Comparison of Java virtual machines

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Version information[edit]

Name Creator First public release Latest stable version Latest release date Cost, availability License
CACAO Vienna University of Technology ? 1.6.0[1] 4 September 2012[1] Free GPL version 2 or later[2]
Eclipse OpenJ9 (formerly IBM J9) IBM ? 0.8.0 15 March 2018[3] Free Apache License 2.0
Eclipse Public License 2.0
GCJ GNU 6 September 1998 6.4 (Terminal) 4 July 2017 Free GPL version 2 or later, with the "libgcc exception"[4]
HotSpot, OpenJDK edition Sun Microsystems, Oracle 27 April 1999 ? 21 September 2017 Free GPL version 2 only
HotSpot, Oracle JDK edition Sun Microsystems, Oracle 27 April 1999 ? September 2017 Free Proprietary
HotSpot, Java SE embedded edition Sun Microsystems, Oracle 27 April 1999 ? ? Commercial Proprietary[5]
HotSpot, Zero port Gary Benson[6] ? ? ? Free GPL version 2 only
IKVM.NET Jeroen Frijters 28 June 2004 7.0.4335.0 5 December 2011 Free zlib License[7]
JAmiga Peter Werno, Joakim Nordström 19 May 2005[8] 1.2 6 January 2014 Free GPL version 2 or later
JamVM Robert Lougher 13 March 2003 2.0.0 30 July 2014 Free GPL version 2 or later
Jato VM Pekka Enberg and contributors[9] ? 0.3[10] 4 January 2012[10] Free GPL version 2 only[9]
JC virtual machine Archie L. Cobbs ? 1.4.7 13 November 2005 Free LGPL version 2.1 or later
Jikes RVM IBM 14 October 2001 3.1.4[11] 18 February 2016[11] Free Eclipse Public License version 1.0[12]
Kaffe Transvirtual Technologies 1996 1.1.9 22 February 2008 Free GPL version 2 or later[13]
Mysaifu JVM ? 16 April 2005[14] 0.4.8[14] 5 March 2010[14] Free GPL version 2 only[14]
SableVM Sable Research Group ? 1.13 30 March 2007[15] Free LGPL version 2.1 or later

Technical information[edit]

JVM Status Latest supported Java version Supported class libraries Performance
GNU Classpath OpenJDK Other Interpretation AOT JIT
CACAO 1.6[16] Yes[1] Yes[1] No[17] No[17] Yes[17]
GCJ No longer maintained or distributed by GNU as of GCC 7 [18] ? Yes No Yes Yes No
HotSpot, OpenJDK edition Reference implementation. 1.8 No Yes Yes No Yes
HotSpot, Oracle JDK edition Reference implementation. 1.8 No Yes Yes No Yes
HotSpot, Java SE embedded edition ? No Yes Yes No Yes
HotSpot, Zero port Interpreter-only port of OpenJDK using almost no assembly language and designed to be very portable. 1.7 No Yes Yes No No
IKVM.NET ? ? ? Whatever the .NET runtime uses
JAmiga 1.4[19] Yes[20] No Yes[21] No No
JamVM 1.8[22] Yes[23] Yes[23] Yes[23] No Yes[23]
Jato VM 1.6[24] Yes[10] No[25] No[25] No[25] Yes[10]
JC virtual machine Translates Java to C and compiles it with a C compiler. 1.4[26] Yes[27] No Yes[28] Yes[28] Yes[28]
Jikes RVM 1.6[29] Yes[30] Port[31][32] Apache Harmony[30] No[33] ? Yes
Kaffe 1.4[34] Yes[13] No Yes[13] No[13] Yes[13]
Mysaifu JVM ? Yes[35] No Yes[36] No[36] No[36]
SableVM Unmaintained 1.4 Yes No Yes No No

Supported CPU architectures[edit]

