Comparison of Linux distributions

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Technical variations of Linux distributions include support for different hardware devices and systems or software package configurations. Organisational differences may be motivated by historical reasons. Other criteria include security, including how quickly security upgrades are available; ease of package management; and number of packages available.

These tables compare notable distribution's latest stable release on wide-ranging objective criteria. It does not cover each operating system's subjective merits, branches marked as unstable or beta, nor compare Linux distributions with other operating systems.

General[edit]

The table below shows general information about the distributions: creator or producer, release date, the latest version, etc.

Linux distributions endorsed by the Free Software Foundation[1] are marked 100% Free under the System distribution commitment column.

Distribution Founder Maintainer Initial release year Current stable version Security updates (years) Release date System distribution commitment Forked from Target audience Cost Status
AlmaLinux AlmaLinux Foundation AlmaLinux Foundation 2021 8.4 10 years[2] 2021-05-26 X Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) server, workstation None Active
Alpine Linux Alpine Linux Team Alpine Linux Team 2006 3.14.1[3] ? 2021-08-04 X LEAF Project security, lightweight, general None Active
ALT Linux ALT Linux Team ALT Linux Team, ALT Linux LLC 2001 9.2[4] ? 2020-07-29 X Mandrake Linux general, school None Active
antiX Anticapitalista Anticapitalista 2007 19.4[5] ? 2021-05-21 X Debian, MEPIS old computers None Active
ArchBang Willensky Aristide Stan McLaren 2011 Rolling Rolling ? X Arch Linux (UKM Edition) general None Active
Arch Linux Judd Vinet dev team 2002 Rolling Rolling Rolling X Independent, inspired from CRUX general None Active
BLAG Brixton Linux Action Group Brixton Linux Action Group 2002 140k ? 2011-05-04 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] Fedora desktop None Inactive
Bodhi Linux Bodhi Linux Team Bodhi Linux Team 2011 6.0.0[7] ? 2021-05-12 X Debian, Ubuntu desktop, lightweight None Active
Canaima CANTV / CNTI / CENTIDEL / Edelca / VIT / FUNDACITE / Free software community CANTV / CNTI / CENTIDEL / Edelca / VIT / FUNDACITE / Free software community 2007 6.1[8] ? 2020-06-24 X Debian, Ubuntu Government of Venezuela None Active
CentOS CentOS Project CentOS Project 2003 8.2-2105 10 years[9] 2021-07-03 X Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) server, workstation None Active
Chakra Jan Mette and Arch Linux KDEmod developers The Chakra Project Team 2010 Rolling Rolling ? X Arch Linux[10] desktop None Active
Chrome OS Sundar Pichai Google 2011 92.0.4515.130

[11]

