite simultaneous launches (by number)
Country Number of satellites Year Launch Vehicle Flight
 India 104 2017 PSLV-XL C37
 China 20 2015 Long March 6 1
 Japan 8 2009 H-IIA F15
First flight of space shuttles
Including shuttle-shaped hyper-sonic reentry vehicles reach to space.
Country Spaceplane First flight mission Year Program status
 Japan HOPE-X HYFLEX 1996 Cancelled
 China Various Shenlong 2007 Ongoing
 India RLV–TD Hypersonic Flight Experiment 2016 Under development

Satellite technology[edit]

Payloads in orbit by number
First five as of 1 February 2020[82]
Country Active In orbit Decayed Total
 China 352 407 84 491
 Japan 90 183 65 248
 India 64 101 12 113
 Israel 17 20 6 26
 South Korea 15 22 5 27
Optical satellite imagery (by highest available resolution)
Country Resolution Satellite Year launched
 India 0.25 meter Cartosat-3 2019
 Japan 0.4 meter IGS Optical 5V 2013
 Israel 0.5 meter Ofeq 9 2010
 China 0.5 meter Gaofen 9 2015
 South Korea 0.7 meter KOMPSAT-3 2012
 Iran 150 meters Rasad 1 2011
Radar satellite imagery (by resolution)
Country Resolution Satellite Year launched
 India 0.35 meter RISAT-2BR1 2019
0.5 meter x 0.3 meter RISAT-2B 2019
 Israel 0.5 TecSAR 2008
 China 0.5 meter Yaogan 29 2015
 Japan 0.5 meter IGS R-5 2017
 South Korea 1 meter KOMPSat-5 2013
Communications satellite technology
Country Satellite Transponders Mass Power Year launched
 China NIGCOMSAT 1R 28 5,150 kg (11,350 lb) 10.5 kW 2011
 Japan ST-2 51 5,090 kg (11,220 lb) 2011
 India GSAT-16 48 3,100 kg (6,800 lb) 5.6 kW 2014
GSAT-11 40 5,854 kg (12,906 lb) 13.6 kW 2018
Solar Sail spacecraft
Country Satellite Type Year launched
 Japan IKAROS Extraterrestrial exploration 2010
Spacecraft powered by indigenous plasma thrusters
Country Spacecraft (engine) Power Thrust Specific impulse Year
 Japan ETS-IV (Unnamed teflon pulsed plasma thruster) 20 W 300s 1981
Space Flyer Unit (EPEX, magnetoplasmadynamic thruster) 430 W 12.9 mN 600s 1995
 China Dongfeng 5 ballistic rocket (MDT-2A, teflon pulsed plasma thruster) 5 W 280s 1981
Spacecraft powered by indigenous ion thrusters
Country Spacecraft Power Thrust Specific impulse Year launched
 Japan Hayabusa (μ-10, microwave ion thrusters) 350 W 8 mN 3200s 2003
 China Shijian 9A (LIPS-200, ring-cusp magnetic field ion thruster) 1 kW 40 mN 3000s 2012
 India GSAT-20 (Full) 2020 (Planned)
Spacecraft powered by indigenous Hall thrusters
Country Spacecraft Power Thrust Specific impulse Year launched
 South Korea DubaiSat-2 0.3 kW 7 mN 1000s 2013
 China Shijian 17 (HEP-100MF, magnetic focusing hall thruster) 1.4 kW 1850s 2016
Shijian 17 (LHT-100) 1.35 kW 80 mN 1600s

Human spaceflight and rendezvous space docking and berthing capabilities[edit]

First indigenous human spaceflights
Country Program First successful human spaceflight Status
Name Period Year Spacecraft
 China Project 714 1968–72 N/A Shuguang-1 Cancelled
Project 873 1978–80 N/A Piloted FSW satellite Cancelled
Project 921/Shenzhou 1992–present 2003 Shenzhou 5 Ongoing
 India Indian Human Spaceflight Programme 2007–present 2021 (Planned)
Before August 2022 (Scheduled)
Gaganyaan Ongoing
Independent human spaceflights
Country Total persons Total flights
 China[83] 11 11
First independent extravehicular activity
Country Spacecraft involved Year
 China Shenzhou 7 2008
First independent Space rendezvous
Country Uncrewed rendezvous crewed rendezvous
Spacecraft involved Year Spacecraft involved Year
 Japan ETS-VII 1997
 China Shenzhou 8 & Tiangong 1 2011 Shenzhou 9 & Tiangong 1 2012
First space habitation module
Country Spacecraft Year launched
 Japan Kibo 2008
 China Tiangong 1 2011
 India[84][85][86][87] Indian Space Station ~2030 (Proposed)
First Space laboratory
Country Spacecraft Year
 Japan Kibo 2009
 China Tiangong 2 2016
 India Indian Space Station ~2030(Proposed)
Resupply spacecraft
Country Spacecraft Launch payload Year launched
 Japan HTV 6,000 kg (13,000 lb) 2009
 China Tianzhou 6,500 kg (14,300 lb) 2017

Lunar exploration[edit]

First orbiters to the Moon
No. Country Spacecraft Year
1  Japan Hiten/Hagoromo 1990
2  China Chang'e 1 2007
3  India Chandrayaan-1 2008
TBD  South Korea Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter 2020 (Planned)
First intentional Moon landings
No. Country Spacecraft Year Landing type
1  Japan Hiten 1993 Controlled impact
2  India Moon Impact Probe 2008 Controlled impact
3  China Chang'e 1 2009 Controlled impact
First Lunar soft landings/Lunar rovers
No. Country Spacecraft Year
1  China Chang'e 3/Yutu 2013
TBD  Israel Beresheet 2019 (Failed)
TBD  India Chandrayaan-2/Pragyan 2019 (Failed)
Chandrayaan-3 2021 (Planned)
TBD  India
 Japan
Lunar Polar Exploration Mission 2024 (Planned)
First Lunar sample-return missions
No. Country Spacecraft Year
1  China Chang'e 5 2020

Interplanetary exploration missions[edit]

First probes to Mercury
No. Country Spacecraft Year Type
TBD  Japan Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter 2018 (en route) Orbiter
First probes to Venus
No. Country Spacecraft Year Type
1  Japan Akatsuki 2015 Orbiter
TBD  India Shukrayaan-1 2024 or 2026 (Planned) Orbiter with aerobots
First orbiters to Mars
No. Country Spacecraft Year
1  India Mars Orbiter Mission 2013[88]
2  United Arab Emirates Hope Mars Mission 2021
3  China Yinghuo-1 2011 (Failed)[89]
Tianwen-1 2021
TBD  Japan Nozomi 1998 (Failed)
First intentional Mars landing
No. Country Spacecraft Year Landing type
1  China Tianwen-1 2021 Soft landing
First Asteroid explorations
No. Country Spacecraft Year Type
1  Japan Hayabusa 2003 Sample return
2  China Chang'e 2 2012 Flyby
Other comparable technologies
Nation Multi-satellite simultaneous launches Launch of foreign satellite Geostationary launches Atmos-
pheric reentry
Rendezvous dockings in orbit Satellite navigation system Data relay satellites Martian missions Solar Space Missions Space observatories
 China 1981
(FB-1)[90]
3 Sats
1990
CZ-2E
Pakistan science satellite
1984
Dong Fang Hong 02
(by CZ-3)
1975
FSW-0
2011
Tiangong 1
2000
Beidou
2008
Tianlian I
2021
Tianwen-1/Zhurong (rover) (orbiter, lander, and rover)
(planned)
Solar Space Telescope
2015
Dark Matter Particle Explorer
 India 1999
(PSLV-CA C2)

3 Sats

1999
PSLV-C2
South Korea Kitsat-3
Germany DLR-Tubsat
2001
Kalpana-1
(by PSLV)
2007
SRE-1
SPADEX

(planned)

2013
IRNSS[91]
IDRSS

(Planned)

2013
Mangalyaan[88]
(orbiter)
2021 (planned)
Aditya-L1
2015
Astrosat
 Japan 1986
(H-I H15F)[92]
3 Sats
2002
H-IIA
Australia FedSat
1977
ETS-II[93]
(by N-I)
1994
OREX
1997
ETS-VII[94]
2010
QZSS[95]
2002
Kodama
1998
Nozomi
(orbiter) (Failure)
1975
Taiyo[96]
1979
Hakucho

? : Date is assumed
Only projects with under-development or above status have been listed

Asian orbital launch systems[edit]

Orbital launch systems from Asian national space agencies[edit]

The list documents launch systems developed or used by national space agencies only and not private spaceflight companies.

