Comparison of Asian national space programs

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Several Asian countries have space programs and are actively competing to achieve scientific and technological advancements in space, a situation sometimes referred to as the Asian space race in the popular media[1] as a reference to the earlier Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union. Like the previous space race, issues involved in the current push to space include national security, which has spurred many countries to send artificial satellites as well as humans into Earth orbit and beyond.[2] A number of Asian countries are seen as contenders in the ongoing race to be the pre-eminent power in space.[3]

Asian space powers[edit]

Of the ten countries that have independently successfully launched a satellite into orbit, six countries: Japan (1970), China (1970), India (1980), Israel (1988), Iran (2009) and North Korea (2012), are Asian. Of six major space powers in world which have full launch capabilities to transfer heavy payloads in geosynchronous orbits, can launch multiple and recoverable satellites, deploy cryogenic engines and operate extraterrestrial exploration missions, three (China, India and Japan) are Asian.

China's first manned spacecraft entered orbit in October 2003, making China the first Asian nation to send a human into space.[4] India expects to send Vyomnauts to space in the Gaganyaan capsule by 2022.[5]

While the achievements of space programs run by the main Asian space players (China, India, and Japan) pale in comparison to the milestones set by the former Soviet Union and the United States, some experts believe Asia may soon lead the world in space exploration.[6] Each Asian spacefaring country has its own dominance in specific aerospace aspect. For instance, the first Chinese manned spaceflight, in 2003, marked the beginning of a space race in the region and India is the first Asian country to successfully launch a Mars orbiter (and the first country in the world to do so in its first attempt). At the same time, the existence of a space race in Asia is still debated due to the non-concurrence of space milestone events like there was for the United States and the Soviet Union. Japan for example was the first power on Earth to get a sample return mission from an asteroid. There was however some concurrence between China and India to see which of those two could be the first to launch a probe to the Earth's moon back in the late 2000s decade. China, for example, denies that there is an Asian space race.[7] In January 2007 China became the first Asian military-space power to send an anti-satellite missile into orbit, to destroy an aging Chinese Feng Yun 1C weather satellite in polar orbit. The resulting explosion sent a wave of debris hurtling through space at more than 6 miles per second.[8][9] India did the same in 2019 by shooting down its own satellite Microsat-R. The operation was named Mission Shakti[10] A month later, Japan's space agency launched an experimental communications satellite designed to enable super high-speed data transmission in remote areas.[8]

After successful achievement of geostationary technology, India's ISRO launched its first Moon mission, Chandrayaan-1 in October 2008, which discovered ice water on the Moon.[11] India then launched on 5 November 2013 its maiden interplanetary mission, the Mars Orbiter Mission. The primary objective is to determine Mars' atmospheric composition and attempt to detect methane. The spacecraft completed its journey on 24 September 2014 when it entered its intended orbit around Mars, making India the first Asian country to successfully place a Mars orbiter and the only country in history to do so in the first attempt. ISRO became the fourth space agency in the world to send a spacecraft to Mars, only behind NASA, ROSCOSMOS, and ESA. China & India have tested their anti- satellite weapons respectively in 2007 and 2019, making them only countries after US & USSR/Russia to possess ASAT weapons.

In addition to increasing national pride, countries are commercially motivated to operate in space. Commercial satellites are launched for communications, weather forecasting, and atmospheric research. According to a report by the Space Frontier Foundation released in 2006, the "space economy" is estimated to be worth about $180 billion, with more than 60% of space-related economic activity coming from commercial goods and services.[2] China and India propose the initiation of a commercial launch service.


Several rockets of the Long March family

China has a space program with an independent human spaceflight capability. It has developed a sizable family of successful Long March rockets. It has launched two lunar orbiters, Chang'e 1 and Chang'e 2. On 2 December 2013, China launched a modified Long March 3B rocket, with Chang'e 3 Moon lander and its rover Yutu on-board toward the Moon and successfully performed soft landing and rover operations, becoming the third country to do so.[12] It also has plans to retrieve samples by late 2017. In 2011, China embarked on a program to establish a manned space station, starting with the launch of Tiangong 1 and followed by Tiangong 2 in 2016. China attempted to send a Mars orbiter (Yinghuo-1) in 2011 on a joint mission with Russia, which failed to leave Earth orbit. Nevertheless, the 2020 Chinese Mars Mission with an orbiter, a lander and a rover has been approved by the government and is aiming a launch date in the year 2020.[13] China has collaborative projects with Russia, ESA, and Brazil, and has launched commercial satellites for other countries. Some analysts suggest that the Chinese space program is linked to the nation's efforts at developing advanced military technology.[14]

China's advanced technology is the result of the integration of various related technological experiences. Early Chinese satellites, such as the FSW series, have undergone many atmospheric reentry tests. In the 1990s China had commercial launches, resulting in more launch experiences and a high success rate after the 1990s. China has aimed to undertake scientific development in fields like Solar System exploration. China's Shenzhou 7 spacecraft successfully performed an EVA in September 2008. China's Shenzhou 9 spacecraft successfully performed a manned docking in June 2012. Furthermore, China's Chang'e 2 explorer became the first object to reach Sun-Earth Lagrangian point in August 2011 and also the first probe to explore both Moon and asteroid by making a flyby of the asteroid 4179 Toutatis. China has launched DAMPE, the most capable dark matter explorer to date in 2015, and world's first quantum communication satellite QUESS in 2016.


India's interest in space travel began in the early 1960s, when scientists launched a Nike-Apache rocket from TERLS, Kerala.[15][16] Under Vikram Sarabhai, the program focused on the practical uses of space in increasing the standard of living. Remote sensing and communications satellites were placed into orbit.[17]

The first Indian to travel in space was Rakesh Sharma, who flew aboard Soyuz T-11, launched April 2, 1984, from erstwhile USSR.[18]

Just a few days after China said that it would send a human into orbit in the second half of 2003, Indian Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee publicly urged his country's scientists to work towards sending a man to the Moon.[19] India successfully sent its first probe to the Moon known as Chandrayaan-1 in October 2008 which helped in finding the presence of water in the Moon [20] and has already launched its second Moon mission, Chandrayaan-2 to the south pole of the Moon.[21][22]

ISRO launched its Mars Orbiter Mission on November 5, 2013 (informally called "Mangalyaan") which successfully entered into the orbit around Mars on 24 September 2014. India is the first in Asia and fourth in the world to perform a successful Mars mission. It is also the only one to do so on the first attempt and at a record low cost of $74 million.[23]

ISRO has demonstrated its re-entry technology and till date has launched as many as 175 foreign satellites belonging to global customers from 20 countries including US, Germany, France, Japan, Canada, U.K. All of these have been launched successfully by PSLVs so far, gaining significant expertise in space technologies. In June 2016, India set a record by launching 20 satellites simultaneously.[24] The PSLVs are also one of world's most reliable launch vehicles which clocked its 35th successful mission (39 total) in a row as of February 2017, thus having success rate of nearly 90%.