Rolling 2021-08-02 X - web applications None Active
Clear Linux OS Arjan van de Ven Intel 2015 Rolling Rolling Rolling X Independent container, server, desktop None Active
ClearOS Peter Baldwin ClearFoundation 2000 7.8[12] ? 2020-06-23 X RHEL, CentOS server, gateway, network Some editions are free of charge Active
CrunchBang Linux Philip Newborough Philip Newborough 2008 11[13] ? 2013-05-06 X Debian desktop None Inactive
Damn Small Linux John Andrews dev team 2003 4.4.10[14] ? 2008-11-18 X Debian, Knoppix lightweight, portable None Inactive
Debian Ian Murdock Debian Project 1993 11.1[15] ~3 years[g 1] 2021-10-09 Debian Social Contract and DFSG (main is 100% free, non-free packages are optional)[16] Independent, inspired by Softlanding Linux System (SLS)[17] general, server, desktop None Active
Debian Edu Debian Project 2004 11.0[18] ~3 years[g 1] 2021-08-14 Debian Social Contract and DFSG Debian schools None Active
Devuan The "Veteran Unix Admins" (VUA) The "Veteran Unix Admins" (VUA) 2016 3.1.0[19] ? 2021-02-14 X[g 2] Debian general None Active
Deepin Wuhan Deepin Technology Co., Ltd. Wuhan Deepin Technology Co., Ltd. 2004 20.2[20] ? 2021-04-28 X Debian general None Active
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre Matias A. Fonzo Matias A. Fonzo 2009 3.0-beta1[21] ? 2019-10-16 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] Independent, inspired from Slackware general None Active
dyne:bolic Jaromil Jaromilx 2005 3.0.0 ? 2011-09-08 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] Debian multimedia None Inactive
Elementary OS Daniel Foré elementary LLC 2011 5.1.7[22] ? 2020-02-05 X Ubuntu, Debian general None Active
ELinOS SYSGO SYSGO 1999 7.0[23] ? 2020-03-01 X embedded systems Partial Active
Emdebian Grip Embedded Debian Project Embedded Debian Project 2009 3.1 End-of-life 2013-06-15 X Debian embedded systems None Inactive
EndeavourOS Bryan Poerwoatmodjo EndeavourOS 2019 Rolling ? 2020-07-15 X Arch Linux general None Active
Fedora Fedora Project Fedora Project 2003 34[24] 1 year 2021-04-27 Fedora Licensing Guidelines[25] Red Hat Linux general None Active
Freespire Lindows.com, Inc. PC/OpenSystems LLC 2001 7.7[26] ? 2021-07-30 X Ubuntu desktop None Active
Gentoo Linux Daniel Robbins Gentoo Foundation, Inc. 2002 Rolling Rolling Rolling Gentoo Social Contract Enoch Linux general None Active
Guix System Ludovic Courtès Ludovic Courtès, Ricardo Wurmus, the Guix community 2012 1.3.0[27] Rolling 2021-05-11 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] general None Active
gNewSense Brian Brazil and Paul O'Malley Sam Geeraerts with sponsorship from the FSF 2006 4.0 (Ucclia)[28] ? 2016-05-02 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] Debian general, server None Inactive
Grml Michael Prokop The Grml Team 2005 2020.06[29] ? 2020-06-24 X Debian live, maintenance, security, network, forensic, accessibility None Active
Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre Hyperbola Founders Hyperbola Founders 2017 0.3[30] 3 years (stable), 5 years (old stable)[31] 2019-09-23 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] followed in Hyperbola Social Contract Arch Linux general None Inactive[32]
Kali Linux Max Moser, Mati Aharoni, Martin J. Muench Offensive Security 2013 2020.2[33] ? 2020-05-12 X Debian auditing, forensic, security, network None Active
Knoppix Klaus Knopper dev team 2000 8.6[34] ? 2019-08-08 X Debian live None Active
Kodibuntu The XBMC Project Team Kodi 2008 ? ? ? X Debian, Ubuntu multimedia None Inactive
Korora Chris Smart Dev Team 2005 26[35] ? 2017-09-16 X Fedora desktop None Inactive
LibreCMC LibreCMC team LibreCMC team 2010 1.5.4[36] ? 2020-12-31 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] Merged from LibreWRT embedded systems None Active
Linspire Linspire, Inc. Linspire, Inc. 2001 9.5[37] ? 2020-03-03 X Ubuntu ? Commercial[38] Active
Linux Mint Clement Lefebvre dev team 2006 20.2[39] ~3 years (LMDE); 5 years (main editions) 2021-07-08 X Debian(LMDE), Ubuntu (main editions) desktop None Active
Linux Lite Jerry Bezencon Linux Lite Team 2012 5.0[40] ? 2020-05-31 X Ubuntu desktop None Active
Mageia Mageia Community mageia.org 2010 7.1[41] 1 year 2019-07-01 X Mandriva Linux general None Active
Mandriva Linux Mandrakesoft S.A. Mandriva S.A. 1998 2011 ? 2011-08-28 X Red Hat Linux general Some editions are free of charge Inactive
Manjaro Linux Roland Singer dev team 2012[42] Rolling Rolling Rolling X Arch Linux general None Active
MEPIS Warren Woodford MEPIS LLC 2003 11.9.90 ? ? X Debian desktop, server None Inactive
Musix GNU+Linux Musix team Musix team 2008 3.0.1 ? 2014-03-13 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] Debian multimedia None Inactive
Netrunner Blue Systems dev team 2009 20.01[43] as per Debian 2020-02-23 X Debian desktop None Active
NixOS Eelco Dolstra and Armijn Hemel NixOS Foundation 2003 21.05[44] 0.5 years 2021-06-01nixo X general, server, desktop None Active
Novell Open Enterprise Server Novell Novell, Inc. dev team 2003 OES 2018 SP1 ? ? X SUSE Linux Enterprise Server server Commercial[45] Active
OpenELEC Stephan Raue, OpenELEC Team OpenELEC Team 2011 8.0.4 ? 2017-06-04 X Kodi multimedia None Inactive
openSUSE SUSE Linux openSUSE Project 2006 Leap 15.2[46] 3 years[47] 2020-07-02 X SLS/Slackware general, desktop None Active
OpenWrt ? OpenWrt team 2007 18.06.4[48] ? 2019-07-01 X embedded systems None Active
OpenMandriva Lx OpenMandriva Association OpenMandriva Association 2013 4.1 ? 2020-02-01 X Mandriva Linux general None Active
Oracle Linux Oracle Corporation Oracle Corporation 2006 8.1[49] ? 2019-11-17 X Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) server None Active
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Parabola Hackers Parabola Hackers 2009 Rolling[50] Rolling 2017-05-28 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] followed in Parabola Social Contract Arch Linux general None Active
Pardus Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK) TÜBİTAK 2005 19.1[51] ? 2019-11-23 X Gentoo (2011.2)
Debian
general None Active
Parrot OS Lorenzo "Palinuro" Faletra Parrot Dev Team 2013 4.11.2 Rolling 2021-06-03 X Debian security, desktop None Active
Parsix Alan Baghumian Parsix Project 2005 8.15 ? 2017-01-25 X Debian desktop None Inactive
Parted Magic Patrick Verner Parted Magic LLC. ? 2020_12_25 ? 2020-12-25 X - live, maintenance Commercial[52] Active
PCLinuxOS Bill Reynolds dev team 2003 2020.1015[53] Semi-rolling 2020-10-14 X Mandriva Linux desktop None Active
Pop! OS Carl Ritchell System76 2017 20.10[54] 2 years for LTS releases.