Legend
  Under development
  Operational
  Retired/Cancelled
Launch system Country of origin Class and type Payload capacity Maiden flight Manufacturer Status Ref
LEO (Orbit) GTO Other
Al-Abid  Iraq Small lift expendable launch vehicle 100 kg (220 lb) to 300 kg (660 lb) (200 km (120 mi) to 500 km (310 mi) N/A 1989 Space Research Center, Baghdad Abandoned [97]
Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle  India Small lift expendable launch vehicle 150 kg (330 lb) (400 km (250 mi)) N/A 1987 ISRO Retired [98]
Epsilon  Japan Small lift expendable launch vehicle 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) (250 km (160 mi)x500 km (310 mi))
700 kg (1,500 lb) (500 km (310 mi))
590 kg (1,300 lb) to 500 km (310 mi) (SSO) 2013 JAXA/IHI In service [99]
Feng Bao 1  China Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 2,500 kg (5,500 lb) 1972 Shanghai Bureau No.2 Retired [100]
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle GSLV Mk I  India Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) 2,150 kg (4,740 lb) 2001 ISRO Retired [101]
GSLV Mk II 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) 2,700 kg (6,000 lb) 2010 ISRO In service
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle Mark III  India Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) 2014 (Suborbital)
2017 (Orbital)
ISRO In service [102]
GX  Japan
 United States
Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 3,600 kg (7,900 lb) 1,814 kg (3,999 lb) to 800 km (500 mi) SSO N/A JAXA/ULA/IHI Cancelled [103]
H-I  Japan
 United States
Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 3,200 kg (7,100 lb) 1,100 kg (2,400 lb) 1986 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries/McDonnell Douglas Retired [104]
H-II H-II  Japan Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 10,060 kg (22,180 lb) 3,930 kg (8,660 lb) 1994 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Retired [105]
H-IIA 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) to 15,000 kg (33,000 lb) 4,100 kg (9,000 lb) to 6,000 kg (13,000 lb) 2001 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries/ATK In service [106]
H-IIB 16,500 kg (36,400 lb) 8,000 kg (18,000 lb) 2009 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries In service [107]
H3  Japan Medium lift expendable launch vehicle >8,000 kg (18,000 lb) >4,000 kg (8,800 lb) to SSO (Minimum configuration) 2020 (Planned) Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Under development [108]
J-I  Japan Experimental expendable launch vehicle 1,054 kg (2,324 lb) along 1,300 km (810 mi) downrange. 1996 NASDA/ISAS Retired [109]
Jielong-1  China Small lift expendable launch vehicle N/A 150 kg (330 lb) to 700 km (430 mi) (SSO) 2019 CALT In service [110]
Kaituozhe Kaituozhe-1  China Small lift expendable launch vehicle 100 kg (220 lb) Not applicable 2002 CASC Retired [111]
Kaituozhe-2 Small lift expendable launch vehicle 800 kg (1,800 lb) 2017 In service [112]
Kaituozhe-2A Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 2,000 km (1,200 mi) Unconfirmed Unknown
Kuaizhou Kuaizhou 1  China Small lift expendable launch vehicle N/A 430 kg (950 lb) to 500 km (310 mi) (SSO) 2013 CASC In service [113][114]
Kuaizhou-1A Small lift expendable launch vehicle 300 kg (660 lb) N/A 250 kg (550 lb) to 500 km (310 mi) (SSO)
200 kg (440 lb) to 700 km (430 mi) (SSO)
2017 In service
Kuaizhou-11 Small lift expendable launch vehicle 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) 1,000 kg (2,200 lb) to 700 km (430 mi) (SSO) 2019–20 (Planned) Under development [115]
Kuaizhou-21 Heavy lift expendable launch vehicle 20,000 kg (44,000 lb) 2025 (Projected) Under development [113][116]
Kuaizhou-31 Super heavy lift expendable launch vehicle 70,000 kg (150,000 lb) TBD Under development
Lambda (rocket family)  Japan Small lift expendable launch vehicle 26 kg (57 lb) 1970 ISAS/Nissan Retired [117]
Long 1 March rocket family Long March 1  China Small lift expendable launch vehicle 300 kg (660 lb) N/A 1970 MAI/CASC/CAST Retired [118]
Long March 1D Small lift expendable launch vehicle 930 kg (2,050 lb) N/A 1995 CALT Retired [119]
Long March 2 Long March 2A  China Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) 1974 CALT Retired [120]
Long March 2C Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 3,850 kg (8,490 lb) 1,250 kg (2,760 lb) 1,900 kg (4,200 lb) to SSO 1982 In service
Long March 2D Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 3,500 kg (7,700 lb) 1,300 kg (2,900 lb) to SSO 1992 In service
Long March 2E Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 9,500 kg (20,900 lb) 3,500 kg (7,700 lb) 1990 In service
Long March 2F Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 8,400 kg (18,500 lb) 1990 In service
Long March 3 Long 3 March  China Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 5,000 kg (11,000 lb) 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) 1984 CALT Retired [121]
Long March 3A Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 8,500 kg (18,700 lb) 2,600 kg (5,700 lb) 1,600 kg (3,500 lb) to HCO 1993 In service
Long March 3B, 3B/E Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 11,500 kg (25,400 lb) 5,100 kg (11,200 lb) 3,300 kg (7,300 lb) to HCO
2,000 kg (4,400 lb) to GEO
1996 In service
Long March 3C, 3C/E Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 3,900 kg (8,600 lb) 2,400 kg (5,300 lb) to HCO 2008 In service
Long March 4 Long March 4A  China Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 4,000 kg (8,800 lb) 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) to Sun-synchronous orbit 1988 CALT Retired [122]
Long March 4B Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 4,200 kg (9,300 lb) 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) 2,800 kg (6,200 lb) to SSO 1999 In service
Long March 4C Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 4,200 kg (9,300 lb) 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) 2,800 kg (6,200 lb) to SSO 2006 In service
Long March 5  China Heavy lift expendable launch vehicle 25,000 kg (55,000 lb) (200 km (120 mi) x 400 km (250 mi)) 14,000 kg (31,000 lb) 8,200 kg (18,100 lb) to TLI 2016 CALT In service [123]
Long March 6  China Small lift expendable launch vehicle N/A 1,080 kg (2,380 lb) to 700 km (430 mi) (SSO) 2015 CALT In service [124]
Long March 7  China Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 13,500 kg (29,800 lb) (200 km (120 mi) x 400 km (250 mi)) 5,500 kg (12,100 lb) 2016 CALT In service [125]
Long March 9[126]  China Super heavy lift 140,000[127] 66,000[128] 50,000 to TLI[127]
44,000 to TMI[129]
2028[130]–2030[129] CALT In development
Long March 11  China Small lift expendable launch vehicle 700 kg (1,500 lb) 350 kg (770 lb) to 700 km (430 mi) (Sun-synchronous orbit) 2015 CALT In service [131]
Mu (rocket family) Mu-3C  Japan Small lift expendable launch vehicle 195 kg (430 lb) 1974 ISAS/Nissan/IHI Retired [132]
Mu-3H Small lift expendable launch vehicle 300 kg (660 lb) 1977 Retired
Mu-3S Small lift expendable launch vehicle 300 kg (660 lb) 1980 Retired
Mu-3SII Small lift expendable launch vehicle 770 kg (1,700 lb) 1985 Retired
Mu-4S Small lift expendable launch vehicle 180 kg (400 lb) 1971 Retired
M-V Small lift expendable launch vehicle 1,850 kg (4,080 lb) 1,300 kg (2,900 lb) to Polar LEO 1997 Retired
N (rocket family) N-I  United States
 Japan
Small lift expendable launch vehicle 1,200 kg (2,600 lb) 360 kg (790 lb) 1975 Mitsubishi Heavy Industries/McDonnell Douglas Retired [133]
N-II Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 2,000 kg (4,400 lb) 730 kg (1,610 lb) 1981 Retired [134]
Paektusan-1  North Korea Small lift expendable launch vehicle 700 kg (1,500 lb) 1998 KCST Retired [135]
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle PSLV-G  India Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 3,200 kg (7,100 lb) 1,050 kg (2,310 lb) 1,600 kg (3,500 lb) to SSO 1993 ISRO Retired [136]
PSLV-CA Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 2,100 kg (4,600 lb) 1,100 kg (2,400 lb) to SSO 2007 In service
PSLV-XL Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 3,800 kg (8,400 lb) 1,300 kg (2,900 lb) 1,750 kg (3,860 lb) to SSO
1,350 kg (2,980 lb) to TMI
2008 In service
PSLV-DL Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 2,100 kg (4,600 lb) 1,100 kg (2,400 lb) to SSO 2019 In service
PSLV-QL Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 3,800 kg (8,400 lb) 1,300 kg (2,900 lb) 1,750 kg (3,860 lb) to SSO
1,350 kg (2,980 lb) to TMI
2019 In service
PSLV-3S Small lift expendable launch vehicle 500 kg (1,100 lb) (550 km (340 mi) N/A Concept only
Qonoos  Iran Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 3,500 kg (7,700 lb) 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) 2025 (Projected) ISA Under development [citation needed]
Reusable Launch Vehicle  India TSTO Reusable launch system 2016 (Flight experiment) ISRO Under development [137]
RPS-420 Pengorbitan-1  Indonesia Small lift expendable launch vehicle 25 kg (55 lb) N/A TBD LAPAN Proposed [138]
Pengorbitan-2 Small lift expendable launch vehicle 50 kg (110 lb) N/A TBD Proposed
S-Series (rocket family) SS-520  Japan Small lift expendable launch vehicle 100 kg (220 lb) (>300 km (190 mi) N/A 1980 IHI Corporation In service [139]
Safir  Iran Small lift expendable launch vehicle 65 kg (143 lb) N/A 2008 ISA In service [140]
Satellite Launch Vehicle  India Small lift expendable launch vehicle 40 kg (88 lb) (400 km (250 mi) N/A 1979 ISRO Retired [141]
Shavit  Israel Small lift expendable launch vehicle 800 kg (1,800 lb) N/A 1988 Israel Aerospace Industries In service [142]
Simorgh  Iran Small lift expendable launch vehicle 350 kg (770 lb) N/A 2016 (Sub-orbital) ISA Under development [143]
Small Satellite Launch Vehicle  India Small lift expendable launch vehicle 500 kg (1,100 lb) (500 km (310 mi)) N/A 300 kg (660 lb) 2020 (Planned) ISRO Under development [144]
TSLV  Republic of China Small lift expendable launch vehicle 50 kg (110 lb) (700 km (430 mi)) N/A TBD NSPO Under development [145][146]
Unha  North Korea Small lift expendable launch vehicle 200 kg (440 lb) (465 km (289 mi) x 502 km (312 mi)) N/A 2009 KCST In service [147]
Unified Modular Launch Vehicle ULV with 6 x S-13 boosters  India Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 4,500 kg (9,900 lb) 1,500 kg (3,300 lb) No earlier than 2022 ISRO Under development [148][149][150]
ULV with 2 x S-60 boosters Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) 3,000 kg (6,600 lb) No earlier than 2022 Under development
ULV with 2 x S-139 boosters Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 12,000 kg (26,000 lb) 4,500 kg (9,900 lb) No earlier than 2022 Under development
ULV with 2 x S-200 boosters Medium lift expendable launch vehicle 15,000 kg (33,000 lb) 6,000 kg (13,000 lb) No earlier than 2022 Under development
HLV variant Heavy lift expendable launch vehicle 20,000 kg (44,000 lb) 10,000 kg (22,000 lb) 2020s Under development
SHLV variant Super heavy lift expendable launch vehicle 41,300 kg (91,100 lb)-60,000 kg (130,000 lb) 16,300 kg (35,900 lb) 2020s Under development
Uydu Fırlatma Sistemi  Turkey Small lift expendable launch vehicle Microsatellites (700 km (430 mi)) N/A TBD ROKETSAN Under development [151]
Yun Feng SLV  Republic of China Small lift expendable launch vehicle 200 kg (440 lb) (500 km (310 mi) N/A TBD NCSIST Under development [146]

