Comparison of Asian national space programs
Several Asian countries have space programs and are actively competing to achieve scientific and technological advancements in space, a situation sometimes referred to as the Asian space race in the popular media as a reference to the earlier Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Like the previous space race, issues involved in the current push to space include national security, which has spurred many countries to send artificial satellites as well as humans into Earth orbit and beyond. A number of Asian countries are seen as contenders in the ongoing race to be the pre-eminent power in space.
- 1 Asian space powers
- 2 Other minor players
- 3 Timeline of national firsts
- 4 Comparison of key technologies
- 5 Orbital Launch Frequency
- 6 Solar System exploration
- 7 Asian space agencies and programs
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes and references
- 10 External links
Asian space powers
India is expected to demonstrate independent human spaceflight by 2020 and human landing on the moon by 2030, and Iran and Japan have plans for independent manned spaceflights around 2020. China is also still predicting manned mission to the Earth moon by 2025 and to Mars by 2050.
While the achievements of space programs run by the main Asian space players (China, India, and Japan) pale in comparison to the milestones set by the former Soviet Union and the United States, some experts believe Asia may soon lead the world in space exploration. China has been the leader of Asia's space race since the beginning of the 21st century. The first Chinese manned spaceflight, in 2003, marked the beginning of a space race in the region. At the same time, the existence of a space race in Asia is still debated due to the non-concurrence of space milestone events like there was for the United States and the Soviet Union. Japan for example was the first power on Earth to get a sample return mission from an asteroid. There was however some concurrence between China and India to see which of those two could be the first to launch a probe to the Earth's moon back in the late 2000s decade. China, for example, denies that there is an Asian space race. In January 2007 China became the first Asian military-space power to send an anti-satellite missile into orbit, to destroy an aging Chinese Feng Yun 1C weather satellite in polar orbit. The resulting explosion sent a wave of debris hurtling through space at more than 6 miles per second. A month later, Japan's space agency launched an experimental communications satellite designed to enable super high-speed data transmission in remote areas.
After successful achievement of geostationary technology, India's ISRO launched its first Moon mission, Chandrayaan-1 in October 2008, which discovered ice water on the Moon. India then launched on 5 November 2013 its maiden interplanetary mission, the Mars Orbiter Mission. The primary objective is to determine Mars' atmospheric composition and attempt to detect methane. The spacecraft completed its journey on 24 September 2014 when it entered its intended orbit around Mars, making India the first Asian country to successfully place a Mars orbiter and the only country in history to do so in the first attempt. India became the fourth space agency in the world to send a spacecraft to Mars, only behind United States, Russia, and the European Union.
In addition to increasing national pride, countries are commercially motivated to operate in space. Commercial satellites are launched for communications, weather forecasting, and atmospheric research. According to a report by the Space Frontier Foundation released in 2006, the "space economy" is estimated to be worth about $180 billion, with more than 60% of space-related economic activity coming from commercial goods and services. China and India propose the initiation of a commercial launch service.
China has a space program with an independent human spaceflight capability. It has developed a sizable family of successful Long March rockets. It has launched two lunar orbiters, Chang'e 1 and Chang'e 2. On 2 December 2013, China launched a modified Long March 3B rocket, with Chang'e 3 Moon lander and its rover Yutu on-board toward the Moon and successfully performed soft landing and rover operations, becoming the third country to do so. It also has plans to retrieve samples by late 2017. In 2011, China embarked on a program to establish a manned space station, starting with the launch of Tiangong 1 and followed by Tiangong 2 in 2016. China attempted to send a Mars orbiter (Yinghuo-1) in 2011 on a joint mission with Russia, which failed to leave Earth orbit. Nevertheless, Yinghuo-2 with an orbiter, a lander and a rover has been approved by the government and is aiming a launch date in the year 2020. China has collaborative projects with Russia, ESA, and Brazil, and has launched commercial satellites for other countries. Some analysts suggest that the Chinese space program is linked to the nation's efforts at developing advanced military technology.
China's advanced technology is the result of the integration of various related technological experiences. Early Chinese satellites, such as the FSW series, have undergone many atmospheric reentry tests. In the 1990s China had commercial launches, resulting in more launch experiences and a high success rate after the 1990s. China has aimed to undertake scientific development in fields like Solar System exploration. China's Shenzhou 7 spacecraft successfully performed an EVA in September 2008. China's Shenzhou 9 spacecraft successfully performed a manned docking in June 2012. Furthermore, China's Chang'e 2 explorer became the first object to reach Sun-Earth Lagrangian point in August 2011 and also the first probe to explore both Moon and asteroid by making a flyby of the asteroid 4179 Toutatis. China has launched DAMPE, the most capable dark matter explorer to date in 2015, and world's first quantum communication satellite QUESS in 2016.