2–3 months after the next release for other releases.

2020-10-23 X Ubuntu desktop, laptop None Active
Pentoo Michael Zanetta, Rick Farina, Jens Pranaitis Pentoo 2005 2019.1 ? 2019-01-17 X Gentoo Linux auditing, security None Active
Porteus Fanthom Porteus 2010 4.0[55] ? 2018-04-29 X Slackware lightweight, portable None Active
Puppy Linux Barry Kauler Puppy Foundation 2003 8.0[56] ? 2019-04-11 X Independent, inspired from Vector linux lightweight, portable None Active
PureOS Todd Weaver Purism 2009 9.0[57] Stable and Rolling 2019-09-26 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] Debian general, security, privacy None Active
Qubes OS Joanna Rutkowska Invisible Things Lab 2012 4.0.4[58] ? 2019-01-23 X Xen and Fedora security by compartmentalization, desktop None Active
Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) Red Hat Red Hat 2002 8.2 10 years[59] 2020-04-28 X Red Hat Linux, Fedora server, workstation Commercial[60][61] Active
Red Hat Linux Red Hat Red Hat 1995 9 ? 2003-03-31 X server, workstation None Inactive
ROSA ? LLC NTC IT ROSA 2011 R11[62] ? 2019-03-15 X Mandriva server, general None Active
Rocks Cluster Distribution UCSD Supercomputing Center, Clustercorp UCSD Supercomputing Center, Clustercorp 2000 7.0 ? 2015-12-01 X Red Hat Linux server, workstation None Active
Sabayon Linux Fabio Erculiani dev team 2005 19.03[63] ? 2019-03-31 X Gentoo Linux general None Active
Salix OS Cyrille Pontvieux, George Vlahavas, Pierrick Le Brun, Thorsten Mühlfelder Salix team 2009 14.2 ? 2016-08-29 X Slackware general None ?
Scientific Linux CERN, Fermilab dev team 2004 7.6[64] ? 2018-12-03 X Red Hat Linux, Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) server, workstation None Inactive
Slackware Patrick Volkerding dev team 1993 14.2[65] ? 2016-06-30 X Softlanding Linux System (SLS) general None Active
Slax Tomas Matejicek Tomas Matejicek 2002 9.11.0[66] ? 2019-09-14 X Debian, Slackware (until Slax 9) live None Active
SliTaz GNU/Linux Christophe Lincoln dev team 2008 Rolling Rolling 2017-12-03 X Independent portable None Active
Solus Ikey Doherty dev team 2005 Rolling Rolling 2021-02-03 X desktop None Active
SolydXK Arjen Balfoort dev team 2013 201902[67] Debian packages as per Debian 2019-03-03 X Debian desktop None Active
SparkyLinux ? Sparky Linux team 2012 6.0[68] ? 2021-08-19 X Debian general, video games None Active
Source Mage GNU/Linux Ryan Abrams, Eric Schabell dev team 2002 0.62-11 ? 2017-10-22 Source Mage Social Contract Sorcerer general None Active
SteamOS Valve Valve 2013 2.195[69] ? 2019-07-19 X Debian video games None Active
SUSE Linux Enterprise SUSE SUSE 2000 15SP2 13 years per version[70] 2020-07-21 Common code base for x86-64, Power, System z, Arm64 Slackware, Jurix edge, workstation, server, supercomputer Commercial[71] Active
Tails ? Tails Development Team 2009 4.21[72] [g 3] 2021-08-10 X Debian security-focused aimed for anonymity and privacy None Active
Tiny Core Linux Robert Shingledecker Team Tiny Core 2009 11.1 ? 2020-04-01 X Independent, inspired from Damn Small Linux portable None Active
Trisquel GNU/Linux Rubén Rodríguez Pérez (quidam) Rubén Rodríguez Pérez (quidam) 2005 9.0[g 4] 3 years 2020-10-16 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] Ubuntu LTS desktop None Active
TurnKey GNU/Linux Alon Swartz, Liraz Siri TurnKey GNU/Linux Team 2008 16.0 Release #12[73] Debian packages as per Debian; TurnKey packages for life of current major version (plus backports per request) 2020-12-22 Debian Social Contract and DFSG Debian server based software appliance library aiming to balance security and ease of use None Active
Ubuntu and Derivatives[74] Canonical Ltd. Canonical Ltd. 2004 21.10[75] Standard releases 1 year, LTS releases 5 years. Flavor LTS releases 3 or 5 years. Ubuntu Pro 10 years. 2021-04-22 X Debian general, server, desktop, supercomputer, IBM mainframe None Active
Univention Corporate Server Univention GmbH Univention GmbH 2004 4.4-7[76] up to 6 months for the free Core Edition; if maintenance is purchased, it's up to 7 years, see:[77] 2020-12-01 X Debian home, business, and school Core Edition is free of charge Active
Ututo Diego Saravia, Daniel Olivera UTUTO dev team 2000 XS 2012 ? 2012-04-27 100% Free: GNU FSDG[6] Ututo XS: Gentoo Linux, Ututo UL: Ubuntu general None Inactive
VectorLinux Robert S. Lange dev team 1999 VL 7.2[78] ? 2017-08-28 X Slackware desktop None Inactive
Void Linux Juan Romero Pardines Juan RP and contributors 2008 Rolling Rolling 2019-11-09 X Independent, partially inspired by FreeBSD/NetBSD general None Active
Webconverger Kai Hendry Webconverger Limited 2007 35.0 ? 2016-05-19 X Debian kiosk software, digital signage Commercial Inactive
Xandros Xandros Incorporated Xandros Incorporated 2001 ? ? 2007-07-26 X Corel Linux ? Commercial Inactive
Zentyal eBox Technologies eBox Technologies 2005 6.2[79] ? 2020-06-04 X Debian, Ubuntu small business server Some editions are free of charge ?
Zenwalk Jean-Philippe Guillemin dev team 2004 Rolling[80] ? 2020-12-10 X Slackware general None Active
Zorin OS Zorin Group Zorin Group 2009 OS 15.3[81] ? 2020-10-08 X Ubuntu general, desktop Zorin OS Lite & Core are free, while Business and Ultimate are paid Active
Distribution Founder Maintainer Initial release year Current stable version Security updates (years) Release date System distribution commitment Forked from Target audience Cost Status
  1. ^ a b Debian releases are officially supported for 1 year after the subsequent release, with releases being approximately 2 years apart. The Debian LTS Project provides community based support extending the complete support period to 5 years.
  2. ^ Default ISOs included non-free software
  3. ^ All security updates are in new versions which are released every six weeks.
  4. ^ for more information visit: https://trisquel.info/en/wiki/trisquel