Orbital Launch Frequency[edit]

2000–2009
2000[152] 2001[153] 2002[154] 2003[155] 2004[156] 2005[157] 2006[158] 2007[159] 2008[160] 2009[161] Total
 China 5 1 5 7 8 5 6 9 11 6 63
 Japan 1 1 3 3 2 6 2 1 3 22
 India - 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 2 16
 Israel - 1 1 1 3
 Iran - 1 1 2
 South Korea - 1 1
 North Korea - 1 1
Total 6 4 10 12 10 8 13 15 16 14 108
2010–2019
2010[162] 2011[163] 2012[164] 2013[165] 2014[166] 2015[167] 2016[168] 2017[169] 2018[170] 2019[171] Total
 China 15 19 19 15 16 19 22 18 39 34 216
 India 3 3 2 4 5 5 7 5 7 6 47
 Japan 2 3 2 3 4 4 4 7 6 2 37
 Iran - 1 3 1 1 1 3 10
 North Korea - 2 1 3
 Israel 1 1 1 3
 South Korea 1 1 2
Total 22 26 28 24 26 29 35 31 52 45 318
2020–
2020[172] Total
 China 39 39
 India 2 2
 Japan 4 4
 Iran 2 2
 Israel 1 1
Total 48 48

Human Spaceflight[edit]

Legend
  Successful programs
  Planned, defined, funded and scheduled
  Planned and proposed with no clear deadline or funding or on hold
  Abandoned or cancelled
Maiden human spacefaring attempts by country
Country Program Agency engaged First orbital crewed launch
Spacecraft Term(s) for space traveler First human(s) launched Date Launch system
 People's Republic of China Project 714 (1968–72) Chinese space program Shuguang spacecraft (Intended) 宇航员 (in Chinese)

yǔhángyuán 航天员 (in Chinese) hángtiānyuán

N/A N/A Long March 2A (Intended)
Project 863 (1976–80) Chinese space program Piloted FSW spacecraft (Intended) N/A N/A Long March 2 (Intended)
 Japan HOPE-X (late 1980s–2003) National Space Development Agency of Japan HOPE-X spaceplane (Intended) 宇宙飛行士 (in Japanese)

uchūhikōshi or アストロノート astoronoto

N/A N/A H-IIA (Intended)
 Ba'athist Iraq ... (1989–2001) Space Research Center, Baghdad N/A رجل فضاء (in Arabic)

rajul faḍāʼ رائد فضاء (in Arabic) rāʼid faḍāʼ ملاح فضائي (in Arabic) mallāḥ faḍāʼiy

N/A N/A Tammouz 2 or 3 (Intended)
 People's Republic of China Project 921 (1992–present) China National Space Administration Shenzhou spacecraft and Tiangong space laboratory 宇航员 (in Chinese)

yǔhángyuán 航天员 (in Chinese) hángtiānyuán taikonaut("太空人" tàikōng rén)

杨利伟 (Yang Liwei) 2003-10-15 Long March 2F, Long March 3
 People's Republic of China Project 869 (1990s) China National Space Administration Tianjiao-1 or Chang Cheng-1 (Great Wall-1) winged spaceplanes (Intended) 宇航员 (in Chinese)

yǔhángyuán 航天员 (in Chinese) hángtiānyuán taikonaut("太空人" tàikōng rén)

N/A N/A 869 reusable shuttle system (Intended)
 Japan Kankoh-maru (1993–1997,2005) Japanese Rocket Society [ja], Kawasaki Heavy Industries and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Kankoh-maru reusable shuttle system (Intended) 宇宙飛行士 (in Japanese)

uchūhikōshi or アストロノート astoronoto

N/A N/A Kankoh-maru reusable shuttle system (Intended)
 Japan ... (2001–2003) National Space Development Agency of Japan Fuji spacecraft (Intended) 宇宙飛行士 (in Japanese)

uchūhikōshi or アストロノート astoronoto

N/A N/A H-IIA (Intended)
 People's Republic of China Project 921-2 (2020–present) China National Space Administration X-11 reused spacecraft, Tianzhou non-reentry and Shenzhou Cargo reentry cargo spacecraft and permanent modular Chinese Space Station 宇航员 (in Chinese)

yǔhángyuán 航天员 (in Chinese) hángtiānyuán taikonaut("太空人" tàikōng rén)

TBD TBD Long March 3, Long March 5
 India Indian Human Spaceflight Programme (2007–present) Human Space Flight Centre (ISRO) Gaganyaan spacecraft and small space laboratory Vyomanaut/Gaganaut TBA December 2021 (Planned)
Before 2022-08-15 (Scheduled)
GSLV Mk III
 People's Republic of China Project 921-3 (2000s–present) China National Space Administration Shenlong spaceplane 宇航员 (in Chinese)

yǔhángyuán 航天员 (in Chinese) hángtiānyuán taikonaut("太空人" tàikōng rén)