India's interest in space travel began in the early 1960s, when scientists launched a small rocket above Kerala. Under Vikram Sarabhai, the program focused on the practical uses of space in increasing the standard of living. Remote sensing and communications satellites were placed into orbit.
Just a few days after China said that it would send a human into orbit in the second half of 2003, Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee publicly urged his country's scientists to work towards sending a man to the Moon. It successfully sent its probe to the Moon in October 2008 and is planning its second Moon mission, Chandrayaan-2 for 2018.
ISRO launched its Mars Orbiter Mission on November 5, 2013(informally called "Mangalyaan") which successfully entered into the orbit around Mars on 24 September 2014. India is the first in Asia and fourth in the world to perform a successful Mars mission. It is also the only one to do so on the first attempt and at a record low cost of $74 million.
ISRO has demonstrated its re-entry technology and till date has launched as many as 175 foreign satellites belonging to global customers from 20 countries including US, Germany, France, Japan, Canada, U.K. All of these have been launched successfully by PSLVs so far, gaining significant expertise in space technologies. In June 2016, India set a record by launching 20 satellites simultaneously. The PSLVs are also one of world's most reliable launch vehicles which clocked its 35th successful mission (39 total) in a row as of February 2017, thus having success rate of nearly 90%. India broke the world record and launched 104 satellites on 15 February 2017 in a single launch(PSLV-C37).
Japan has been cooperating with the United States on missile defence since 1999. North Korean nuclear and Chinese military programs represent a serious issue for Japan's foreign relations. Japan is working on military and civilian space technologies, developing missile defence systems, new generations of military spy satellites, and planning for manned stations on the Moon. Japan started to construct spy satellites after North Korea test fired a Taepodong missile over Japan in 1998. The North Korean government claimed the missile was merely launching a satellite to space, and accused Japan of causing an arms race. The Japanese constitution adopted after World War II limits military activities to defensive operations. On May 2007 Prime Minister Shinzo Abe called for a bold review of the Japanese Constitution to allow the country to take a larger role in global security and foster a revival of national pride. Japan has not yet developed its own manned spacecraft and does not have a program in place to develop one. The Japanese space shuttle HOPE-X, to be launched by the conventional space launcher H-II, was developed but the program was postponed and eventually cancelled. Then the simpler manned capsule Fuji was proposed but not adopted. Pioneer projects of single-stage to orbit, reusable launch vehicle horizontal takeoff and landing ASSTS and vertical takeoff and landing Kankoh-maru were developed but have not been adopted. A more conservative new (JAXA manned spacecraft) project is proposed to launch by 2025 as part of the Japanese plan to send manned missions to the Moon. Shin'ya Matsuura is doubtful about the Japanese manned Moon project, and suspects the project is a euphemism for participation in the American Constellation program. JAXA planned to send a humanoid robot (such as ASIMO) to the Moon.[when?]
Other minor players
Iran has developed its own satellite launch vehicle, named the Safir SLV, based on the Shahab series of IRBMs. On 2 February 2009, Iranian state television reported that Iran's first domestically made satellite Omid (from the Persian امید, meaning "Hope") had been successfully launched into low Earth orbit by a version of Iran's Safir rocket, the Safir-2. The launch coincided with the 30th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution. Iran is also developing a new launch vehicle Simorgh (rocket).
Israel became the tenth country in the world to build its own satellite and launch it with its own launcher on 19 September 1988. Israel launched its first satellite, Ofeq-1, using an Israeli-built Shavit three-stage launch vehicle. The launching was the high point of a process that began in 1983 with the establishment of the Israel Space Agency under the aegis of the Ministry of Science. Space research by university-based scientists began in the 1960s, providing a ready-made pool of experts for Israel's foray into space. Since then, local universities, research institutes, and private industry, backed by the Israel Space Agency, have made progress in space technology. The agency's role is to support "private and academic space projects, coordinate their efforts, initiate and develop international relations and projects, head integrative projects involving different bodies, and create public awareness for the importance of space development."