Technical[edit]

The table below shows the default file system, but many Linux distributions support some or all of ext2, ext3, ext4, Btrfs, ReiserFS, Reiser4, JFS, XFS, GFS2, OCFS2, and NILFS. It is possible to install Linux onto most of these file systems. The ext file systems, namely ext2, ext3, and ext4 are based on the original Linux file system.

File systems have been developed by companies to meet their specific needs, by hobbyists, or adapted from Unix, Microsoft Windows, and other operating systems. Linux has full support for XFS and JFS, FAT (the DOS file system), and HFS, the main file system for the Macintosh. Support for Microsoft Windows NT's NTFS file system has been developed and is now comparable with other native Unix file systems. CDs, DVDs, and Blu-ray discs' ISO 9660 and Universal Disk Format (UDF) are supported.

Unlike other operating systems, Linux and Unix allow any file system regardless of the medium it is stored on, whether that medium is a magnetic disk, an optical disk (CD, DVD, etc.), a USB flash memory key, or even contained within a file located on another file system. Similarly, many C compilers (mainly GNU Compiler Collection (GCC)), init systems (mainly sysvinit), desktop environments and window managers are widely supported.

Distribution Default Linux kernel Default file system Default init system Install-time desktop environment or window manager selection Reproducible builds
Alpine Linux Binary blobs ext4 openrc none In progress[82]
ALT Linux Binary blobs ext3 systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces, Xfce No
Arch Linux Binary blobs[83] none[84] systemd Awesome, Budgie, Cinnamon, CuteFish, Deepin, Enlightenment, GNOME, i3, KDE, LXQt, MATE, Sway, Xfce[85] In progress[86][87]
BLAG Linux-libre ext3 sysvinit GNOME No
Bodhi Linux Binary blobs ext4 systemd Moksha (Enlightenment fork) No
Canaima Binary blobs[83] ? systemd Cinnamon and MATE No
CentOS Binary blobs[83] xfs systemd GNOME No
Chakra Binary blobs ext4 systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces No
Clear Linux OS
ClearOS Binary blobs ext3 systemd none (Web based) No
CoreOS Binary blobs ext4 systemd None No
CrunchBang Linux Binary blobs ext4 sysvinit Openbox No
Damn Small Linux Binary blobs ext3 sysvinit JWM No
Debian By default Linux-libre, but the Debian Project also hosts a non-free repository allowing blobs to be installed optionally.[83] Built with Linux-libre tools.[88] ext4 systemd GNOME, KDE, Xfce, LXDE[89] In progress[90][91]
Devuan Binary blobs ext4 sysvinit Xfce No
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre Linux-libre ext4 runit Xfce No
dyne:bolic Linux-libre ? systemd GNOME No
Fedora Binary blobs btrfs[92] systemd GNOME (default Workstation Edition), Spins for: KDE Plasma Workspaces, Xfce, LXDE, MATE (with Compiz), Cinnamon, Sugar on a Stick In progress[93]
Funtoo Binary blobs none openrc None No
Gentoo Binary blobs none openrc Awesome, Enlightenment, Fluxbox, GNOME, KDE, LXDE-Meta, Openbox, XBMC and Xfce (live DVD)[94] No
gNewSense Debian Linux kernel, and (unlike Debian) blobs cannot be installed[88] ext3 sysvinit GNOME No
Guix System Linux-libre, Hurd (in progress)[95][96] ext4 GNU Shepherd GNOME, Xfce, MATE, Enlightenment, Openbox, awesome, i3, ratpoison, EXWM In progress[97][98]
Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre Linux-libre none openrc[99] none No
Kali Linux Binary blobs ext3 systemd GNOME No