TBD TBD 921-3 RLV (or Tengyun either HTS maglev launch assist) reusable shuttle system
 Japan ... (2008–present) Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency HTV-based spacecraft and small space laboratory 宇宙飛行士 (in Japanese)

uchūhikōshi or アストロノート astoronoto

TBD TBD H-IIB
 Iran Iranian human spaceflight program (2005–2017, on hold) Iranian Space Agency Class E Kavoshgar spacecraft and small space laboratory TBD TBD TBD
 North Korea DPRK space program (2010s-present) National Aerospace Development Administration Spacecraft and small space laboratory TBD TBD Unha 9, 20

China[edit]

First human spaceflights[edit]

Shenzhou spacecraft and Tiangong space laboratory

China was the first Asian country and third nation in the world, after the USSR and USA, to send humans into space. During the Space Race between the two superpowers, which culminated with Apollo 11 landing humans on the Moon, Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai decided on 14 July 1967 that China should not be left behind, and initiated their own crewed space program: the top-secret Project 714, which aimed to put two people into space by 1973 with the Shuguang spacecraft. Nineteen PLAAF pilots were selected for this goal in March 1971. The Shuguang-1 spacecraft, to be launched with the CZ-2A rocket, was designed to carry a crew of two. The program was officially cancelled on 13 May 1972 for economic reasons, although the internal politics of the Cultural Revolution likely motivated the closure.[citation needed]

A second, short-lived crewed program was based on the successful implementation of landing technology by FSW satellites. It was announced a few times in 1978 with the publishing of some details, including photos, but then was abruptly canceled in 1980. It has been argued that the second crewed program was created solely for propaganda purposes, and was never intended to produce results.[173]

In 1992, under Project 921-1, authorization and funding was given for the first phase of a third, successful attempt at crewed spaceflight, using a Shenzhou spacecraft. The Shenzhou program included four uncrewed test flights and two crewed missions. The first one was Shenzhou 1 on 20 November 1999. On 9 January 2001, Shenzhou 2 was launched, carrying test animals. Shenzhou 3 and Shenzhou 4 were launched in 2002, carrying test dummies. Following these was the successful Shenzhou 5, China's first crewed mission into space on 15 October 2003, which put Yang Liwei in orbit for 21 hours and made China the third nation to launch a human into orbit.[citation needed]

The second phase of Project 921 started with Shenzhou 7, China's first spacewalk mission. Then, two crewed missions were planned for the first Chinese space laboratory. The PRC initially designed the Shenzhou spacecraft with docking technologies imported from Russia, meaning that it was compatible with the International Space Station (ISS). On 29 September 2011, China launched the Tiangong 1 Space Laboratory. This target module was intended to be the first step in testing the technology required for a planned space station. On 31 October 2011, a Long March 2F rocket carried the Shenzhou 8 uncrewed spacecraft into orbit, which docked twice with the Tiangong 1 module. On 16 June 2012, the Shenzhou 9 craft took off with a crew of three and successfully docked with the Tiangong-1 laboratory on 18 June 2012, at 06:07 UTC, marking China's first crewed spacecraft docking.[174]

Continuing programs[edit]

Under Project 921-2, a larger permanent crewed modular Chinese Space Station would constitute the third and last phase of China's LEO human spacefaring. This will have a modular design with an eventual weight of around 60 tons, to be completed sometime before 2020. The first section, designated Tiangong 3, is scheduled for launch after Tiangong 2.[175] The new station will be supported by new X-11 reused crewed, Tianzhou non-reentry and Shenzhou Cargo reentry cargo spacecraft. The first uncrewed flight of X-11 took place on 5 May 2020.[citation needed]

The PRC aims for a human moon landing in the 2030s.[citation needed]

Also, a reusable shuttle system with crewed winged spaceplane orbiter is projected. The first such Tianjiao-1 and Chang Cheng-1 (Great Wall-1) systems were considered in the 1980s–1990s, under Project 869. Now, Project 921-3 plans for a Reusable Launch Vehicle with Shenlong orbiter. As an alternative, the Tengyun two wing-staged reusable shuttle system and HTS maglev launch assist space shuttle were proposed.[citation needed]

India[edit]

Recovery of the CARE module

First human spaceflights[edit]

Just a few days after China said that it would put a human into orbit in the second half of 2003, Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee publicly urged his country's scientists to work toward sending a man to the Moon.[176]

India's Human Spaceflight Programme (HSP) was officially started in 2007[177][178] by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) with the aim of developing the technology needed to launch crewed spacecraft into low Earth orbit.[179] To demonstrate the ability of recovering crewed orbiters, SRE-1 was conducted in the same year.[180] The GSLV Mk III launch system—with the ability to put 10 tonnes in LEO, sufficient to carry crewed spacecraft—was developed, and work on the ISRO Orbital Vehicle initiated. In December 2014, a Crew Module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment was conducted during the sub-orbital flight of GSLV Mk III.[181]

The Mysore-based Defence Food Research Laboratory (DFRL) has developed dried and packaged food for astronauts. The food laboratory has developed around 70 varieties of dehydrated and processed food items that have undergone strict procedures to zero-in on containing the necessary micro bacterial and macro bacterial nutrients. Special care has to be taken in the packaging. The food item should be of limited weight but at the same time should be high in nutrition.[182]

In July 2018, a pad abort test was conducted to validate a crew escape system.[183] Parachute tests were scheduled before the end of 2019 and multiple in-flight abort tests were planned starting mid-2020.[148]

On 15 August (Indian independence day) 2018, Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi declared that before India's 75th independence day in 2022, the country would have sent humans into space. The crewed module mission was renamed Gaganyaan.[184] India is expected to send 3 humans into LEO on Gaganyaan spacecraft for 3–4 days onboard a GSLV Mk III launch vehicle.[185]

Before the prime minister's August 2018 announcement, human spaceflight was not a priority for ISRO, although most of the required capability for it had been realised;[186] afterward it received the highest priority.[187] The Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC) was set up in January 2019 to coordinate implementation of the mission.[188] A third launch pad is under construction at Satish Dhawan Space Centre with the ability to support heavy lift launchers and human spaceflight while the second one is being augmented with similar systems to realise the mission on time. India's crewed orbital vehicle will have two uncrewed flights–at the end of 2020 and mid-2021—before actually taking humans onboard at the end of 2021. Indian astronauts will be dubbed "Vyomanauts"[189] or "Gaganauts". Selected by the Indian Institute of Aerospace Medicine, a team of seven test pilots from the Indian Air Force are undergoing training in Russia per the memorandum of understanding with Glavkosmos, out of which 4 will be ready for India's first human space mission.[148]

As of December 2019, India's Department of Space maintains the scheduled date of December 2021 to conduct human spaceflight.[190]

Continuing programs[edit]

India plans to deploy a 20 tonne space station as a follow-up programme to the Gaganyaan mission. On 13 June 2019, ISRO Chief K. Sivan announced the plan, saying that India's space station will be deployed 5–7 years after completion of the Gaganyaan project. He also said that India will not join the International Space Station program. India's space station would be capable of harbouring a crew for 15–20 days at a time. It is expected to be placed in a low Earth orbit of 400 km altitude and be capable of harbouring three humans. Final approval is expected to be given to the program by the Indian government only after the completion of the Gaganyaan mission.[191][192][193]

ISRO is planning to conduct SPADEX (Space Docking Experiment) in 2020 to develop techniques related to orbital rendezvous, docking, formation flying, and remote robotic arm operations, for application to human spaceflight, in-space satellite servicing, and other proximity operations that will be critical for space station operations.[194]

The agency intends to conduct a crewed lunar landing, as well, in future.[195][196]

Japan[edit]

Since the late 1980s National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed the HOPE-X small crewed winged spaceplane that would be launched by an H-IIA rocket. Despite having successfully flown sub-scale test prototypes, the project was cancelled in 2003 in favor of participation in the International Space Station with the Kibō Japanese Experiment Module and H-II Transfer Vehicle cargo spacecraft.

As an alternative to HOPE-X, NASDA in 2001 proposed the Fuji crewed capsuled spacecraft for independent or ISS shuttle flights; but the project was not adopted. Since 2008, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency has developed the H-II Transfer Vehicle cargo spacecraft–based crewed spacecraft.