JVM x86 x86-64 SPARC MIPS Itanium Power ISA ARM Alpha S/390 z/Architecture m68k
CACAO Yes[17] Yes[17] Not any more[17] Yes[17] No[17] Yes[17] Yes[17] Yes[17] Yes[17] No[17] Not any more[17]
GCJ Yes[37] Yes[37] Yes[37] Yes[37] Yes[37] Yes[37] Yes[37] Yes[37] Yes[37] No[37] No[37]
HotSpot, OpenJDK edition Yes[38] Yes[38] Solaris only[38] Port[39][40] No[38] PowerPC/AIX port[41] Yes[38] No[38] No[38] No[38] No[38]
HotSpot, Oracle JDK edition Yes[38] Yes[38] Solaris only[38] No[38] Java 1.6[42] No[38] Yes[38] No[38] No[38] No[38] No[38]
HotSpot, Java SE embedded edition Yes[5] Yes[5] Yes[5] ? ? Yes[5] Yes[5] ? ? ? ?
HotSpot, Zero port Yes[43] Yes[43] No[43] Yes[43] Yes[43] Yes[43] Yes[43] Yes[43] No[43] Yes[43] No[43]
IKVM.NET Any architecture with a .NET framework.
JAmiga ? ? No No No Yes No No No No Yes
JamVM Yes[23] Yes[23] Yes[23] Yes[23] No[23] Yes[23] Yes[23] No[23] No[23] No[23] No[23]
Jato VM Yes[10] Under development[44] No No No Under development[44] Preliminary ARMv5 support[25] No No No No
JC virtual machine Yes No No No No No No No No No No
Jikes RVM Yes[45] No[45] No[45] No[45] No[45] Yes[45] No[45] No[45] No[45] No[45] No[45]
Kaffe Yes[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] No[13] Yes[13]
Mysaifu JVM No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] Yes[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46]
SableVM Yes[47] Yes Yes[47] Yes Yes[47] Yes[47] Yes[47] Yes[47] Yes[47] No[47] Yes[47]

Supported operating systems[edit]