Knoppix Binary blobs xfs microknoppix LXDE No
LibreCMC[100] Binary blobs ext4 busybox-init none No
Linux Mint[101] Binary blobs[83] ext4 systemd MATE, Cinnamon, KDE 4, XFCE No
Mageia Binary blobs ext4 systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces, GNOME No
Mandriva Linux Binary blobs ext4 systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces No
Manjaro Linux Binary blobs none[102] systemd Xfce, KDE, GNOME[103] No
MEPIS Binary blobs ext3, ext4 sysvinit KDE Plasma Workspaces No
Musix GNU+Linux[104] Linux-libre ext4 initscripts LXDE No
OpenELEC Binary blobs SquashFS shell script XBMC Media Center No
openSUSE Binary blobs btrfs systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces, GNOME, Xfce In progress[105]
OpenWrt Binary blobs overlayfs+SquashFS/JFFS2[106] procd[107] none In progress[108]
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Linux-libre none openrc or systemd none No
Pardus Binary blobs ext4 systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces No
Parsix Binary blobs ext4 systemd GNOME No
PCLinuxOS Binary blobs none sysvinit KDE Plasma Workspaces, GNOME, LXDE, Xfce, Enlightenment, Openbox No
Pentoo Binary blobs SquashFS openrc Enlightenment No
Porteus Binary blobs Squashfs, ext2, ext3, ext4, FAT32, reiser, xfs sysvinit KDE, LXDE, Xfce, Openbox, Razor-qt No
Puppy Linux Binary blobs SquashFS containing ext2 busybox-init JWM No
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Binary blobs xfs systemd GNOME No
Rxart Desktop Binary blobs ext3 ? KDE Plasma Workspaces No
Sabayon Linux Binary blobs ext4[109] systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces, GNOME No
Scientific Linux Binary blobs ext4 sysvinit, systemd[110] GNOME No
Slackware Binary blobs[83] ext4, ext3, ext2, reiserfs, brtfs, xfs RC.d and sysvinit compatible KDE, XFCE Fluxbox, Blackbox, fvwm2 twm No
Slax Binary blobs SquashFS sysvinit KDE Plasma Workspaces No
SliTaz GNU/Linux Binary blobs ext3 busybox-init Openbox No
Solus Binary blobs ext4 systemd Budgie, Gnome, MATE, KDE No
Source Mage GNU/Linux Binary blobs ext2 simpleinit-msb none No
SteamOS Binary blobs ? systemd Steam No
SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop Binary blobs[83] btrfs[111] systemd GNOME No
Tails Vanilla Linux[83] ? systemd GNOME Reproducible ISO and USB images[112][113]
Trisquel Linux-libre ext4, xfs systemd GNOME, LXDE No
TurnKey GNU/Linux Binary blobs ext4 systemd none - headless server by design; provides Webmin for administration No
Ubuntu/Edubuntu Binary blobs[83] ext4[114] systemd GNOME No
Ubuntu GNOME Binary blobs ext4 systemd GNOME 3 No
Ubuntu MATE Binary blobs ext4 systemd MATE No
Kubuntu Binary blobs ext4[114] systemd KDE Plasma Workspaces No
Xubuntu Binary blobs ext4[114] systemd Xfce No
Lubuntu Binary blobs ext4 systemd LXQt No
Ututo Ututo XS (stable) is de-blobbed with Linux-libre tools.[115] Ututo UL (development) uses Linux-libre. Ututo UL means "Ubuntu-Libre" ext3 systemd GNOME No
VectorLinux Binary blobs ReiserFS sysvinit KDE, Openbox, Fluxbox, IceWM, Xfce No
Void Linux Binary blobs none runit none No
Webconverger Binary blobs gitfs sysvinit dwm enforcing a Browser-only interface No
XBMC Live Binary blobs ext3 systemd XBMC Media Center No
Zentyal Binary blobs ext4 systemd LXDE No
Zenwalk Binary blobs ext4 sysvinit Xfce No
Distribution Default Linux kernel Default file system Default init system Install-time desktop environment or window manager selection Reproducible builds