India broke the world record by successfully placing 104 satellites (almost tripling the Russian record of 37) in Earth Orbit on 15 February 2017 on a single rocket launch (PSLV-C37).[25][26]

Recent reports indicate that human spaceflight is planned with a spacecraft called Gaganyaan for December 2021 on a home-grown GSLV-III rocket.[27] ISRO is also planning to send orbiters to Venus, Mars and Jupiter or comets and asteroids in the near future. India has successfully tested anti-satellite missile, becoming the fourth country to do so.


The H-IIA F11 launch vehicle lifts off from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan

Japan has been cooperating with the United States on missile defence since 1999. North Korean nuclear and Chinese military programs represent a serious issue for Japan's foreign relations.[28] Japan is working on military and civilian space technologies, developing missile defence systems, new generations of military spy satellites, and planning for manned stations on the Moon.[29] Japan started to construct spy satellites after North Korea test fired a Taepodong missile over Japan in 1998. The North Korean government claimed the missile was merely launching a satellite to space, and accused Japan of causing an arms race.[30] The Japanese constitution adopted after World War II limits military activities to defensive operations. On May 2007 Prime Minister Shinzo Abe called for a bold review of the Japanese Constitution to allow the country to take a larger role in global security and foster a revival of national pride.[31] Japan has not yet developed its own manned spacecraft and does not have a program in place to develop one. The Japanese space shuttle HOPE-X, to be launched by the conventional space launcher H-II, was developed but the program was postponed and eventually cancelled. Then the simpler manned capsule Fuji was proposed but not adopted. Pioneer projects of single-stage to orbit, reusable launch vehicle horizontal takeoff and landing ASSTS and vertical takeoff and landing Kankoh-maru were developed but have not been adopted. A more conservative new (JAXA manned spacecraft) project is proposed to launch by 2025 as part of the Japanese plan to send manned missions to the Moon. Shin'ya Matsuura [ja] is doubtful about the Japanese manned Moon project, and suspects the project is a euphemism for participation in the American Constellation program.[32] JAXA planned to send a humanoid robot (such as ASIMO) to the Moon.[32][when?]

Other players[edit]


Iranian Simorgh (rocket) SLV

Iran has developed its own satellite launch vehicle, named the Safir SLV, based on the Shahab series of IRBMs. On 2 February 2009, Iranian state television reported that Iran's first domestically made satellite Omid (from the Persian امید, meaning "Hope") had been successfully launched into low Earth orbit by a version of Iran's Safir rocket, the Safir-2.[33] The launch coincided with the 30th anniversary of the Iranian Revolution. Iran is also developing a new launch vehicle Simorgh (rocket).


Shavit, the Israeli orbital launch system

Israel became the tenth country in the world to build its own satellite and launch it with its own launcher on 19 September 1988. Israel launched its first satellite, Ofeq-1, using an Israeli-built Shavit three-stage launch vehicle.[34] The launching was the high point of a process that began in 1983 with the establishment of the Israel Space Agency under the aegis of the Ministry of Science. Space research by university-based scientists began in the 1960s, providing a ready-made pool of experts for Israel's foray into space. Since then, local universities, research institutes, and private industry, backed by the Israel Space Agency, have made progress in space technology. The agency's role is to support "private and academic space projects, coordinate their efforts, initiate and develop international relations and projects, head integrative projects involving different bodies, and create public awareness for the importance of space development."[35]

North Korea[edit]

North Korea has many years of experience with rocket technology, which it has passed along to Pakistan and other countries. On December 12, 2012, North Korea placed its first satellite in orbit with the launch of Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2. On 12 March 2009 North Korea signed the Outer Space Treaty and the Registration Convention,[36] after a previous declaration of preparations for the launch of Kwangmyongsong-2. North Korea twice announced satellite launches: Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 on 31 August 1998 and Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 on 5 April 2009. Neither of these claims were confirmed by the rest of the world, but the United States and South Korea believe there were tests of military ballistic missiles. The North Korean space agency is the Korean Committee of Space Technology, which operates the Musudan-ri and Tongch'ang-dong Space Launch Center rocket launching sites and has developed the Baekdusan-1 and Unha (Baekdusan-2) space launchers and Kwangmyŏngsŏng satellites. In 2009 North Korea announced several future space projects, including manned space flights and the development of a manned partially reusable launch vehicle.[37] The successor to the Korean Committee of Space Technology, National Aerospace Development Administration (NADA) successfully launched an Unha-3 launch vehicle in February 2016, placing the Kwangmyŏngsŏng-4 satellite in orbit.


LAPAN is responsible for long-term civilian and military aerospace research Indonesia. On July 1976, Indonesia became the first developing country to operate its own domestic satellite system.[38] On October 1985, Indonesian scientist, Pratiwi Sudarmono was selected to take part in the NASA Space Shuttle missions STS-61-H as a Payload Specialist. Taufik Akbar was her backup on the mission. However, after the Challenger disaster the deployment of commercial satellites like the Indonesian Palapa B-3 planned for the STS-61-H mission was canceled, thus the mission never took place. The satellite was later launched with a Delta rocket.[39] For over two decades, Indonesia has managed satellites and domain-developed small scientific-technology satellites LAPAN and telecommunication satellites Palapa, which were built by Hughes (now Boeing Satellite Systems) and launched from the US on Delta rockets or from French Guiana using Ariane 4 and Ariane 5 rockets. It has also developed sounding rockets and has been trying to develop small orbital space launchers. The LAPAN A1 in 2007 and LAPAN A2 satellites were launched by India in 2015.[40] Indonesia has undertaken programs to develop and use their own small space launch vehicle Pengorbitan (RPS-420).[41][42]