North Korea has many years of experience with rocket technology, which it has passed along to Pakistan and other countries. On December 12, 2012, North Korea placed its first satellite in orbit with the launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2. On 12 March 2009 North Korea signed the Outer Space Treaty and the Registration Convention, after a previous declaration of preparations for the launch of Kwangmyongsong-2. North Korea twice announced satellite launches: Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 on 31 August 1998 and Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 on 5 April 2009. Neither of these claims were confirmed by the rest of the world, but the United States and South Korea believe there were tests of military ballistic missiles. The North Korean space agency is the Korean Committee of Space Technology, which operates the Musudan-ri and Tongch'ang-dong Space Launch Center rocket launching sites and has developed the Baekdusan-1 and Unha (Baekdusan-2) space launchers and Kwangmyŏngsŏng satellites. In 2009 North Korea announced several future space projects, including manned space flights and the development of a manned partially reusable launch vehicle.
South Korea is a newer player in the Asian space race. In August 2006 South Korea launched its first military communications satellite, the Mugunghwa-5. The satellite was placed in geosynchronous orbit and collects surveillance information about North Korea. The South Korean government is spending hundreds of millions of dollars in space technology and was due to launch its first space launcher, the Korea Space Launch Vehicle, in 2008.[needs update] South Korea's government justifies the cost for reasons of long-term commercial benefits and national pride. South Korea has long seen North Korea's significantly longer missile range as a serious threat to its national security. With the nation's first astronaut launched into space, Lee So-yeon, South Korea gained confidence in entering the Asian space race. They are completing the construction of Naro Space Center. Once it is operational,[when?] South Korea will be able to build satellites and missiles with local technology. South Korea is pursuing a space program that could defend the peninsula while lessening their dependency on the United States.
Pakistan started pursuing space technology on 16 September 1961, when Pakistan's space agency, SUPARCO was created, with renowned physicist Abdus Salam as its first administrator. In its early days, SUPARCO researched on the development of solid-fuel sounding rockets with assistance provided by the United States. On 7 June 1962, with the launch of the Rehbar-I (lit. Teller of the Way) rocket, Pakistan became the Tenth country in Asia and the tenth in the world to successfully conduct the launch of an unmanned spacecraft. This rocket had been developed by a team of scientists and engineers of the Pakistan Air Force, led by Air Commodore (Brigadier-General) Władysław Józef Marian Turowicz in collaboration with NASA and was launched from Sonmiani, Pakistan's first space launch facility. SUPARCO's unmanned space program continued till 1972, with nearly 20 successful launches. SUPARCO's unmanned space program suffered setbacks during the 1970s and the 1980s, delaying the development and launch of Pakistan's first satellite, Badr-I till 1990 when it was launched from China. SUPARCO launched Pakistan's second satellite, Badr-B in 2001 from Baikonur Cosmodrome using a Ukrainian Zenit-2 rocket, followed by Paksat-1R in 2011 which was contracted and actually built and launched by China, was Pakistan's first communication satellite. Currently, SUPARCO is involved in the development of the Pakistan Remote Sensing Satellite which is scheduled for launch in 2030, presumably from China.
With the planned launched of Bangabandhu-1 satellite purchased abroad, Bangladesh will operate its first communication satellite. Bangladesh Space Agency intends to launch satellites after 2020. Bangladesh's government has stressed that the country seeks an "entirely peaceful and commercial" role in space.
Other nations and regions
Other space players are Malaysia and Turkey, that announced multi-task space programs in 2006 and 2007. They intend to develop their own satellites and launchers in the near future, and manned space facilities. As of 2012 Turkey was developing its own military satellite. The first Göktürk satellite is planned to be launched in 2013.[needs update] The Turkish satellite is planned to be capable of taking satellite images of greater than two meters per pixel resolution, thus making Turkey the second nation in the world capable of such a feat, after the United States.