Instruction set architecture support[edit]

Linux kernel portability to instruction set architectures other than x86, was an early feature added to the kernel.

Distribution x86 x86-64 arm ia64 ppc[116] ppc64 sparc32 sparc64 hppa[117] loongson mips[118] sh s390 s390x alpha[119] m68k[120] riscv
Alpine Linux Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No No
Arch Linux Unofficial[121]
Official discontinued 2017-11-08
[122]
Yes Unofficial[123] No Discontinued unofficial port No No No No Discontinued. Unofficial port[124] No No No No No No No
BackTrack Discontinued from BackTrack 5 and superseded by Kali Linux[125] Discontinued from BackTrack 5 and superseded by Kali Linux Discontinued from BackTrack 5 and superseded by Kali Linux No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
BLAG Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Bodhi Linux Yes Yes Discontinued
2013-10-23
[126]
No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
BOSS Linux Yes Yes ? No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
CentOS AltArch Yes AltArch Discontinued
3.5-3.8
4.1-4.7
[127]
Beta, Discontinued
4.0
AltArch Beta
4.2
[127][128]
No No No No No Discontinued
3.5-3.8
4.1-4.7
[127][129]
Discontinued
3.5-3.8
4.1-4.7
[127][129]
Discontinued
4.2-4.3
[127][130][131]
No No
Chakra No Yes ? No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Clear Linux OS ? Yes ? ? No No No No No No No No No No No No No
CRUX Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Debian[132] Yes Yes
4.0+
Yes
2.2+
Discontinued
3.0-7.0
[133]
Discontinued
2.2-8
Yes Discontinued
2.1-4.0
[134]
Discontinued
-7
[135]
Discontinued
3.0-5.0
Yes Yes
3.0+
In progress Discontinued
3.0-7
Yes
7+
Discontinued
2.1-5.0
Discontinued
2.0-3.1
In progress[136]
Devuan Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
dyne:bolic Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Fedora[137] Discontinued from
Fedora 30
Yes Yes[138] Discontinued from
Fedora 9
[139]
Discontinued from
Fedora 17
Yes No Inactive from
Fedora 12
[140]
No In progress Inactive from
Fedora 13
[141]
No No Yes No No In progress[142]
Finnix Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
Gentoo[143] Yes Yes Yes[144] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[145] Yes[146][147] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Test release[148]
gNewSense Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No
Guix System[149] Yes Yes limited support for armhf 32-bit and aarch64 64-bit No No No No No No No No No No No No No In progress[150]
Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre Yes Yes No No No In progress[151] No No No No No No No No No No In progress[152]
Kali Linux Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
LibreCMC No No No No No No No No No No Yes XBurst No No No No No No
Manjaro Linux Yes
Unofficial[153]
Yes Yes[154] No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
MEPIS Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Musix GNU+Linux Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
OpenELEC Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
openSUSE Leap No Yes v7 64 No No ppc64le No No No No No No No No No No No
openSUSE Tumbleweed Yes Yes v6 v7 64 No No Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No RV64G
OpenWrt[155] Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No
Oracle Linux[156] Yes Yes No Discontinued
5
[157]
No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Yes Yes Yes, ARMv7[158][159] No No Test release[160] No No No Discontinued[161] Discontinued[161] No No No No No Test release[162]
Red Flag Linux Discontinued
8.0
[163]
Discontinued
8.0
[163]
No Discontinued
3
[164]
No Discontinued
3
[164]
No No No No No No No No No No No
Red Hat Linux[165] Discontinued
9.0
No No Discontinued
7.1-7.2
Test release
5.1
[166]
No Discontinued
4.0-4.2
5.1-6.2
Test release
5.1
[166]
No No Test release
5.1
[166]
No Discontinued
7.2
Yes Discontinued
2.1-7.1
Test release
5.1
[166]
No
Red Hat Enterprise Linux[167] Discontinued
2.1-6
[168]
Yes
3+
Yes[169] Discontinued
2.1-5
[170]
Yes
3+
Yes
3+
No No No No No No Discontinued
3-4
[171]
Yes
3+
No No No
Sabayon Linux Discontinued Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Scientific Linux Yes Yes No Discontinued
3-4
No No No No No No No No No No No No No
SHR No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Slackware Yes Yes Yes No No No Discontinued
?
[172]
No No No No No Discontinued
?
[173]
Discontinued
?
[173]
Discontinued
8.1
[174]
No No
Solus No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Source Mage GNU/Linux Yes Yes No No Yes No No No No ? No No No No No No No
SUSE Linux Enterprise Server[175] Yes Yes AArch64 only[176] Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No No
Trisquel GNU/Linux Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
TurnKey GNU/Linux Selected ISOs
available
Yes No - but under development by community No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Ubuntu/Kubuntu/Xubuntu/Lubuntu Discontinued from
Ubuntu 20.04
Yes Yes, including 64-bit ARMv8-A No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Ubuntu only, 16.04+[177] No No No
Ututo Yes Yes No No No No No No No In progress No No No No No No No
Void Linux Yes Yes Yes No Unofficial[178] Unofficial[178] No No No No No No No No No No No
XBMCbuntu Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Yellow Dog Linux No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
Distribution x86 x86-64 arm ia64 ppc ppc64 sparc32 sparc64 hppa loongson mips sh s390 s390x alpha m68k riscv