South Korea[edit]

South Korea is a newer player in the Asian space race.[43] In August 2006 South Korea launched its first military communications satellite, the Mugunghwa-5. The satellite was placed in geosynchronous orbit and collects surveillance information about North Korea.[44] The South Korean government is spending hundreds of millions of dollars in space technology and was due to launch its first space launcher, the Korea Space Launch Vehicle, in 2008.[45][needs update] South Korea's government justifies the cost for reasons of long-term commercial benefits and national pride. South Korea has long seen North Korea's significantly longer missile range as a serious threat to its national security. With the nation's first astronaut launched into space, Lee So-yeon, South Korea gained confidence in entering the Asian space race. They have completed the construction of Naro Space Center. South Korea is now attempting to build satellites and rockets with local technology.[46] South Korea is pursuing a space program that could defend the peninsula while lessening their dependency on the United States.


As of 2012 Turkey was developing its own military satellite. The first Göktürk satellite is planned to be launched in 2013.[needs update] The Turkish satellite is planned to be capable of taking satellite images of greater than two meters per pixel resolution, thus making Turkey the second nation in the world capable of such a feat, after the United States.[47] Turkey is also developing an orbital launch system known as UFS.[48]

Other nations and regions[edit]

Other minor spacefaring countries are Bangladesh, Malaysia and Pakistan. On 7 June 1962, with the launch of the Rehbar-I rocket, Pakistan became the tenth country in the world to successfully conduct the launch of an unmanned spacecraft. SUPARCO has launched a number of sounding rockets. Pakistan's first satellite, Badr-I was launched from China in 1990, Badr-B in 2001 from Baikonur Cosmodrome using a Ukrainian Zenit-2 rocket, followed by Paksat-1R in 2011 which was contracted and actually built and launched by China, was Pakistan's first communication satellite.[49] Under its Space programme 2040, Pakistan aims to operate five geostationary and six low earth orbit satellites. Development of any satellite launch vehicle is not planned.

With the launch of Bangabandhu-1 satellite purchased abroad, Bangladesh began operating its first communication satellite in 2018. Bangladesh Space Agency intends to launch satellites after 2020. Bangladesh's government has stressed that the country seeks an "entirely peaceful and commercial" role in space.[50]

Timeline of national firsts[edit]

Also see the section: Comparison of key technologies

     – Indigenous manned missions          – Manned missions      – Lunar or Interplanetary missions      – Other missions
Date Nation Name Asian First World achievements
4 October 1957  Soviet Union
(now under  Kazakhstan)
Baikonur Cosmodrome Satellite launch pad The first satellite, Sputnik 1, was launched.
11 February 1970  Japan Ohsumi Satellite The smallest satellite launch vehicle (L-4S; 9.4t weight, 1.4m diameter)
24 February 1975  Japan Taiyo Solar probe
26 October 1975  China FSW-0 Satellite recovery[51]
26 October 1975  China FSW-0:
– 10m (1975)
– 4m (1992)[52]
– 0.5m (till 2007)[53]
High resolution imaging satellite
8 July 1976  Indonesia Palapa A1 Geosynchronous satellite (launched by NASA)
23 February 1977  Japan N-I Geosynchronous launch
21 February 1979  Japan Hakucho Space observatory
23 July 1980  Vietnam Phạm Tuân Asian in space (Soyuz 37)
20 September 1981  China FB-1 Simultaneous satellite launch[54]
8 January 1985  Japan Sakigake Leaving Earth orbit The first interplanetary launch by solid rocket (M-3SII)
19 March 1990  Japan Hagoromo Reach lunar orbit (assumed)
7 April 1990  China CZ-3 Commercial launch (AsiaSat 1)
10 April 1993  Japan Hiten Intentional lunar impact The first aerobraking test[55]
8 July 1994  Japan Chiaki Mukai Asian woman in space (STS-65)
19 November 1997  Japan Takao Doi Spacework (STS-87)
28 November 1997  Japan ETS-VII Rendezvous docking
3 July 1998  Japan Nozomi Martian mission (Failure)
30 October 2000  China Beidou Satellite navigation system
10 September 2002  Japan Kodama[56] Data relay satellite (with ESA)
15 October 2003  China Yang Liwei First man in space launched by an Asian space program
15 October 2003  China Shenzhou 5 Manned spacecraft
19 November 2005  Japan Hayabusa Soft-landed probe on extraterrestrial object The first asteroid ascent, sample return from an asteroid
11 January 2007  China FY-1C ASAT test Highest in history with altitude 865 km, also the fastest with speed 18k miles
23 February 2008  Japan WINDS Internet satellite The fastest internet satellite[57]
11 March 2008  Japan Japanese Experiment Module Manned foundations in space (STS-123, STS-124, STS-127) The world's largest pressurized volume in space[58]
25 April 2008  China Tianlian I Indigenous Tracking & Data Relay Satellite System
First TDRS system to support manned missions
27 September 2008  China Zhai Zhigang (Shenzhou 7) Indigenous EVA
27 September 2008  China BanXing Manned spacecraft-launched satellite
14 November 2008  India Moon Impact Probe Probe designed for Lunar impact Discovered water on the Moon before impact.[59][60]
23 January 2009  Japan GOSAT Greenhouse gas explorer[61]
20 May 2010  Japan Akatsuki First Asian Venus mission
21 May 2010  Japan IKAROS Solar sail The first spacecraft to successfully demonstrate solar-sail technology in interplanetary space
25 August 2011  China Chang'e 2 Lunar probe with extended deep space missions (asteroid mission to 4179 Toutatis).
29 September 2011  China Tiangong-1 First Asian Space station
18 June 2012  China Shenzhou 9 First manned space docking by an Asian country (with Tiangong-1)
14 December 2013  China Chang'e 3/Yutu First lunar soft landing and lunar rover by an Asian country.
24 September 2014  India Mars Orbiter Mission First successful Mars mission by an Asian country First Martian mission by a country to succeed on the first attempt. Third country to do so after the USSR and the USA.
15 February 2017  India PSLV-C37 First to successfully launch and deploy 104 satellites simultaneously from a single rocket (PSLV -C37).[62][63] First country in the world to launch more than 100 satellites at one go.
3 January 2019  China Chang'e 4 First soft landing on the far side of the Moon First soft landing on the far side of the Moon by any country. Landed with Yutu-2 rover.