Timeline of national firsts
Also see the section: Comparison of key technologies
|– Indigenous manned missions||– Manned missions||– Lunar or Interplanetary missions||– Other missions|
|Date||Nation||Name||Asian First||World achievements|
|4 October 1957|| USSR
(now under Kazakhstan)
|Baikonur Cosmodrome||Satellite launch pad||The first satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched.|
|11 February 1970||Japan||Osumi||Satellite||The smallest satellite launch vehicle (L-4S; 9.4t weight, 1.4m diameter)|
|24 February 1975||Japan||Taiyo||Solar probe|
|26 October 1975||China||FSW-0||Satellite recovery|
|26 October 1975||China||FSW-0:
– 10m (1975)
– 4m (1992)
– 0.5m (till 2007)
|High resolution imaging satellite|
|8 July 1976||Indonesia||Palapa A1||Geosynchronous satellite (launched by NASA)|
|23 February 1977||Japan||N-I||Geosynchronous launch|
|21 February 1979||Japan||Hakucho||Space observatory|
|23 July 1980||Vietnam||Phạm Tuân||Asian in space (Soyuz 37)|
|20 September 1981||China||FB-1||Simultaneous satellite launch|
|8 January 1985||Japan||Sakigake||Leaving Earth orbit||The first interplanetary launch by solid rocket (M-3SII)|
|19 March 1990||Japan||Hagoromo||Reach lunar orbit (assumed)|
|7 April 1990||China||CZ-3||Commercial launch (AsiaSat 1)|
|10 April 1993||Japan||Hiten||Intentional lunar impact||The first aerobraking test|
|8 July 1994||Japan||Chiaki Mukai||Asian woman in space (STS-65)|
|19 November 1997||Japan||Takao Doi||Spacework (STS-87)|
|28 November 1997||Japan||ETS-VII||Rendezvous docking|
|3 July 1998||Japan||Nozomi||Martian mission (Failure)|
|30 October 2000||China||Beidou||Satellite navigation system|
|10 September 2002||Japan||Kodama||Data relay satellite (with ESA)|
|15 October 2003||China||Yang Liwei||First man in space launched by an Asian space program|
|15 October 2003||China||Shenzhou 5||Manned spacecraft|
|19 November 2005||Japan||Hayabusa||Soft-landed probe on extraterrestrial object||The first asteroid ascent|
|11 January 2007||China||FY-1C||ASAT test||Highest in history with altitude 865 km, also the fastest with speed 18k miles|
|23 February 2008||Japan||WINDS||Internet satellite||The fastest internet satellite|
|11 March 2008||Japan||Japanese Experiment Module||Manned foundations in space (STS-123, STS-124, STS-127)||The world’s largest pressurized volume in space|
|25 April 2008||China||Tianlian I||Indigenous Tracking & Data Relay Satellite System
First TDRS system to support manned missions
|27 September 2008||China||Zhai Zhigang (Shenzhou 7)||Indigenous EVA|
|27 September 2008||China||BanXing||Manned spacecraft-launched satellite|
|14 November 2008||India||Moon Impact Probe||Probe designed for Lunar impact||Discovered water on the Moon before impact.|
|23 January 2009||Japan||GOSAT||Greenhouse gas explorer|
|20 May 2010||Japan||Akatsuki||First Asian Venus mission|
|21 May 2010||Japan||IKAROS||Solar sail||The first spacecraft to successfully demonstrate solar-sail technology in interplanetary space|
|25 August 2011||China||Chang'e 2||Lunar probe with extended deep space missions (asteroid mission to 4179 Toutatis).|
|29 September 2011||China||Tiangong-1||First Asian Space station|
|18 June 2012||China||Shenzhou 9||First manned space docking by an Asian country (with Tiangong-1)|
|14 December 2013||China||Chang'e 3/Yutu||First lunar soft landing and lunar rover by an Asian country.|
|24 September 2014||India||Mars Orbiter Mission||First successful Mars mission by an Asian country||First Martian mission by a country to succeed on the first attempt. Third country to do so after the USSR and the USA.|
|First success||LEO||GTO / GEO||Notes|
|11 Feb 1970||L-4S (26 kg)||First launch was 1966 (failed 4 times).|
|24 Apr 1970||CZ-1 (0.3 t)||First launch failed in 1969.|
|26 Jul 1975||FB-1 (2.5 t)||Suborbital flight was performed in 1972.
CZ-2A (LEO 2t) failed in 1974.
|16 Jul 1990||CZ-2E (LEO 9.2 t / GTO 3.5 t)|
|20 Aug 1997||CZ-3B (LEO 12 t / GTO 5.2 t)|
|18 Dec 2006||H-IIA204 (LEO 15 t / GTO 5.8 t)|
|10 Sep 2009||H-IIB (LEO 19 t / GTO 8 t)|
|3 Nov 2016||H-IIB (LEO 19 t)||CZ-5 (GTO 14 t)|
Comparison of key technologies
Records of each country are listed by chronological order unless otherwise noted.