In 1993–1997, the Japanese Rocket Society [ja], Kawasaki Heavy Industries, and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries proposed the Kankoh-maru vertical-takeoff-and-landing single-stage crewed cargo reusable launch system. In 2005, this system was proposed for space tourism.

Iran[edit]

Iran expressed for the first time its intention to send a human into space during the summit of Soviet and Iranian Presidents in 1990. Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev reached an agreement in principle with President Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani to make joint Soviet–Iranian crewed flights to the Mir space station; but an agreement was never finalized, due to the subsequent dissolution of USSR.

On 21 November 2005, the Iranian News Agency claimed that Iran has a human space program along with plans for the development of a spacecraft and a space laboratory. [197] On 20 August 2008, the head of the Iran Aerospace Industries Organization (IAIO), Reza Taghipour, revealed that Iran intends to launch a human mission into space within a decade. This goal was described as the country's top priority for the next 10 years, in order to make Iran the leading space power of the region by 2021.[198][199]

In August 2010, President Ahmadinejad announced that Iran's first astronaut should be sent into space onboard an Iranian spacecraft by no later than 2019.[200][201] A sub-orbital spaceflight was conducted in 2016.[202]

On 17 February 2015, Iran unveiled a mock prototype of an Iranian crewed spacecraft that would be capable of taking one astronaut into space.[203] According to Iran's space administrator, this program was indefinitely put on hold in 2017.[204]

According to unofficial Chinese internet sources, an Iranian participation in the future Chinese space station program has been under discussion.[205] Currently, Iran doesn't have a medium-lift rocket similar to the Long March 2F, GSLV Mk III, or H-IIA, presently making Iran's sending a human into space unlikely.[206]

Iraq[edit]

According to a 5 December 1989 press release from the Iraqi News Agency, about the first (and last) test of the Tammouz space launcher, Iraq intended to develop crewed space facilities by the end of the 20th century. These plans were put to an end by the Gulf War of 1991 and the hard economic times that followed.[citation needed]

Solar System exploration[edit]

Solar System exploration and human spaceflights are major space technologies in the public eye. Since Sakigake, the first interplanetary probe from Asia, was launched in 1985, Japan has completed the most planetary explorations, but other nations are catching up.[citation needed]

Moon race[edit]

The Moon is thought to be rich in Helium-3, which could one day be used in nuclear fusion power plants, to meet future energy demands in Asia. All three main Asian space powers plan to send people to the Moon in the distant future and have already sent lunar probes.[citation needed]

Asian lunar exploration probes
Mission name Type Year Vehicle Outcome
Japan Hiten
(MUSES-A)
Flyby/Orbiter 1990 Japan Mu-3S-II Success
Japan Hagoromo Orbiter Failure
Japan Lunar-A Orbiter 2004 (intended)
Never launched
Japan M5 Cancelled and integrated into Russia's Luna-Glob.
Japan SELENE
(VRAD)
Orbiter 2007 Japan H-IIA 202 Success
China Chang'e 1 Orbiter 2007 China Long March 3A Success
India Chandrayaan-1 Orbiter 2008 India PSLV-XL Success
China Chang'e 2 Orbiter 2010 China Long March 3C Success
China Chang'e 3 Lander
Rover
2013 China Long March 3B Success
China Chang'e 5-T1 Flyby 2014 China Long March 3C Success
China Queqiao Flyby (L2 Orbiter) 2018 China Long March 4C Success
China Chang'e 4 Lander
Rover
2019 China Long March 3B Success
India Chandrayaan-2 Orbiter
Lander
Rover
2019 India GSLV MkIII Partial success
China Chang'e 5 Sample return 2020 China Long March 5 Success
India Chandrayaan-3 Lander
Rover
Q2 2021 India GSLV MkIII Planned
Japan SLIM Lander January 2022 Japan H-IIA 202 Planned
South Korea Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter Orbiter August 2022 United States Falcon 9 Planned
Japan DESTINY+ Flyby 2022 Japan Epsilon Planned
China Chang'e 6 Sample return 2023–24 China Long March 5 Planned
China Chang'e 7 Orbiter
Lander
Rover
Hopper
2023 China Long March 5 Planned
JapanIndia Lunar Polar Exploration Mission Orbiter
Lander
Rover
2024 Japan H3 Proposed
China Chang'e 8 TBD 2026 TBD Proposed
North Korea North Korean mission to Moon TBD 2026 North Korea Unha-20 Proposed

Probing the Moon[edit]

Japan was the first Asian country to launch a lunar probe. The Hiten (Japanese: "flying angel") spacecraft (known before the launch as MUSES-A), built by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of Japan, was launched on 24 January 1990. In many ways, the mission did not go as was planned. Kaguya, the second Japanese lunar orbiter spacecraft, was launched on 14 September 2007.[citation needed]

China launched its first lunar probe, Chang'e-1, on 24 October 2007; the probe successfully entered lunar orbit on 5 November 2007.[citation needed]

India launched its first lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008; the probe successfully entered its final lunar orbit on 2 November 2008. The mission was considered a major success, and the probe detected water on the lunar surface.[citation needed]

Moon landings[edit]

The first confirmed Moon landing from Asia was Hiten's mission in 1993. Before an intentional hard landing at the end of the mission, some pictures of the lunar surface were taken before impact.[207] Hiten was not designed as a Moon lander and had few scientific instruments for lunar exploration. The next Japanese Moon-landing program was the LUNAR-A, in development since 1992. Although the LUNAR-A orbiter was cancelled, its penetrators were integrated into the Russian Luna-Glob program, which was scheduled to launch in 2011. The penetrators are "relatively" hard landers,[208] but they are not expected to be destroyed on impact.[citation needed]

The next Asian probe to land on the Moon was the Indian Moon Impact Probe (MIP), which was released from the Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft in 2008. MIP was a hard lander and was designed to displace the ground under it for analysis. MIP was designed to be destroyed at impact, but its instruments performed lunar observations to within 25 minutes before impact. The lessons learned from this landing were to be applied to future soft landings on spacecraft, such as Chandrayaan-2, which crashed, following successful orbital insertion, and was only a limited success. After the accomplishment of its first human mission, India has proposed space stations and manned missions to the Moon.[195][209]

The Chinese Chang'e-1 spacecraft also achieved a\ hard landing at the end of its mission in 2009, when China became the sixth country to reach the lunar surface. One purpose of the lander was to pre-test for future soft landings. A Chinese lunar soft landing was achieved with the Chang'e-3 mission. With the Chang'e 4, China became the first country to land on the far side of the Moon. China also aims to undertake a human Moon landing by the late 2020s.[210]

Exploration of the major planets[edit]

Japanese interplanetary probes have been mostly limited to Small Solar System bodies, such as comets and asteroids. Japan was the world's first country to launch a spacecraft to the asteroids. JAXA's Nozomi probe was launched in 1998, but contact with the probe was lost due to electrical failures before visiting the planet Mars. The second Japanese probe, Akatsuki, was launched in 2010, bound for the planet Venus. Akatsuki entered orbit around Venus on 7 December 2015. Together with the European Space Agency, JAXA has launched Mio spacecraft for mapping the magnetic field of Mercury. The spacecraft will also conduct a flyby of Venus.[citation needed]

Chinese scientists expect that China will take 20 years to launch independent planetary probes.[211] The Chinese human Mars exploration program is planned by the Chinese Academy of Sciences for around 2050.[212] After the failed attempt to launch Yinghuo-1, China is planning another Mars mission, with an orbiter as well as a rover, alongside its plans to send an orbiter to Venus around 2025.[213] China has also been planning to send an orbiter to Jupiter.[citation needed]

India successfully launched its Mars Orbiter Mission on 5 November 2013. It reached Mars in September 2014. India has become the only country to successfully insert a satellite into Martian orbit on its maiden attempt; and, as such, it also became the first Asian country to achieve this feat. India is planning another mission to Mars in the 2020s.[214] India was scheduled to launch Aditya-L1 near the Sun to study Solar corona[215] and is developing the Shukrayaan-1 spacecraft to be sent to Venus.[216] India is also studying exploration missions to asteroids, Jupiter, to beyond the solar system like the American Voyager 1 and to exo-planets.[217]