Other achievements[edit]

Timeline of the heaviest satellite launch vehicle in Asia
First success LEO GTO / GEO Notes
11 Feb 1970 Japan L-4S (26 kg) First launch was 1966 (failed 4 times).
24 Apr 1970 China CZ-1 (0.3 t) First launch failed in 1969.
26 Jul 1975 China FB-1 (2.5 t) Suborbital flight was performed in 1972.
ChinaCZ-2A (LEO 2t) failed in 1974.
16 Jul 1990 China CZ-2E (LEO 9.2 t / GTO 3.5 t)[citation needed]
20 Aug 1997 China CZ-3B (LEO 12 t / GTO 5.2 t)[citation needed]
18 Dec 2006 Japan H-IIA204 (LEO 15 t / GTO 5.8 t)[citation needed]
10 Sep 2009 Japan H-IIB (LEO 19 t / GTO 8 t)[citation needed]
3 Nov 2016 Japan H-IIB (LEO 19 t) China CZ-5 (GTO 14 t)[64]

Comparison of key technologies[edit]

Records of each country are listed by chronological order unless otherwise noted.

First independent launches (rocket/satellite)
Payloads in orbit by number (active/total, first five as of May 2019)[65]
First indigenous low Earth orbit manned spaceflights
Independent human spaceflights (total persons/person flights)
First independent extravehicular activity
First independent unmanned/manned Space rendezvous
Multi-satellite simultaneous launches (by number)
First flight of space shuttles
Including shuttle-shaped hypersonic reentry vehicles reach to space.
First space habitation module
First space laboratory
First orbiters to the Moon
First intentional Moon landings
  •  Japan – 1993 – Hiten (controlled impact at end of its mission)
  •  India – 2008 – MIP (Moon impactor)
  •  China – 2009 – Chang'e 1 (controlled impact at end of its mission)
First Lunar soft landings/Lunar rovers
Orbiters to Mars
Intentional Mars landing
Orbiter to Venus
Asteroid explorations
Capability of Launch Vehicle (in active, payload to LEO)
Capability of Launch Vehicle (in active, payload to GTO)
Cryogenic rocket engine
Solid-fuel rocket
  •  India - S-200, Burn time 130s, Isp (Vac.):274.5s, Thrust (Vac.):5,150 kN.
  •  Japan - SRB-A, Burn time 100s, Isp (Vac.):280s, Thrust (Vac.):2,260 kN.
  •  Israel - Shavit's First Stage, Burn time 82s, Isp (Vac.):280s, Thrust (Vac.):1650.2 kN.
  •  China - Kuaizhou
  •  China - Long March 11
Optical satellite imagery (by highest available resolution)
Radar satellite imagery (by resolution)
Communications satellite technology
  •  China - 2011 - NIGCOMSAT 1R[91] 5,150 kg, 28 transponders, Solar Array provide a power of 10.5 kW.
  •  Japan - 2011 - ST-2[92] 5,090 kg, 51 transporters[93]
  •  India - 2014 - GSAT-16 with 48 transponders, 2018 - GSAT-11 5,854 kg, 40 transponders, Solar Array provide a power of 13.6 kW,
Resupply spacecraft (launch payload)
Solar Sail spacecraft
Spacecraft powered by indigenous plasma thrusters (power, thrust, specific impulse)
Spacecraft powered by indigenous ion thrusters (power, thrust, specific impulse)
Spacecraft powered by indigenous Hall thrusters (power, thrust, specific impulse)
  •  South Korea - 2013 - DubaiSat-2, 0.3 kW, 7 mN, 1000 s
  •  China - 2016 - Shijian 17 (HEP-100MF), 1.4 kW, ? mN, 1850 s (magnetic focusing Hall thruster)
  •  China - 2016 - Shijian 17 (LHT-100), 1.35 kW, 80 mN, 1600 s
Other comparable technologies
Nation Multi-satellite simultaneous launches Launch of foreign satellite Geostationary launches Atmos-
pheric reentry
Rendezvous dockings in orbit Satellite navigation system Data relay satellites Martian missions Solar Space Missions Space observatories
 China 1981
3 Sats
Pakistan science satellite
Dong Fang Hong 02
(by CZ-3)
Tiangong 1
Tianlian I
Solar Space Telescope
Space Hard X-Ray Modulation Telescope
 India 1999

3 Sats

South Korea Kitsat-3
Germany DLR-Tubsat
(by GSLV)
planned 2013
2021 (planned)
 Japan 1986
(H-I H15F)[100]
3 Sats
Australia FedSat
(by N-I)
(orbiter) (Failure)

? : Date is assumed
Only projects with under-development or above status have been listed

Orbital Launch Frequency[edit]


2001[105] 2002[106] 2003[107] 2004[108] 2005[109] 2006[110] 2007[111] 2008[112] 2009[113] 2010[114] Total
 China 1 5 7 8 5 6 9 11 6 15 73
 Japan 1 3 3 - 2 6 2 1 3 2 23
 India 2 1 2 1 1 1 3 3 2 3 19
 Israel - 1 - 1 - - 1 - - 1 4
 Iran - - - - - - - 1 1 - 2
 South Korea - - - - - - - - 1 1 2
 North Korea - - - - - - - - 1 - 1
Total 4 10 12 10 8 13 15 16 14 22 124


2011[115] 2012[116] 2013[117] 2014[118] 2015[119] 2016[120] 2017[121] 2018[122] Total
 China 19 19 15 16 19 22 18 39 167
 India 3 2 4 5 5 7 5 7 38
 Japan 3 2 3 4 4 4 7 6 33
 Iran 1 3 1 - 1 - 1 - 7
 North Korea - 2 - - - 1 - - 3
 Israel - - - 1 - 1 - - 2
 South Korea - - 1 - - - - - 1
Total 26 28 24 26 29 35 31 52 251

Solar System exploration[edit]

Solar System exploration and manned spaceflights are major space technologies in the public eye. Since Sakigake, the first interplanetary probe in Asia, was launched in 1985, Japan has completed the most planetary exploration, but other nations are catching up.