JVM Windows Linux FreeBSD NetBSD OpenBSD Solaris OpenSolaris Darwin macOS iOS BeOS Haiku AIX IRIX OS/2 Windows Mobile AmigaOS Other
CACAO Using Cygwin[48] Yes[48] Yes[48] Yes[48] No[48] Yes[48] Yes[48] Yes[48] ?[48] No[48] No[48] No[48] No[48] Yes[48] No[48] No[48] No[48] kFreeBSD, ucLinux[48]
GCJ Yes[37] Yes[37] Yes[37] ? ? Yes[37] ? Yes[37] Yes[37] ? ? ? ? Yes[37] ? No[37] No[37] DEC OSF 4.0f and 5.1, Hitachi SH-3/4 micro-controller[37]
HotSpot, OpenJDK edition Yes[49] (distributed as source code) Yes Port[50] Port[50] Port[50] Yes Yes[51] ? Yes[52] No No Port[53] Port[41] No Port[54] No No
HotSpot, Oracle JDK edition Yes[38] Yes[38] No No No Yes[38] ? ? Yes[38] No No No No No No No No
HotSpot, Java SE embedded edition Yes[5] Yes[5] No[5] No[5] No[5] Yes[5] ?[5] No[5] No[5] No[5] No[5] No[5] No[5] No[5] No[5] No[5] No[5]
HotSpot, Zero port No[43][55] Yes[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55] No[43][55]
IKVM.NET Any operating system with a .NET framework
JAmiga No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes
JamVM No[23] Yes[23] Yes[23] No[23] Yes[23] Yes[23] Yes[23] Yes[23] Yes[23] On Jailbroken iPhone[23] No[23] No[23] No[23] No[23] No[23] No[23] No[23] kFreeBSD
Jato VM No[44] Yes[44] No[44] No[44] No[44] No[44] No[44] Under development[44] ?[44] No[44] No[44] No[44] No[44] No[44] No[44] No[44] No[44]
JC virtual machine No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Jikes RVM No[45] Yes[45] No[45] No[45] No[45] No[45] No[45] No[45] Yes[45] No[45] No[45] No[45] Yes[45] No[45] No[45] No[45] No[45]
Kaffe Using Cygwin[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] ? Yes[13] Yes[13] No[13] Yes[13] No[13] Yes[13] Yes[13] No[13] No[13] Yes HPUX 11.x, BSDI 2.x, Unixware, SCO 3.2v5, NeXTStep 3.x, DG/UX, OpenStep 4.x, QNX 4.x, NCR MP-RAS 3.x, OSKit 0.96 +, GNU Hurd, Cygwin, DragonFly BSD, Interix, Ultrix 4.2, PS2Linux, AUX, MachTen 4.0.3, Fujitsu UXP/DS[13]
Mysaifu JVM No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] Yes[46] No[46]
SableVM Using Cygwin[47] Yes[47] Yes[47] ? ? ? ? ? Yes[47] ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d "cacaojvm.org". cacaojvm.org. Retrieved 2012-12-12.
  2. ^ "CacaoLicense - CACAO Wiki". C1.complang.tuwien.ac.at. 2010-09-17. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  3. ^ "Latest build | AdoptOpenJDK". adoptopenjdk.net. Retrieved 2018-04-09.
  4. ^ "The GCJ FAQ - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation (FSF)". Gcc.gnu.org. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/embedded/resources/se-embeddocs/index.html#sysreqs
  6. ^ "gbenson.net". gbenson.net. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  7. ^ "License - ikvm". SourceForge.net. 2012-05-10. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  8. ^ "JAmiga - Browse /jamiga/pre-alpha 0.0.5 at Sourceforge.net". Retrieved 2012-08-11.
  9. ^ a b "jato/README at master · penberg/jato · GitHub". 2012-11-29. Retrieved 2012-08-04.
  10. ^ a b c d e "Jato". Retrieved 2012-08-04.
  11. ^ a b "Jikes RVM - Browse /jikesrvm at Sourceforge.net". Sourceforge.net. 2016-11-03. Retrieved 2016-11-03.
  12. ^ "License". Jikes RVM. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af https://github.com/kaffe/kaffe/blob/9c61a687642bcce614054b6b694cbd6586210965/README
  14. ^ a b c d "Mysaifu JVM". Archived from the original on 2012-12-19. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
  15. ^ "SableVM - Browse /sablevm/1.13 at". Sourceforge.net. 2007-03-30. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  16. ^ "Faq - Cacao Wiki". C1.complang.tuwien.ac.at. 2012-03-07. Retrieved 2012-07-31.
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n http://c1.complang.tuwien.ac.at/cacaowiki/CacaoFeatures
  18. ^ https://gcc.gnu.org/gcc-7/changes.html
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  33. ^ "Feature request for interpreter".
  34. ^ https://github.com/kaffe/kaffe/blob/master/kaffe/kaffe/version.h
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  36. ^ a b c "Diary of Mysaifu JVM". 2010-02-09. Retrieved 2012-08-10.
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  39. ^ http://openjdk.java.net/projects/mips-port/
  40. ^ http://icedtea.classpath.org/wiki/MIPSPort
  41. ^ a b http://openjdk.java.net/projects/ppc-aix-port
  42. ^ http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/javase/itaniumreleasenotes-140450.html
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  47. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m http://sablevm.org/features.html
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  49. ^ http://hg.openjdk.java.net/jdk8/build/raw-file/tip/README-builds.html#windows
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  51. ^ http://hg.openjdk.java.net/jdk8/build/raw-file/tip/README-builds.html#opensolaris
  52. ^ http://openjdk.java.net/projects/macosx-port/
  53. ^ http://openjdk.java.net/projects/haiku-port
  54. ^ http://www.os2world.com/content/view/21877/1/
  55. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q http://openjdk.java.net/projects/zero/