- First independent launches (rocket/satellite)
- Japan - 1970 - Lambda-4S/Ōsumi
- China - 1970 - Long March 1/Dong Fang Hong I
- India - 1980 - SLV/Rohini D1
- Israel - 1988 - Shavit/Ofeq 1
- Iran - 2009 - Safir-1/Omid
- North Korea - 2012 - Unha-3/Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2
- Payloads in orbit by number (active/total, first five as of 2015)
- China – 2003 – Shenzhou, Shuguang (cancelled)
- India - ~2021 – ISRO Orbital Vehicle (planned)
- Iran – ~2021 – ISA manned spacecraft (planned)
- Japan – ~2022 – JAXA manned HTV (planned), HOPE-X (cancelled), Fuji (cancelled)
- Independent human spaceflights (total persons/person flights)
- First independent extravehicular activity
- First independent unmanned/manned Space rendezvous
- Multi-satellite simultaneous launches (by number)
- First fight of space shuttles
- Including shuttle-shaped hypersonic reentry vehicles reach to space.
- Japan – 1996 – HYFLEX under HOPE-X program (cancelled)
- China – 2001 – Shenlong, Project 921-3 (cancelled)
- India – ~2020 – AVATAR RLV (planned, approved by ISRO)
- First space habitation module
- First space laboratory
- First orbiters to the Moon
- Japan – 1990 – Hiten/Hagoromo; 2007 - SELENE
- China – 2007 – Chang'e 1; 2010 - Chang'e 2; 2014 - Chang'e 5-T1
- India – 2008 – Chandrayaan-1
- First intentional Moon landings
- Japan – 1993 – Hiten (controlled impact at end of its mission)
- India – 2008 – MIP (Moon impactor)
- China – 2009 – Chang'e 1 (controlled impact at end of its mission)
- China – 2013 – Chang'e 3/Yutu; ~2020 - Chang'e 4 (planned)
- Japan – ~2017 – Selene-2 (planned)
- India – ~2017/2018 – Chandrayaan-2 (planned)
- Orbiters to Mars
- India – 2013 – Mangalyaan(success)
- Japan – 1998 – Nozomi (failed)
- China – 2011 – Yinghuo-1 (failed); 2020s - Yinghuo-2 (planned)
- Orbiter to Venus
- Asteroid explorations
- Japan - 2003 - Sample return - Hayabusa; 2014 - Sample return - Hayabusa 2 (en route); 2014 - Flyby - PROCYON (failed)
- China - 2012 - Flyby - Chang'e 2
- Capability of Launch Vehicle (in active, payload to LEO)
- India – GSLV – LEO 5t (2001 – active)
- China – CZ-5 – LEO 25t (2016 – active)
- Japan – H-IIB – LEO 19t (2009 – active)
- Iran – Safir-1B – LEO 50 kg (2008 – active)
- Capability of Launch Vehicle (in active, payload to GTO)
- China - YF-73 (1987-2000), YF-75 (1994-present), YF-77 (in development)
- India - CE-7.5 (2012–present), CE-20 (in development)
- India - S-200, Burn time 130s, Isp (Vac.)：274.5s, Thrust (Vac.):5,150 kN.
- Japan - SRB-A, Burn time 100s, Isp (Vac.)：280s, Thrust (Vac.)：2,260 kN.
- Israel - Shavit's First Stage, Burn time 82s, Isp (Vac.)：280s, Thrust (Vac.)：1650.2 kN.
- China - Kuaizhou
- China - Long March 11
- Optical satellite imagery (by highest available resolution)
- Japan - 2013 - Optical 5V - 0.4 meter
- Israel - 2010 - Ofeq 9 - 0.5 meter
- China (civil use) - 2015 - GF-9 - 0.5 meter
- India - 2016 - Cartosat-2C - 0.6 meter
- South Korea - 2012 - KOMPSAT-3 - 0.7 meter
- Iran - 2011 - Rasad-1 - 150 meters
- Radar satellite imagery (by resolution)
- China (civil use) - 2015 - YG-29 - 0.5 meter
- Japan - 2013 - Radar 4 - less than 1 meter
- Israel - 2008 - TechSAR 1 - 1 meter
- India - 2012 - RISAT 1 - 1 meter
- South Korea - 2013 - KOMPSat 5 - 1 meter
- Communications satellite technology
- India - 2014 - GSAT-16 3,150 kg, 48 transponders, Solar Array provide a power of 6.8 kW.
- China - 2011 - NIGCOMSAT 1R 5,150 kg, 28 transponders, Solar Array provide a power of 10.5 kW.