Moon race[edit]

The Moon is thought to be rich in Helium-3, which could one day be used in nuclear fusion power plants to fuel future energy demands in Asia. All three main Asian space powers plan to send people to the Moon in the distant future and have already sent lunar probes.

Asian lunar exploration probes
Mission name Type Year Vehicle Outcome
Japan Hiten
Flyby/Orbiter 1990 Japan Mu-3S-II Success
Japan Hagoromo Orbiter Failure
Japan Lunar-A Orbiter 2004 (intended)
Never launched
Japan M5 Cancelled and integrated into Russia's Luna-Glob.
Orbiter 2007 Japan H-IIA 202 Success
China Chang'e 1 Orbiter 2007 China Long March 3A Success
India Chandrayaan-1 Orbiter 2008 India PSLV-XL Success
China Chang'e 2 Orbiter 2010 China Long March 3C Success
China Chang'e 3 Orbiter
2013 China Long March 3B Success
China Chang'e 5-T1 Flyby 2014 China Long March 3C Success
China Chang'e 4 Orbiters
2018-19 China Long March 4C and Long March 3B Success
India Chandrayaan-2 Orbiter
2019 India GSLV MkIII Partial success
ChinaChang'e 5 Sample return Q4 2020 China Long March 5 Planned
South Korea Korea Pathfinder Lunar Orbiter Orbiter December 2020 United States Falcon 9 Planned
Japan SELENE-2 Orbiter
2020s (intended) Japan H-IIA (intended) Cancelled
Japan SLIM Lander January 2022 Japan H-IIA 202 Planned
Japan DESTINY+ Flyby 2022 Japan Epsilon Planned
China Chang'e 6 Sample return 2023-24 China Long March 5 Planned
China Chang'e 7 Lander 2023 TBD Planned
JapanIndia Chandrayaan-3 Orbiter
2024 Japan H-III Proposed
China Chang'e 8 Lander 2026 TBD Proposed
North Korea North Korean mission to Moon TBD 2026 North Korea Unha-20 Proposed

Probing the Moon[edit]

Japan was the first Asian country to launch a lunar probe. The Hiten (Japanese: "flying angel") spacecraft (known before the launch as MUSES-A), built by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science of Japan, was launched on 24 January 1990. In many ways, the mission did not go as was planned. Kaguya, the second Japanese lunar orbiter spacecraft, was launched on 14 September 2007.

China launched its first lunar probe, Chang'e-1, on 24 October 2007 and successfully entered lunar orbit on 5 November 2007.

India launched its first lunar probe, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008 and successfully entered its final lunar orbit on 2 November 2008. The mission was considered a major success and the probe detected water on the lunar surface.

Moon landings[edit]

The first confirmed Moon landing from Asia was Hiten's mission in 1993. An intentional hard landing at the end of the mission, some pictures of the lunar surface were taken before impact.[123] Hiten was not designed as a Moon lander and had few scientific instruments for lunar exploration. The next Japanese Moon landing program was the LUNAR-A, developed from 1992. Although the LUNAR-A orbiter was cancelled, its penetrators are integrated into the Russian Luna-Glob program, which was scheduled to launch in 2011. The penetrators are "relatively" hard landers,[124] but they are not expected to be destroyed at impact.

The first Asian probe that was part of a lunar landing program was the Indian Moon Impact Probe (MIP) released from Chandrayaan-1 in 2008. MIP was a hard lander and was designed to move the ground under for research purposes. MIP was designed to be destroyed at impact. Its instruments performed lunar observations to within 25 minutes before impact. The landing test was to be applied to future soft landings such as Chandrayaan-2, planned for 2019. However, following successful orbital insertion, ISRO lost the contact with lander-rover module which was supposed to conduct soft landing on moon and only limited success could be accomplished. After accomplishment of its first manned mission, India has proposed space stations and manned missions to Moon in long term.[125][126]

The Chinese Chang'e-1 spacecraft also achieved a systematic hard landing at the end of its mission in 2009, when China became the sixth country to reach the lunar surface. One purpose of the lander was to pre-test for future soft landings. A Chinese lunar soft lander is achieved with the Chang'e-3 mission. With following Chang'e 4, PRC became world's first country to land on far side of the Moon. China also aims to undertake a manned Moon landing by late 2020s.[127]

Exploration of the major planets[edit]

Japanese interplanetary probes have been mostly limited to Small Solar System bodies such as comets and asteroids. Japan was world's first country to launch a spacecraft on asteroids. JAXA's Nozomi probe was launched in 1998, but contact was lost with the probe due to electrical failures before visiting the planet Mars. The second Japanese probe for the planet Venus, Akatsuki, was launched in 2010. Akatsuki entered orbit around Venus on December 7, 2015. Together with European Space Agency, JAXA has launched Mio spacecraft to for mapping magnetic field of Mercury. Spacecraft will have flyby through Venus as well.

Chinese scientists expect that China will take 20 years to launch independent planetary probes.[128] The Chinese manned Mars exploration program is planned for around 2050 by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.[129] After failed attempt to launch Yinghuo-1, China is planning another Mars mission with an orbiter as well as rover. Moreover, China plans to send an orbiter to Venus around 2025.[130] China has also been planning an orbiter to Jupiter.[131]

India has successfully launched Mars Orbiter Mission on November 5, 2013. It reached Mars on September 2014. India has become the only country to successfully insert a satellite into Martian orbit in its maiden attempt; it also became the first Asian country to achieve this feat. India is planning another mission to Mars in 2020s.[132] India has schedules to launch Aditya-L1 near Sun to study Solar corona[133] and developing Shukrayaan-1 spacecraft to Venus.[134] India is also studying exploration missions to asteroids, Jupiter and to exo-planets and beyond solar system like American Voyager 1.[135]