Package management and installation[edit]

Information on features in the distributions. Package numbers are only approximate. Some distributions like Debian tend to separate tools into different packages - usually stable release, development release, documentation and debug. Also counting the source package number varies. For debian and rpm based entries it is just the base to produce binary packages, so the total number of packages is the number of binary packages. For arch based entries, it is additional. E.g. Arch Linux provides 11'000 + 47'000 packages, i.e. 58'000 packages.

Distribution Free software repositories Approximate number of pre-compiled packages Approximate number of source packages Default package management tool(s) Package format Default installer Graphical installation process Netinstall Netboot
Alpine Linux Free, and nonfree 13,888[179][180] ? apk .apk setup-alpine No ? ?
ALT Linux Free, and nonfree 8,300[181] ? APT (APT-RPM), RPM RPM Yes ? ?
Arch Linux Free, and nonfree 11,573[182][183] 74,786 from AUR[184][185] Pacman .pkg.tar.zst[186] arch-install-scripts[187] and archinstaller[188] No Yes iPXE
BLAG Free only 10,000[189] ? RPM, yum, APT RPM Yes No No
Bodhi Linux Free, and nonfree [a][190] ? APT .dpkg Ubiquity Yes ? ?
CentOS Free, and nonfree 6,813[b][191] ? RPM, yum/up2date RPM Anaconda Yes Yes ?
Chakra Free, and nonfree 3,074[192] CCR: 5,342[193] Pacman (will be replaced by Akabei in future) .pkg.tar.xz Package manager in development ? ?
ClearOS Free, and nonfree [c] ? RPM, yum RPM No ? ?
Clear Linux OS ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
CrunchBang Linux Free, and nonfree [d][190] ? APT .deb Yes ? ?
Debian Free, and nonfree 89,889[190] 28,923[e] APT .deb Debian-Installer Yes Yes PXE
Devuan Free, and nonfree [f][190] ? APT .deb Debian-Installer Yes Yes PXE
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre Free only 484 ? pkgsystem .tlz ? No No No
dyne:bolic Free only ? ? APT .deb Debian-Installer Yes No No
Fedora Free, and nonfree 64,362[194] 30,681[195] DNF, yum, PackageKit RPM Anaconda Yes Yes ?
Gentoo Free, and nonfree 10,000[196] 19,092[197][g] Portage .ebuild, .tbz2 None (third-party install scripts only) Yes[h] Yes PXE
gNewSense Free only ? ? APT .deb Debian-Installer Yes Yes No
Guix System Free only 18,921[198] 18,921 Guix .scm, .go guix system init[199] Yes[200] Yes[201] No
Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre Free only 14,494[202] ? Pacman .pkg.tar.xz None (third-party install scripts only) No Yes ?
Knoppix Free, and nonfree [i][190] ? APT .deb No ? ?
LibreCMC Free only 826 ? ? ? No No No
Linux Mint Free, and nonfree [j][190] ? APT .deb Ubiquity Yes ? ?
Mageia Free, and nonfree 17,283 (i586), 11,409 (x86-64)[203] 8,834[204] urpmi, rpmdrake RPM DrakX Yes Yes ?
Mandriva Linux Free, and nonfree 22,600 ? urpmi, rpmdrake RPM DrakX Yes ? ?
Manjaro Linux Free, and nonfree ? [k][185] Pacman .pkg.tar.xz Calamares[205] Yes[206] Yes iPXE
MEPIS Free, and nonfree [l][190] ? APT .deb MEPIS Install Yes ? ?