- Japan - 2011 - ST-2 5,090 kg, 51 transporters
- Resupply spacecraft (launch payload)
- Solar Sail spacecraft
- Spacecraft powered by indigenous plasma thrusters (power, thrust, specific impulse)
- Japan - 1995 - Space Flyer Unit (EPEX), 430 W, 12.9 mN, 600 s (magnetoplasmadynamic thruster)
- Japan - 1981 - ETS-IV (unnamed engine), 20 W, ? mN, 300 s (teflon pulsed plasma thruster)
- China - 1981 - Dongfeng 5 ballistic rocket (MDT-2A), 5 W, ? mN, 280 s (teflon pulsed plasma thruster)
- Spacecraft powered by indigenous ion thrusters (power, thrust, specific impulse)
- China - 2012 - Shijian 9A (LIPS-200), 1 kW, 40 mN, 3000 s (ring-cusp magnetic field ion thruster)
- Japan - 2003 - Hayabusa (μ-10), 350 W, 8 mN, 3200 s (microwave ion thruster)
- India - 2017 - GSAT-9
- Spacecraft powered by indigenous Hall thrusters (power, thrust, specific impulse)
- China - 2016 - Shijian 17 (HEP-100MF), 1.4 kW, ? mN, 1850 s (magnetic focusing Hall thruster)
- China - 2016 - Shijian 17 (LHT-100), 1.35 kW, 80 mN, 1600 s
- Republic of Korea - 2013 - DubaiSat-2, 0.3 kW, 7 mN, 1000 s
|Nation||Multi-satellite simultaneous launches||Launch of foreign satellite||Geostationary launches||Atmos-
|Rendezvous dockings in orbit||Satellite navigation system||Data relay satellites||Martian missions||Solar Space Missions||Space observatories|
Dong Fang Hong 02
Solar Space Telescope
Space Hard X-Ray Modulation Telescope
? : Date is assumed
Only projects with under-development or above status have been listed
Orbital Launch Frequency
Solar System exploration
Solar System exploration and manned spaceflights are major space technologies in the public eye. Since Sakigake, the first interplanetary probe in Asia, was launched in 1985, Japan has completed the most planetary exploration, but other nations are catching up.
The Moon is thought to be rich in Helium-3, which could one day be used in nuclear fusion power plants to fuel future energy demands in Asia. All three main Asian space powers plan to send men to the Moon in the distant future and have already sent lunar probes.
Probing the Moon
Japan was the first Asian country to launch a lunar probe. The Hiten (Japanese: "flying angel") spacecraft (known before the launch as MUSES-A), built by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of Japan, was launched on 24 January 1990. In many ways, the mission did not go as was planned. Kaguya, the second Japanese lunar orbiter spacecraft, was launched on 14 September 2007.
China launched its first lunar probe, Chang'e-1, on 24 October 2007 and successfully entered lunar orbit on 5 November 2007.
India launched its first lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008 and successfully entered its final lunar orbit on 2 November 2008. The mission was considered a major success and the probe detected water on the lunar surface.
The first confirmed Moon landing from Asia was Hiten's mission in 1993. An intentional hard landing at the end of the mission, some pictures of the lunar surface were taken before impact. Hiten was not designed as a Moon lander and had few scientific instruments for lunar exploration. The next Japanese Moon landing program was the LUNAR-A, developed from 1992. Although the LUNAR-A orbiter was cancelled, its penetrators are integrated into the Russian Luna-Glob program, which was scheduled to launch in 2011. The penetrators are "relatively" hard landers, but they are not expected to be destroyed at impact.
The first Asian probe that was part of a lunar landing program was the Indian Moon Impact Probe (MIP) released from Chandrayaan-1 in 2008. MIP was a hard lander and was designed to move the ground under for research purposes. MIP was designed to be destroyed at impact. Its instruments performed lunar observations to within 25 minutes before impact. The landing test will be applied to future soft landings such as Chandrayaan-2, planned for 2016.
The Chinese Chang'e-1 spacecraft also achieved a systematic hard landing at the end of its mission in 2009, when China became the sixth country to reach the lunar surface. One purpose of the lander was to pre-test for future soft landings. A Chinese lunar soft lander is achieved with the Chang'e-3 mission.
Exploration of the major planets
Japanese interplanetary probes have been mostly limited to Small Solar System bodies such as comets and asteroids. JAXA's Nozomi probe was launched in 1998, but contact was lost with the probe due to electrical failures before visiting the planet Mars. The second Japanese probe for the planet Venus, Akatsuki, was launched in 2010. Akatsuki entered orbit around Venus on December 7, 2015.
Chinese scientists expect that China will take 20 years to launch independent planetary probes. The Chinese manned Mars exploration program is planned for around 2050 by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
India has successfully launched Mars Orbiter Mission on November 5, 2013. It reached Mars on September 2014. India has become the only country to successfully insert a satellite into Martian orbit in its maiden attempt; it also became the first Asian country to achieve this feat.