Asian interplanetary exploration probes
Mission name Destination Type Year Vehicle Outcome
Japan Nozomi Mars Orbiter 2003 Japan M-V Failure
Japan Hayabusa Asteroid: 25143 Itokawa Sample return 2005-7 Japan M-V Success
Japan Akatsuki
Venus Orbiter 2010 Japan H-IIA 202 Failure
(Failed orbiter insertion)
2015 Success
Japan IKAROS Venus Flyby 2010 Success
Japan Shin'en Venus Flyby 2010 Failure
China Yinghuo-1 Mars Orbiter 2011 Ukraine Zenit-2M Failure
China Chang'e 2 Asteroid: 4179 Toutatis Flyby 2012 China Long March 3C Success
India Mars Orbiter Mission Mars Orbiter 2013-14 India PSLV-XL Success
Japan Hayabusa2 Asteroid: 162173 Ryugu Sample return 2014-20 Japan H-IIA 202 en-route
Japan PROCYON Asteroid: 2000 DP107 Flyby 2016 Japan H-IIA 202 Failure
Japan Mio Mercury Orbiter 2018-24 European Union Ariane 5 ECA en-route
India Aditya-L1 Sun Orbiter 2020 India PSLV-XL Planned
China Mars Global Remote Sensing Orbiter and Small Rover Mars Orbiter/Rover mid-2020 China Long March 5 Planned
United Arab Emirates Hope Mars Mission Mars Orbiter 2020-21 Japan H-IIA Planned
Japan DESTINY+ Asteroid: 3200 Phaethon Flyby 2022-26 Japan Epsilon Planned
India Shukrayaan-1 Venus Orbiter and aerobots 2023 India GSLV MkIII Planned
Japan MMX Mars Orbiter 2024-2025 TBD Planned
Phobos Sample return Planned
India Mars Orbiter Mission 2 Mars Orbiter
TBD India GSLV MkII or GSLV MkIII Planned

Asian space agencies and programs[edit]