Asian interplanetary exploration probes
Mission name Destination Type Year Vehicle Outcome
Japan Nozomi Mars Orbiter 2003 Japan M-V Failure
Japan Hayabusa Asteroid: 25143 Itokawa Sample return 2005-7 Japan M-V Success
Japan Akatsuki
(PLANET-C)
Venus Orbiter 2010 Japan H-IIA 202 Failure
(Failed orbit insertion)
2015 Success
Japan IKAROS Venus Flyby 2010 Success
Japan Shin'en Venus Flyby 2010 Failure
China Yinghuo-1 Mars Orbiter 2011 Ukraine Zenit-2M Failure
China Chang'e 2 Asteroid: 4179 Toutatis Flyby 2012 China Long March 3C Success
India Mars Orbiter Mission Mars Orbiter 2013–14 India PSLV-XL Success
Japan Hayabusa2 Asteroid: 162173 Ryugu Sample return 2014–20 Japan H-IIA 202 Success
Japan PROCYON Asteroid: 2000 DP107 Flyby 2016 Japan H-IIA 202 Failure
Japan Mio Mercury Orbiter 2018–24 European Union Ariane 5 ECA en route
United Arab Emirates Hope Mars Mission Mars Orbiter 2020–21 Japan H-IIA 202 Success
China Tianwen-1 Mars Orbiter/Lander/Rover 2020–21 China Long March 5 Success
India Aditya-L1 Sun Orbiter 2022 India PSLV-XL Planned
Japan DESTINY+ Asteroid: 3200 Phaethon Flyby 2022–26 Japan Epsilon Planned
India Shukrayaan-1 Venus Orbiter and aerobots 2023 India GSLV MkIII Planned
Japan MMX Mars Orbiter 2024–2025 Japan H3-24L Planned
Phobos Sample return Planned
China ZhengHe Asteroid: 469219 Kamoʻoalewa Sample Return 2024–32 China Long March 3B/Long March 7A Planned
Comet: 311P/PANSTARRS Orbiter Planned
India Mars Orbiter Mission 2 Mars Orbiter
Lander
Rover
TBD India GSLV MkII or GSLV MkIII Planned
China Tianwen-2 Mars Sample return 2028–31 China Long March 3B and Long March 5/Long March 9B Planned
China Tianwen-3 Jupiter Orbiter 2029–35 China Long March 5 Planned
Uranus Flyby 2029-46 Planned

Budgets[edit]