Asian space agencies and programs
- Bangladesh – Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO)
- People's Republic of China – China National Space Administration (CNSA) (Chinese space program)
- India – Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
- Indonesia – National Institute of Aeronautics and Space (LAPAN)
- Iran – Iranian Space Agency (ISA)
- Israel – Israeli Space Agency (ISA)
- Japan – Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
- Malaysia – Malaysian National Space Agency (MNSA)
- North Korea – National Aerospace Development Administration (NADA)
- Pakistan – Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO)
- Philippines – Various
- South Korea – Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI)
- Republic of China – National Space Organization (NSPO)
- Thailand – Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency (GISTDA)
Notes and references
- "Shooting for the moon: The new space race". CNN. 2007-10-10.
- "Asia Nations Gaining Ground in Space Race".
- "China puts its first man in space". BBC News. 2003-10-15. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "Planning Commission Okays ISRO Manned Space Flight Program".
- "Asia could win next 'Space Race', US scientists fear".
- Talmadge, Eric (2007-04-19). "Japan trying to catch China in Asia space race". The Seattle Times.
- "China Denies There's an Asian Space Race". Fox News. 2007-11-01.
- "Concern over China's missile test". BBC News. 2007-01-19. Retrieved 2010-01-01. BBC News
- "Shooting down satellite raises concerns about military space race".
- "Heated Space Race Under Way in Asia". ABC News
- Leonard David Space.com
- "Programming glitch, not radiation or satellites, doomed Phobos-Grunt". 7 February 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
- "China's man in space gets mixed reaction".
- "The dawn of a new space race?". BBC News. 2005-10-14. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "India Limbers Up for Space Race As Prime Minister Asks for the Moon".
- "India 'on course' for the Moon". BBC News. 2003-04-04. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "India and US to explore the Moon". BBC News. 2006-05-09. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "What is Chandrayaan-2?".
- "PSLV puts 20 satellites in orbit". The Hindu. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
- Barry, Ellen (2017-02-15). "India Launches 104 Satellites From a Single Rocket, Ramping Up a Space Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
- "India Launches More Than 100 Satellites into Orbit". Time. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
- "India not to undertake human space flight before 2017: ISRO". The Economic Times. 17 September 2012. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "North Korea nuclear and China military programmes a worry: Japan".
- "Japan Joins U.S. in Dangerous Space Race".
- "Japanese Satellites Work in Orbit Above Earth".
- "Abe calls for a 'bold review' of Japanese Constitution".
- 浮上した日本の有人月探査計画（1） (in Japanese). Nikkei BP.
- "Iran launches satellite; U.S. expresses concern". Reuters. 2009-02-03.
- "Israel in Space Program". Aerospaceguide.net. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
- "KCNA Report on DPRK's Accession to International Space Treaty and Convention". KCNA. 2009-03-12. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
- "朝鲜宣布发展太空计划抗衡"西方强权"". Rodong Sinmun. 2009-02-08. Retrieved February 26, 2009.
- "South Korea joins Asian space race".
- "Abe calls for a 'bold review' of Japanese Constitution".
- Sudworth, John (2007-11-12). "South Korea buys into space dream". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "Boost for South Korea's space program".
- Sajjadur Rahman (2009-11-27). "Bangladesh plans to launch satellite". Thedailystar.net. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
- "Turkey's spy sat to zoom in on Israeli secrets".
- 返回式卫星 (China's First Atmospheric Reentry Satellite)
- Harbin Institute of Technology -> FSW satellite series (Note: the definition of high resolution (ground resolution) < 4.5m)
- Beidou navigation system first goes to public, with resolution 0.5m (from official Xinhua News Agency), with photos Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- 中国首次“一箭三星”发射成功 (China's First One-Rocket-Three-Satellite Launch). Science and Technology Daily
- "Solar System Exploration: Missions: By Target: Moon: Past: Hiten". NASA. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
- "JAXA – Data Relay Test Satellite "KODAMA"(DRTS)". JAXA. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
- "World's Fastest Satellite Internet Connection to 45 cm User Terminal Using "KIZUNA" (WINDS)". asia.spaceref.com. 2008-04-21. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
- "Kibo: The Successful Launch and Start of Permanent Manned Space Operations." (PDF). MHI. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
- "MIP detected water on Moon way back in June: ISRO Chairman". The Hindu. Bangalore. September 25, 2009. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
- Bagla, Pallav (September 25, 2009). "Did India beat NASA to find water on moon?". NDTV. Bangalore. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
- "Japan Launches World's First Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite". ENS. 2009-01-23. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
- 我国孕育新一代运载火箭 20年完成更新换代 (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
- "SATCAT Boxscore (current as of 2015 September 19)". celestrak.com.