  Human Lunar Exploration + Operates Space Station + Human Spaceflight + Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Station + Human Spaceflight + Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Human spaceflight + Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Operates Extraterrestrial Probes + Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  Launch Capability + Operates Satellites
  None Of The Above
Country Name Initialisms/Acronym Founded Terminated Capabilities of the space agency Remarks
Astronauts Operates Satellites Sounding Rockets capable Recoverable Biological Sounding Rockets capable
 Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization SPARRSO 1980 No No No No [136]
 People's Republic of China China National Space Administration
(Chinese: 国家航天局)
CNSA 22 April 1993 Yes Yes Yes Yes [137]
 India Indian Space Research Organisation
(Hindi: भारतीय अंतरिक्ष अनुसंधान संगठन)
15 August 1969 Yes Yes Yes Yes [138][139][140]
 Indonesia Indonesian: Lembaga Antariksa dan Penerbangan Nasional
(National Institute of Aeronautics and Space)
LAPAN 27 November 1964 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Iran Iranian Space Agency
(Persian: سازمان فضایی ایران‎)
ISA 2003 No Yes Yes Yes [141][142][143]
 Israel Israeli Space Agency
(Hebrew: סוכנות החלל הישראלית‎)
April 1983 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Japan Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
(Japanese: 宇宙航空研究開発機構)
JAXA 1 October 2003 Yes Yes Yes Yes [144][145]
 Malaysia Malaysian National Space Agency
(Malay: Agensi Angkasa Negara)
ANGKASA 2002 Yes Yes No No [146]
 North Korea Korean Committee of Space Technology
(Korean: 조선우주공간기술위원회)
KCST 1980s 2013 No Yes Yes No [147][148][149]
 Pakistan Pakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission
(Urdu: پاکستان خلائی و بالا فضائی تحقی‍قاتی کمیشن‎)
16 September 1961 No Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Philippines Philippine Space Agency PhilSA 8 August 2019 No Yes No No [150]
 South Korea Korea Aerospace Research Institute
(Korean: 한국항공우주연구원)
KARI 10 October 1989 Yes Yes Yes No [citation needed]
 Republic of China National Space Organization
(Chinese: 國家太空中心)
NSPO 3 October 1991 No Yes Yes No [151]
 Thailand Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency
(Thai: สำนักงานพัฒนาเทคโนโลยีอวกาศและภูมิสารสนเทศ)
3 November 2002 No Yes No No [152]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Hennock, Mary. "Asia's Space Race Between China and India". Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  2. ^ a b "Shooting for the moon: The new space race". CNN. 2007-10-10.
  3. ^ "Asia Nations Gaining Ground in Space Race".
  4. ^ "China puts its first man in space". BBC News. 2003-10-15. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  5. ^ "Gaganyaan: Rs 10,000 crore plan to send 3 Indians to space by 2022 | India News - Times of India". 2018-12-29. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  6. ^ "Asia could win next 'Space Race', US scientists fear".
  7. ^ "China Denies There's an Asian Space Race". Fox News. 2007-11-01. Archived from the original on 2009-02-20. Retrieved 2008-02-29.
  8. ^ a b "Concern over China's missile test". BBC News. 2007-01-19. Retrieved 2010-01-01. BBC News
  9. ^ "Shooting down satellite raises concerns about military space race".
  10. ^
  11. ^ "Heated Space Race Under Way in Asia". ABC News
  12. ^ Leonard David
  13. ^ "Programming glitch, not radiation or satellites, doomed Phobos-Grunt". 7 February 2012. Archived from the original on 10 February 2012. Retrieved 26 February 2012.
  14. ^ "China's man in space gets mixed reaction".
  15. ^ "The dawn of a new space race?". BBC News. 2005-10-14. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  16. ^ "Transported on a Bicycle, Launched from a Church: The Amazing Story of India's First Rocket Launch". The Better India. 2016-11-08. Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  17. ^ "India Limbers Up for Space Race As Prime Minister Asks for the Moon". Archived from the original on 2003-02-02.
  18. ^ "Rakesh Sharma - First Indian in Space". 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2017-07-04.
  19. ^ "India 'on course' for the Moon". BBC News. 2003-04-04. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  20. ^ "India and US to explore the Moon". BBC News. 2006-05-09. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  21. ^ "What is Chandrayaan-2?".
  22. ^ "ISRO Completes "Scaled-Down" Test For Safe Landing Of Chandrayaan-2".
  23. ^ "BTVI - India's Maiden Mars Mission Makes History". 2014-09-24. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  24. ^ "PSLV puts 20 satellites in orbit". The Hindu. 22 June 2016. Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  25. ^ Barry, Ellen (2017-02-15). "India Launches 104 Satellites From a Single Rocket, Ramping Up a Space Race". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  26. ^ a b "India Launches More Than 100 Satellites into Orbit". Time. Archived from the original on 2017-02-15. Retrieved 2017-02-15.
  27. ^ "Isro sets December 2021 target for human mission; no decision on number of Gaganauts or days in space, says Sivan - Times of India ►". The Times of India. Retrieved 2018-10-16.
  28. ^ "North Korea nuclear and China military programmes a worry: Japan".
  29. ^ "Japan Joins U.S. in Dangerous Space Race". Archived from the original on 2005-11-01.
  30. ^ "Japanese Satellites Work in Orbit Above Earth".
  31. ^ "Abe calls for a 'bold review' of Japanese Constitution".
  32. ^ a b "Archived copy" 浮上した日本の有人月探査計画(1) (in Japanese). Nikkei BP. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19. Retrieved 2009-05-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ "Iran launches satellite; U.S. expresses concern". Reuters. 2009-02-03.
  34. ^ "Israel in Space Program". Archived from the original on 2013-05-28. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  35. ^
  36. ^ "KCNA Report on DPRK's Accession to International Space Treaty and Convention". KCNA. 2009-03-12. Archived from the original on 2009-04-02. Retrieved 2009-03-14.
  37. ^ "朝鲜宣布发展太空计划抗衡"西方强权"". Rodong Sinmun. 2009-02-08. Retrieved February 26, 2009.[permanent dead link]
  38. ^ "History of Palapa Satellite". Indosat. Archived from the original on 29 April 2015. Retrieved 14 April 2015.
  40. ^ "Lapan A3 Satellite to be Launched in June". March 23, 2019.
  41. ^ "Info iptek" (in Indonesian). Indonesian State Ministry of Research and Technology (RISTEK). 2008-05-26. Archived from the original on 2008-09-20. Retrieved 2019-03-23.
  42. ^ "Indonesië wil eigen mini-raket met satteliet lanceren" (in Dutch). citing Belga and ITAR-TASS. 2008-11-21. Retrieved 2019-03-23.
  43. ^ "South Korea joins Asian space race".
  44. ^ "Abe calls for a 'bold review' of Japanese Constitution". Archived from the original on 2007-10-08.
  45. ^ Sudworth, John (2007-11-12). "South Korea buys into space dream". BBC News. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
  46. ^ "Boost for South Korea's space program".
  47. ^ "Turkey's spy sat to zoom in on Israeli secrets".
  48. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-05. Retrieved 2019-05-10.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  49. ^ "Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission of Pakistan" (PDF). Retrieved 12 August 2018.
  50. ^ Sajjadur Rahman (2009-11-27). "Bangladesh plans to launch satellite". Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  51. ^ "返回式卫星 (China's First Atmospheric Reentry Satellite)". Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  52. ^ Harbin Institute of Technology -> FSW satellite series (Note: the definition of high resolution (ground resolution) < 4.5m) Archived 2009-02-22 at the Wayback Machine
  53. ^ Beidou navigation system first goes to public, with resolution 0.5m (from official Xinhua News Agency), with photos Archived February 27, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  54. ^ 中国首次“一箭三星”发射成功 (China's First One-Rocket-Three-Satellite Launch)[permanent dead link]. Science and Technology Daily
  55. ^ "Solar System Exploration: Missions: By Target: Moon: Past: Hiten". NASA. Archived from the original on 2011-06-14. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
  56. ^ "JAXA – Data Relay Test Satellite "KODAMA"(DRTS)". JAXA. Retrieved 2009-07-31.
  57. ^ "World's Fastest Satellite Internet Connection to 45 cm User Terminal Using "KIZUNA" (WINDS)". 2008-04-21. Archived from the original on 2012-07-07. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  58. ^ "Kibo: The Successful Launch and Start of Permanent Manned Space Operations" (PDF). MHI. Retrieved 2009-06-25.
  59. ^ "MIP detected water on Moon way back in June: ISRO Chairman". The Hindu. Bangalore. September 25, 2009. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
  60. ^ Bagla, Pallav (September 25, 2009). "Did India beat NASA to find water on moon?". NDTV. Bangalore. Retrieved 2013-06-09.
  61. ^ "Japan Launches World's First Greenhouse Gas Observing Satellite". ENS. 2009-01-23. Retrieved 2009-06-27.