Agency Country Budget
(in millions of US $)
Year Ref(s)
China National Space Administration  China 11000 2018 [218]
Indian Space Research Organisation  India 1760 2020 [219]
Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency  Japan 1710 2017 [220]
Korean Aerospace Research Institute  South Korea 583 2016 [221]
Iranian Space Agency and Iranian Space Research Center  Iran 393 2018 [222]
National Institute of Aeronautics and Space  Indonesia 55 2019 [223][224]
Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission  Pakistan 43 2019 [225]
Philippine Space Agency  Philippines 38 2019 [226]
Israel Space Agency  Israel 14.5 2019 [227]
Turkish Space Agency  Turkey 4.3 2019 [228]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Hennock, Mary. "Asia's Space Race Between China and India". Newsweek.com. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  2. ^ a b "Shooting for the moon: The new space race". CNN. 10 October 2007.
  3. ^ Blume, Claudia (17 May 2007). "Asia Nations Gaining Ground in Space Race". www.globalsecurity.org. Hong Kong.
  4. ^ "SPARRSO". sparrso.gov.bd. Archived from the original on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
  5. ^ "China National Space Administration – Organization and Function". cnsa.gov.cn. Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  6. ^ "About ISRO". isro.org. Archived from the original on 13 October 1999.
  7. ^ "About ISRO". isro.gov.in. Indian Space Research Organization. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  8. ^ "All Missions". isro.gov.in. Indian Space Research Organization. Retrieved 5 September 2019.
  9. ^ "Realtime Business News, Economic News, Breaking News and Forex News". RTTNews.
  10. ^ "Iran tests sounding rocket, unveils first homemade satellite | World | RIA Novosti". rian.ru. En.rian.ru. 28 October 2005. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  11. ^ "Iran launches homegrown satellite". BBC News. 3 February 2009.
  12. ^ "JAXA HISTORY". jaxa.jp. Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  13. ^ ライフサイエンス研究. jaxa.jp (in Japanese). JAXA. Retrieved 21 February 2018.
  14. ^ "Background". Malaysian National Space Agency, Official Website. angkasa.gov.my. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008.
  15. ^ "朝鲜宣布发展太空计划抗衡"西方强权"". minzuwang.com. 民族网. 8 February 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2009.[permanent dead link]
  16. ^ "Despite Clinton, Korea has rights". workers.org. Workers.org. 25 February 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  17. ^ N. Korea's launch causes worries about nukes, Iran and the Pacific
  18. ^ Parrocha, Azer (13 August 2019). "Duterte signs law creating Philippine Space Agency". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  19. ^ Previously named National Space Program Organisation, until 1 April 2005 – "About NSPO/Heritage". nspo.org.tw. Archived from the original on 10 August 2007. Retrieved 1 April 2009.
  20. ^ "Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency – About Us". gistda.or.th. Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011.
  21. ^ "China puts its first man in space". BBC News. 15 October 2003. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  22. ^ "Gaganyaan: Rs 10,000 crore plan to send 3 Indians to space by 2022 | India News – Times of India". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. 29 December 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  23. ^ "Asia could win next 'Space Race', US scientists fear".
  24. ^ "China Denies There's an Asian Space Race". Fox News. 1 November 2007. Archived from the original on 20 February 2009. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
  25. ^ a b "Concern over China's missile test". BBC News. 19 January 2007. Retrieved 1 January 2010. BBC News
  26. ^ "Shooting down satellite raises concerns about military space race".
  27. ^ https://themirk.com/india-enters-the-elite-club-successfully-shot-down-low-orbit-satellite
  28. ^ "Heated Space Race Under Way in Asia". ABC News
  29. ^ "Space Environment: Total Launches by Country". 30 March 2020. Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  30. ^ "Programming glitch, not radiation or satellites, doomed Phobos-Grunt". 7 February 2012. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  31. ^ "International Committee on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (ICG): Members". Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  32. ^ "China's man in space gets mixed reaction".
  33. ^ Andrew Jones (25 July 2019). "Chinese iSpace achieves orbit with historic private sector launch". Retrieved 20 May 2021.
  34. ^ "The dawn of a new space race?". BBC News. 14 October 2005. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  35. ^ "Transported on a Bicycle, Launched from a Church: The Amazing Story of India's First Rocket Launch". The Better India. 8 November 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  36. ^ "India Limbers Up for Space Race As Prime Minister Asks for the Moon". Archived from the original on 2 February 2003.
  37. ^ "Rakesh Sharma – First Indian in Space". AeroSpaceGuide.net. 15 February 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2017.
  38. ^ "India 'on course' for the Moon". BBC News. 4 April 2003. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  39. ^ "India and US to explore the Moon". BBC News. 9 May 2006. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  40. ^ "What is Chandrayaan-2?".
  41. ^ "ISRO Completes "Scaled-Down" Test For Safe Landing Of Chandrayaan-2".
  42. ^ "BTVI – India's Maiden Mars Mission Makes History". Btvin.com. 24 September 2014. Archived from the original on 13 April 2016. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  43. ^ "PSLV puts 20 satellites in orbit". The Hindu. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  44. ^ Barry, Ellen (15 February 2017). "India Launches 104 Satellites From a Single Rocket, Ramping Up a Space Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  45. ^ "India Launches More Than 100 Satellites into Orbit". Time. Archived from the original on 15 February 2017. Retrieved 15 February 2017.
  46. ^ "North Korea nuclear and China military programs a worry: Japan".
  47. ^ "Japan Joins U.S. in Dangerous Space Race". Archived from the original on 1 November 2005.
  48. ^ "Japanese Satellites Work in Orbit Above Earth".
  49. ^ "Abe calls for a 'bold review' of Japanese Constitution".
  50. ^ a b 浮上した日本の有人月探査計画(1) (in Japanese). Nikkei BP. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 15 May 2009.
  51. ^ April 2019, Elizabeth Howell 07. "Can Robots Build a Moon Base for Astronauts? Japan Hopes to Find Out". Space.com. Retrieved 21 October 2020.
  52. ^ "Iran launches satellite; U.S. expresses concern". Reuters. 3 February 2009.
  53. ^ "Israel in Space Program". Aerospaceguide.net. Archived from the original on 28 May 2013. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  54. ^ http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/MFAArchive/2000_2009/2003/6/Israel-s%20Space%20Program
  55. ^ "KCNA Report on DPRK's Accession to International Space Treaty and Convention". KCNA. 12 March 2009. Archived from the original on 2 April 2009. Retrieved 14 March 2009.
  56. ^ "朝鲜宣布发展太空计划抗衡"西方强权"". Rodong Sinmun. 8 February 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2009.[permanent dead link]
  57. ^ "History of Palapa Satellite". Indosat. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  58. ^ "PENUNJUKAN CALON-CALON ANTARIKSAAN INDONESIA UNTUK IKUT SERTA DALAM PENGEMBANGAN STS-61 H/ PALAPA B-3 DI AMERIKA SERIKAT PADA BULAN JUNI".
  59. ^ "Lapan A3 Satellite to be Launched in June". 23 March 2019.
  60. ^ "Info iptek" (in Indonesian). Indonesian State Ministry of Research and Technology (RISTEK). 26 May 2008. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  61. ^ "Indonesië wil eigen mini-raket met satteliet lanceren" (in Dutch). Nieuwsblad.be citing Belga and ITAR-TASS. 21 November 2008. Retrieved 23 March 2019.
  62. ^ "South Korea joins Asian space race".
  63. ^ "Abe calls for a 'bold review' of Japanese Constitution". Archived from the original on 8 October 2007.
  64. ^ Sudworth, John (12 November 2007). "South Korea buys into space dream". BBC News. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  65. ^ "Boost for South Korea's space program". Archived from the original on 11 August 2007.CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  66. ^ "Mikro Uydu Firlatma Sistemi (MUFS)" [Micro-Satellite Launching System (MUFS)]. ROKETSAN. 30 August 2020. Retrieved 11 June 2021.
  67. ^ "Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission of Pakistan" (PDF). Suparco.gov.pk. Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  68. ^ Sajjadur Rahman (27 November 2009). "Bangladesh plans to launch satellite". Thedailystar.net. Retrieved 21 October 2013.
  69. ^ "返回式卫星 (China's First Atmospheric Reentry Satellite)". Gov.cn. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  70. ^ Harbin Institute of Technology -> FSW satellite series (Note: the definition of high resolution (ground resolution) < 4.5m) Archived 2009-02-22 at the Wayback Machine
  71. ^ Beidou navigation system first goes to public, with resolution 0.5m (from official Xinhua News Agency), with photos Archived 27 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
  72. ^ 中国首次"一箭三星"发射成功 (China's First One-Rocket-Three-Satellite Launch)[permanent dead link]. Science and Technology Daily
  73. ^ "Solar System Exploration: Missions: By Target: Moon: Past: Hiten". NASA. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  74. ^ "JAXA – Data Relay Test Satellite "KODAMA"(DRTS)". JAXA. Retrieved 31 July 2009.
  75. ^ "World's Fastest Satellite Internet Connection to 45 cm User Terminal Using "KIZUNA" (WINDS)". asia.spaceref.com. 21 April 2008. Archived from the original on 7 July 2012. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
  76. ^ "Kibo: The Successful Launch and Start of Permanent Manned Space Operations" (PDF). MHI. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  77. ^ "Japan Launches World's First Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite". ENS. 23 January 2009. Retrieved 27 June 2009.
  78. ^ "PSLV-C37 / Cartosat-2 Series Satellite". www.isro.gov.in. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  79. ^ "PSLV-C37 Successfully Launches 104 Satellites in a Single Flight". www.isro.gov.in. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  80. ^ 我国孕育新一代运载火箭 20年完成更新换代 (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. 2 June 2009. Retrieved 28 June 2009.
  81. ^ a)"Successful static testing of Solid Propellant Booster Rocket Stage S200 for GSLV Mk III Launch Vehicle" (Press release). Indian Space Research Organisation. 24 January 2010. Retrieved 24 November 2019.; b) "GSLV Mk III". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 16 November 2020.
  82. ^ "SATCAT Boxscore". celestrak.com.
  83. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts flown in space (in alphabetical order)". spacefacts.de.
  84. ^ "India plans to launch space station by 2030". Engadget. 16 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  85. ^ "ISRO Looks Beyond Manned Mission; Gaganyaan Aims to Include Women".
  86. ^ "India eying an indigenous station in space". The Hindu Business Line. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  87. ^ "ISRO Chairman announces details of Gaganyaan, Chandrayaan-2 and Missions to Sun& Venus India to have its own space station, says Dr K Sivan". Press Information Bureau. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  88. ^ a b "Indian spacecraft soars on historic journey to Mars". Space Flight Now. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  89. ^ "Запуск станции "Фобос-Грунт" к спутнику Марса отложен до 2011 года". РИА Новости. 21 September 2009. Retrieved 21 September 2009.
  90. ^ 泄露"一箭三星"秘密的秘件 Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine
  91. ^ "ISRO lines up SARAL for February, restored GSLV for April". Thehindu.com. 18 January 2013. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  92. ^ "JAXA H-I Launch Vehicle". Jaxa.jp. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  93. ^ "JAXA Engineering Test Satellite II "KIKU-2"(ETS-II)". Jaxa.jp. Archived from the original on 10 January 2014. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  94. ^ "JAXA Engineering Test Satellite VII "KIKU-7"(ETS-VII)". Jaxa.jp. 28 November 1997. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  95. ^ "JAXA Launch Schedule". Jaxa.jp. 30 October 2018. Retrieved 10 May 2019.
  96. ^ JAXA Solar Observation TAIYO (SRATS) Archived 2008-11-17 at the Wayback Machine
  97. ^ "Al-Abid". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  98. ^ "ASLV". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  99. ^ "Epsilon Launch Vehicle". Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  100. ^ "FB-1 (Feng Bao-1)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  101. ^ "GEOSYNCHRONOUS SATELLITE LAUNCH VEHICLE (GSLV)". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  102. ^ "GSLV Mk III". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  103. ^ "Galaxy Express Company Profile". GALEX. Archived from the original on 21 April 2009.
  104. ^ "H-I Launch Vehicle". Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  105. ^ "H-II Launch Vehicle". Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  106. ^ "H-IIA Launch Vehicle". Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  107. ^ "H-IIB Launch Vehicle". Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  108. ^ "H-III Launch Vehicle". Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  109. ^ "J-I Launch Vehicle". Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  110. ^ "Jielong-1 (Smart Dragon-1, SD 1)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  111. ^ "Kaituozhe-1 (KT-1)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  112. ^ "Kaituozhe-2 (KT-2)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  113. ^ a b "Kuai Zhou (Fast Vessel)". China Space Report. Archived from the original on 11 March 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  114. ^ "kuaizhou-1A (KZ-1A)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  115. ^ "Kuaizhou-11 (KZ-11)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  116. ^ "China to test large solid-fuel rocket engine". China Daily. 25 December 2017. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  117. ^ "Launch Vehicles: L-4S". Institute of Space and Astronautical Science. JAXA.