- Jones, Morris. "Reality Check for Indian Astronauts". Space Travel. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Japan Wants Space Plane or Capsule by 2022".
- 日の丸有人宇宙船 ２０３０年に初フライト ＨＴＶ改修で数百億円削減 (in Japanese). MSN Sankei News. 2009-07-11. Retrieved 2009-07-10. – The title misprinted 2020 as 2030. There is "2020" in the text.
- "Astronauts and Cosmonauts flown in space (in alphabetical order)". spacefacts.de.
- "India Launches More Than 100 Satellites into Orbit". Time. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
- Rui C. Barbosa (19 September 2015). "China conducts debut launch of Long March 6". Retrieved 22 June 2016.
- JAXA Piggyback payload (GOSAT special Site) -
- "Hypersonic Flight Experiment "HYFLEX"". JAXA. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
- "JAXAシンポジウム「ロボットが拓く宇宙開発のNEXT STAGE」レポート 写真26" (in Japanese). Impress Watch. 2007-03-30. Retrieved 2009-07-21.
- "Observation of Lunar Rotation by Future Landing Missions" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-07-21.
- "Indian spacecraft soars on historic journey to Mars". Space Flight Now. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
- "Запуск станции "Фобос-Грунт" к спутнику Марса отложен до 2011 года". РИА Новости. 2009-09-21. Retrieved 2009-09-21.
- "GSLV-F05 / INSAT-3DR". ISRO. Retrieved 2016-09-09.
- "IGS-Optical 5V".
- "OFEQ 9 - the New Israeli Spy Satellite".
- "高分专项推动商业遥感卫星技术发展" (in Chinese). Retrieved 2015-11-09.
- "KOMPSAT-3 (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3) / Arirang-3".
- "Rasad-1: Iran Launches Its Second Satellite".
- "遥感卫星二十九号发射成功，长征四号火箭今年完美收官" (in Chinese). Retrieved 2015-11-27.
- "IGS-Radar 3, 4".
- "TECSAR 1 (TechSAR 1, Ofeq 8)".
- "TECSAR 1 Israel".
- "RISAT 1".
- "RISAT-1: A Fully Polarimetric C-band SAR Mission of ISRO".
- "KOMPSat 5 (Arirang 5)".
- "NIGCOMSAT 1, 1R".
- "ST-2 Satellite details 2011 -022B NORAD 37606".
- "SJ 9".
- "ISRO to Test Electric Propulsion on Satellites". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
- "India's GLSV rocket launches GSAT-9 | NASASpaceFlight.com". www.nasaspaceflight.com. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
- ISRO lines up SARAL for February, restored GSLV for April
- "> News Headlines > ISRO developed AWS – Agreement signed for production". Indiantelevision.com. 2005-03-19. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
- JAXA H-I Launch Vehicle
- JAXA Engineering Test Satellite II "KIKU-2"(ETS-II)
- JAXA Engineering Test Satellite VII "KIKU-7"(ETS-VII)
- JAXA Launch Schedule
- JAXA Solar Observation TAIYO (SRATS)
- "Orbital Launches of 2001". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "Orbital Launches of 2002". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "Orbital Launches of 2003". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "Orbital Launches of 2004". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "Orbital Launches of 2005". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
- "Orbital Launches of 2006". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- "Orbital Launches of 2007". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- "Orbital Launches of 2008". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- "Orbital Launches of 2009". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- "Orbital Launches of 2010". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- "Orbital Launches of 2011". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- "Orbital Launches of 2012". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
- "Orbital Launches of 2013". Retrieved 2014-01-05.
- "Orbital Launches of 2014". Retrieved 2015-01-17.
- "Orbital Launches of 2015". Retrieved 2016-02-09.
- "Orbital Launches of 2016". Retrieved 2017-01-01.
- "ISAS news No.154" (PDF) (in Japanese).
- "Lunar exploration satellite "LUNAR-A"".
- 中国自主探测火星还需20年 (in Chinese). 浙江日报. 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
- 2050年頃に有人火星探査を実施＝中国科学院が計画を発表―中国 (in Japanese). Recoed China. 2009-06-10. Retrieved 2009-06-12.