  62. ^ "PSLV-C37 / Cartosat -2 Series Satellite - ISRO". Retrieved 2019-06-13.
  63. ^ "PSLV-C37 Successfully Launches 104 Satellites in a Single Flight - ISRO". Retrieved 2019-06-13.
  64. ^ 我国孕育新一代运载火箭 20年完成更新换代 (in Chinese). Xinhua News Agency. 2009-06-02. Retrieved 2009-06-28.
  65. ^ "SATCAT Boxscore (current as of 2019 May 03)".
  66. ^ Jones, Morris. "Reality Check for Indian Astronauts". Space Travel. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
  67. ^ "Astronauts and Cosmonauts flown in space (in alphabetical order)".
  68. ^ Rui C. Barbosa (19 September 2015). "China conducts debut launch of Long March 6". Retrieved 22 June 2016.
  69. ^ JAXA Piggyback payload (GOSAT special Site) -
  70. ^ "Hypersonic Flight Experiment "HYFLEX"". JAXA. Retrieved 2009-12-21.
  71. ^ "India plans to launch space station by 2030". Engadget. June 16, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  72. ^ "ISRO Looks Beyond Manned Mission; Gaganyaan Aims to Include Women".
  73. ^ "India eying an indigenous station in space". The Hindu Business Line. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 18, 2019.
  74. ^ "ISRO Chairman announces details of Gaganyaan, Chandrayaan-2 and Missions to Sun& Venus India to have its own space station, says Dr K Sivan". Press Information Bureau. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 18 June 2019.
  75. ^ a b "Indian spacecraft soars on historic journey to Mars". Space Flight Now. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2013.
  76. ^ "Запуск станции "Фобос-Грунт" к спутнику Марса отложен до 2011 года". РИА Новости. 2009-09-21. Retrieved 2009-09-21.
  77. ^ "Episode 90 – An update on ISRO's activities with S Somanath and R Umamaheshwaran". AstrotalkUK. October 24, 2019. Retrieved October 30, 2019.
  78. ^ "IGS-Optical 5V".
  79. ^ "OFEQ 9 - the New Israeli Spy Satellite". Archived from the original on 2012-11-25.
  80. ^ "高分专项推动商业遥感卫星技术发展" (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 2016-10-02. Retrieved 2015-11-09.
  81. ^ "KOMPSAT-3 (Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite-3) / Arirang-3".
  82. ^ "Rasad-1: Iran Launches Its Second Satellite".
  83. ^ "IGS-Radar 3, 4".
  84. ^ "遥感卫星二十九号发射成功,长征四号火箭今年完美收官" (in Chinese). Retrieved 2015-11-27.
  85. ^ "TECSAR 1 (TechSAR 1, Ofeq 8)".
  86. ^ "TECSAR 1 Israel".[permanent dead link]
  87. ^ "RISAT 1".
  88. ^ Benjamin Lambeth, Peter Lavoy, Ashley J. Tellis. "Airpower at 18,000': The Indian Air Force in the Kargil War - Carnegie Endowment for International Peace". Retrieved 2019-05-10.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  89. ^ "RISAT-1: A Fully Polarimetric C-band SAR Mission of ISRO". Archived from the original on 2012-10-07.
  90. ^ "KOMPSat 5 (Arirang 5)".
  91. ^ "NIGCOMSAT 1, 1R".
  92. ^ "ST-2".
  93. ^ "ST-2 Satellite details 2011 -022B NORAD 37606".
  94. ^ "SJ 9". Archived from the original on 2012-02-14.
  95. ^ "ISRO to Test Electric Propulsion on Satellites". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
  96. ^ "India's GLSV rocket launches GSAT-9 |". Retrieved 2017-05-05.
  97. ^ 泄露“一箭三星”秘密的秘件 Archived 2011-07-07 at the Wayback Machine
  98. ^ "ISRO lines up SARAL for February, restored GSLV for April". 2013-01-18. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  99. ^ "> News Headlines > ISRO developed AWS – Agreement signed for production". 2005-03-19. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  100. ^ "JAXA H-I Launch Vehicle". Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  101. ^ "JAXA Engineering Test Satellite II "KIKU-2"(ETS-II)". Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  102. ^ "JAXA Engineering Test Satellite VII "KIKU-7"(ETS-VII)". 1997-11-28. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  103. ^ "JAXA Launch Schedule". 2018-10-30. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
  104. ^ JAXA Solar Observation TAIYO (SRATS) Archived 2008-11-17 at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2001". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  106. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2002". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  107. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2003". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  108. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2004". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  109. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2005". Retrieved 2013-06-01.
  110. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2006". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
  111. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2007". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
  112. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2008". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
  113. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2009". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
  114. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2010". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
  115. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2011". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
  116. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2012". Retrieved 2013-01-15.
  117. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2013". Retrieved 2014-01-05.
  118. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2014". Retrieved 2015-01-17.
  119. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2015". Retrieved 2016-02-09.
  120. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2016". Retrieved 2017-01-01.
  121. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2017". Retrieved 2018-03-11.
  122. ^ "Orbital Launches of 2018". Retrieved 2019-02-04.
  123. ^ "ISAS news No.154" (PDF) (in Japanese).
  124. ^ "Lunar exploration satellite "LUNAR-A"".
  125. ^ "ISRO Looks Beyond Manned Mission; Gaganyaan Aims to Include Women".
  126. ^ "India eying an indigenous station in space". The Hindu Business Line. June 13, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2019.
  127. ^ "China to build moon station in 'about 10 years'". MSN.
  128. ^ 中国自主探测火星还需20年 (in Chinese). 浙江日报. 2009-06-08. Retrieved 2009-06-09.
  129. ^ 2050年頃に有人火星探査を実施=中国科学院が計画を発表―中国 (in Japanese). Recoed China. 2009-06-10. Archived from the original on 2009-06-16. Retrieved 2009-06-12.
  130. ^ "Model of China's first Venus probe unveiled in Shanghai". GBTimes. November 2, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2019.
  131. ^ "China to send probes to Mars and Jupiter". Global Times. 2019-04-16. Retrieved 2019-10-15.
  132. ^ MOM Orbiter enters 6th year, ISRO eyes Mangalyaan-2. Rasheed Kappan, The Deccan Herald. 25 September 2019.
  133. ^ "India's first solar mission in 2020: ISRO chairman". Times of India. 4 May 2019. Retrieved 5 May 2019.
  134. ^ Annadurai, Mylswami. "ISRO Space Physics: future missions" (PDF). Raman Research Institute.
  135. ^ After Mars, Venus on Isro's planetary travel list. Archived 27 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine U. Tejonmayam, Times of India. 18 May 2019.
  136. ^ "SPARRSO". Archived from the original on 11 March 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
  137. ^ "China National Space Administration – Organization and Function". Archived from the original on 28 February 2008. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
  138. ^ "About ISRO". Archived from the original on 1999-10-13.
  139. ^ "About ISRO". Indian Space Research Organization. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
  140. ^ "All Missions". Indian Space Research Organization. Retrieved September 5, 2019.
  141. ^ "Realtime Business News, Economic News, Breaking News and Forex News". RTTNews.
  142. ^ "Iran tests sounding rocket, unveils first homemade satellite | World | RIA Novosti". 28 October 2005. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  143. ^ "Iran launches homegrown satellite". BBC News. 3 February 2009.
  144. ^ "JAXA HISTORY". Retrieved 6 September 2019.
  145. ^ ライフサイエンス研究. (in Japanese). JAXA. Retrieved 2018-02-21.
  146. ^ "Malaysian National Space Agency, Official Website – Background". Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2008.
  147. ^ "朝鲜宣布发展太空计划抗衡"西方强权"". 民族网. 8 February 2009. Retrieved 26 February 2009.[permanent dead link]
  148. ^ "Despite Clinton, Korea has rights". 25 February 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  149. ^ N. Korea's launch causes worries about nukes, Iran and the Pacific
  150. ^ Parrocha, Azer (13 August 2019). "Duterte signs law creating Philippine Space Agency". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved 14 August 2019.
  151. ^ Previously named National Space Program Organisation, until 1 April 2005 – "About NSPO/Heritage". Archived from the original on 2007-08-10. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
  152. ^ "Geo-Informatics and Space Technology Development Agency - About Us". Archived from the original on 18 October 2011. Retrieved 16 October 2011.

External links[edit]