  118. ^ "CZ-1 (Chang Zheng-1)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  119. ^ "CZ-1D (Chang Zheng-1D)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  120. ^ "CZ-2 (Chang Zheng-2)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  121. ^ "CZ-3 (Chang Zheng-3)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  122. ^ "CZ-4 (Chang Zheng-4)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  123. ^ "CZ-5 (Chang Zheng-5)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  124. ^ "CZ-6 (Chang Zheng-6)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  125. ^ "CZ-7 (Chang Zheng-7)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  126. ^ Perrett, Bradley (30 September 2013). "Chinese Super-Heavy Launcher Designs Exceed Saturn V". Aviation Week. Retrieved 4 December 2014.
  127. ^ a b Mizokami, Kyle (20 March 2018). "China Working on a New Heavy-Lift Rocket as Powerful as Saturn V". Retrieved 4 September 2018. Cite magazine requires |magazine= (help)
  128. ^ "China to develop new series of carrier rockets: expert". Xinhua.net. 2 July 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  129. ^ a b Jones, Andrew (5 July 2018). "China reveals details for super-heavy-lift Long March 9 and reusable Long March 8 rockets". SpaceNews. Retrieved 4 September 2018.
  130. ^ "China to launch Long March-9 rocket in 2028". Xinhua.net. 19 September 2018. Retrieved 25 September 2018.
  131. ^ "CZ-11 (Chang Zheng-11)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 3 December 2019.
  132. ^ "Satellite Launch Vehicles". Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS). Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  133. ^ "N-I Launch Vehicle". Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  134. ^ "N-II Launch Vehicle". Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  135. ^ Wade, Mark. "Paektusan 1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  136. ^ "PSLV". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  137. ^ "Reusable Launch Vehicle – Technology Demonstration Program (RLV-TD)". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 6 December 2019.
  138. ^ "Launcg vehicles". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  139. ^ "S-310/S-520/SS-520 (Sounding Rockets)". Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  140. ^ "Safir". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  141. ^ "SLV". Indian Space Research Organisation. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  142. ^ "Shavit". Space Launch Report. 20 April 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  143. ^ "Simorgh (Safir-2)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  144. ^ "ISRO's new space company gets its first order". Vigyaan Prasar. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  145. ^ "TSLV". b14643.de. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  146. ^ a b "Launch vehicles – Taiwan (Republic of China)". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  147. ^ "Unha ("Taepodong-2")". Gunter's Space Page. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  148. ^ a b c "Episode 90 – An update on ISRO's activities with S Somanath and R Umamaheshwaran". AstrotalkUK. 24 October 2019. Retrieved 30 October 2019.
  149. ^ "Space Transportation System – Semi-cryogenic Project". ISRO. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  150. ^ "Have tech to configure launch vehicle that can carry 50-tonne payload: ISRO chairman". The Times of India. 17 February 2018. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  151. ^ "Turkey — Microsatellite Launch System (MUFS)". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
  152. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2000". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  153. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2001". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  154. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2002". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  155. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2003". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  156. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2004". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  157. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2005". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  158. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2006". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  159. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2007". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  160. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2008". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  161. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2009". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  162. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2010". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  163. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2011". Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  164. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2012". Retrieved 15 January 2013.
  165. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2013". Retrieved 5 January 2014.
  166. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2014". Retrieved 17 January 2015.
  167. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2015". Retrieved 9 February 2016.
  168. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2016". Retrieved 1 January 2017.
  169. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2017". Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  170. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2018". Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  171. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2019". Retrieved 29 August 2020.
  172. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2020". Retrieved 11 May 2021.
  173. ^ "Chinese Crewed Capsule 1978". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2009. "Encyclopedia Astronautica Index: 1". Archived from the original on 28 August 2012. Retrieved 13 May 2009.
  174. ^ Jonathan Amos (18 June 2012). "Shenzhou-9 docks with Tiangong-1". BBC. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
  175. ^ David, Leonard (11 March 2011). "China Details Ambitious Space Station Goals". SPACE.com. Retrieved 9 March 2011. China is ready to carry out a multiphase construction program that leads to the large space station around 2020. As a prelude to building that facility, China is set to loft the Tiangong-1 module this year as a platform to help master key rendezvous and docking technologies.
  176. ^ "India 'on course' for the Moon". BBC News. 4 April 2003. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  177. ^ Rao, Mukund Kadursrinivas; Murthi, Sridhara, K. R.; Prasad M. Y. S. "THE DECISION FOR INDIAN HUMAN SPACEFLIGHT PROGRAMME – POLITICAL PERSPECTIVES, NATIONAL RELEVANCE AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHALLENGES" (PDF). International Astronautical Federation.
  178. ^ "Eleventh Five year Plan (2007–12) proprosals for Indian space programme" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  179. ^ Sinha, Amitabh (16 August 2018). "Gaganyan: How to send an Indian into space". The Indian Express.
  180. ^ "PSLV-C7 / CARTOSAT-2 / SRE-1". Indian Space Research Organisation. 10 January 2007. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  181. ^ "Crew module Atmospheric Re-entry Experiment (CARE)". Indian Space Research Organisation. 18 December 2014. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  182. ^ "DRDO develops space food for astronauts". DNA India. 29 August 2010. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  183. ^ "SUCCESSFUL FLIGHT TESTING OF CREW ESCAPE SYSTEM – TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATOR". Indian Space Research Organisation. 5 July 2018. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  184. ^ "Indian will take national flag to space on board Gaganyaan by 2022, says PM Narendra Modi in Independence Day speech". Hindustan Times. 15 August 2018.
  185. ^ "Rs 10,000 crore plan to send 3 Indians to space by 2022 – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  186. ^ "Satellites Are Our Priority Now, Not Human Space Flight". Outlook. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  187. ^ "ISRO starts Human Space Flight centre". The Hindu. 11 January 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  188. ^ "Inauguration of Human Space Flight Centre (HSFC)". Indian Space Research Organisation. 30 January 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  189. ^ "Definition Vyomanaut". Retrieved 22 October 2020.
  190. ^ "First Manned Mission" (Press release). Delhi: Department of Space. Press Information Bureau. 4 December 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  191. ^ Singh, Surendra (13 June 2019). "India's own space station to come up in 5–7 years: Isro chief | India News – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  192. ^ "India's space station likely to have space for three". The Times of India. 31 October 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  193. ^ Peri, Dinakar (13 June 2019). "India to have its own space station: ISRO". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 7 December 2019. Giving out broad contours of the planned space station, Dr. Sivan said it has been envisaged to weigh 20 tonnes and will be placed in an orbit of 400 km above earth where astronauts can stay for 15–20 days. The time frame is 5–7 years after Gaganyaan, he stated.
  194. ^ "Department of Space Annual Report 2018-19" (PDF). 27 May 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 May 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  195. ^ a b "ISRO Looks Beyond Manned Mission; Gaganyaan Aims to Include Women".
  196. ^ "India eying an indigenous station in space". The Hindu Business Line. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  197. ^ "Iran plans manned space mission in 10 years". Reuters. 21 August 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  198. ^ "First Iranian in space within decade". Ynetnews. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  199. ^ "Iran to send first astronaut into space within 10 years". RIA Novosti. 20 August 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  200. ^ "Iran aims to send man into space by 2019". BBC News. 7 December 2019.
  201. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  202. ^ "Dispatching Iranian astronaut to below 200 km orbit". Iranian Space Agency. 31 May 2011. Archived from the original on 24 December 2013. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  203. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  204. ^ GLADSTONE, RICK. "Iran Drops Plan to Send Human into Space, Citing Cost".
  205. ^ "权威发布:神舟飞船将从神八开始批量生产". 新华网. 26 September 2008. Archived from the original on 29 September 2008. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  206. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 December 2016. Retrieved 12 December 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  207. ^ "ISAS news No.154" (PDF) (in Japanese).
  208. ^ "Lunar exploration satellite "LUNAR-A"". Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. 2003.
  209. ^ "India eying an indigenous station in space". The Hindu Business Line. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  210. ^ "China to build moon station in 'about 10 years'". MSN. AFP. 24 April 2019. Archived from the original on 24 April 2019.
  211. ^ 中国自主探测火星还需20年 (in Chinese). 浙江日报. 8 June 2009. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
  212. ^ 2050年頃に有人火星探査を実施=中国科学院が計画を発表―中国 (in Japanese). Recoed China. 10 June 2009. Archived from the original on 16 June 2009. Retrieved 12 June 2009.
  213. ^ "Model of China's first Venus probe unveiled in Shanghai". GBTimes. 2 November 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2019.
  214. ^ MOM Orbiter enters 6th year, ISRO eyes Mangalyaan-2. Rasheed Kappan, The Deccan Herald. 25 September 2019.
  215. ^ "India's first solar mission in 2020: ISRO chairman". Times of India. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  216. ^ Annadurai, Mylswami. "ISRO Space Physics: future missions" (PDF). Raman Research Institute.
  217. ^ After Mars, Venus on Isro's planetary travel list. Archived 27 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine U. Tejonmayam, Times of India. 18 May 2019.
  218. ^ "In space, the US sees a rival in China". phys.org. 6 January 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  219. ^ "Department of Space Budget" (PDF). Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  220. ^ "Transition of Number of Staff and Budget". JAXA. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  221. ^ "기관별 경영공시 한국항공우주연구원" (in Korean). alio.go.kr. Archived from the original on 24 June 2016. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  222. ^ Budget Bill of 1398 (لايحه بودجه سال 1398 كل كشور). Secretariat of Planning and Supervision, Office of President. November 2019.
  223. ^ "RUU APBN 2019" (PDF) (in Indonesian). Ministry of Finance. 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  224. ^ "DIPA LAPAN 2019" (PDF) (in Indonesian). PPID LAPAN. 2019. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  225. ^ "Rs6.03bn allotted for Suparco projects" (PDF). 12 June 2019.
  226. ^ Cervantes, Filane Mikee (20 May 2019). "Senate approves creation of PH Space Agency". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved 4 February 2020.
  227. ^ "Space Program Budget" (in Hebrew). Retrieved 7 May 2020.
  228. ^ "Yeni kurulan idarelere 114,7 milyon liralık bütçe" (in Turkish). HaberTürk Bloomberg. 15 October 2019.

External links[edit]