Musix GNU+Linux Free only 1,819 ? APT .deb Debian-Installer Yes No No
OpenELEC Free, and nonfree 140[207] ? XBMCbuntu addon manager, own and 3rd party addons .zip Yes ? ?
openSUSE Free, and nonfree 42,236 with PackMan[208] 34,000 YaST, Zypper RPM YaST Yes Yes ?
OpenWrt Free, and nonfree 2,000 ? opkg .ipk - No ? ?
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Free only 23,000[209] ? Pacman .pkg.tar.xz None (third-party install scripts only) or Calamares Yes Yes ?
Pardus Free, and nonfree 4,000 ? PiSi .pisi YALI Yes ? ?
Parsix Free, and nonfree [m][190] 14,900 APT .deb Yes ? ?
PCLinuxOS Free, and nonfree 12,000 ? APT, RPM RPM Yes ? ?
Puppy Free, and nonfree 700 ? PupGet, DotPup .pup, .pet Yes ? ?
Red Hat Enterprise Linux Free, and nonfree 3,000 (plus 9,155 from EPEL[210]) ? RPM, yum RPM Anaconda Yes ? ?
Rxart Free, and nonfree [n][190] ? APT .deb Yes ? ?
Sabayon Linux Free, and nonfree [o] ? Portage, Entropy ebuild, .tbz2 Calamares Yes ? ?
Scientific Free, and nonfree [p] ? APT/yum RPM Yes ? ?
Slackware Free, and nonfree 2,292 7,705 from SlackBuilds[211] slackpkg tgz, .txz, .tlz, .tbz bash script[212] No Yes Yes
Slax Free, and nonfree 2,050 ? none .lzm ? ?
SliTaz GNU/Linux Free, and nonfree 3,381[213] ? Tazpkg .tazpkg tazinst Yes iPXE iPXE
Solus Free, and nonfree 9,500 ? eopkg .eopkg os-installer Yes No No
Source Mage GNU/Linux Free, and nonfree 118 8,876 Sorcery Package Manager src Yes ? ?
SUSE Linux Free, and nonfree 24,094 11,385 YaST, Zypper RPM YaST Yes ? ?
Tiny Core Linux Free, and nonfree 25,160 ? ab, tce-load tcz tc-install, core2usb Yes ? ?
Tiny SliTaz Free, and nonfree 50 ? Web site[214] tazpkg No ? iPXE
Trisquel Free only 52,748[215] ? APT .deb Ubiquity Yes Yes ?
TurnKey GNU/Linux Free, and nonfree [q][190] (plus ≈30 custom packages) 21,041[r] (currently TurnKey only supplies source code for custom packages) APT .deb DI-Live (custom fork of Debian Installer) No No No
Ubuntu, Kubuntu, Xubuntu Free, and nonfree 93,920[s][190][216] 24,474[t] APT .deb Ubiquity Yes Yes PXE
Ututo Free only 5,000 ? UTUTO Package Manager ebuild ? ? No No
Vector Linux Free, and nonfree ? ? slapt-get, gslapt, installpkg tgz Yes ? ?
Void Linux Free, nonfree and multilib 6,000 6,719 xbps .xbps ncurses script Yes Yes No
XBMC Live Free, and nonfree ? ? APT .deb No ? ?
Zentyal Free, and nonfree [u][190] ? APT .deb dpkg Yes ? ?
Zenwalk Free, and nonfree 2,000 ? netpkg, installpkg, upgradepkg tgz, txz Yes ? ?
Distribution Free software repositories Approximate number of pre-compiled packages Approximate number of source packages Default package management tools Package format Default installer Graphical installation process Netinstall Netboot

Live media[edit]

Distribution Size of media (MB) RAM use (MB) Boots from CD Boots from DVD Installable live CD/DVD Installable from USB
Arch Linux 742 minimum 80 Yes Yes Yes Yes
AUSTRUMI 301 Yes Yes Yes Yes
BLAG Linux and GNU 696 ? Yes No ?
Bodhi Linux 1,024 80 Yes Yes Yes Yes
CentOS 603 (Minimal) 4,096 (DVD) Yes Yes Yes (installable since 6.0) Yes
Chakra 2,150 No Yes Yes Yes
Clear Linux OS ? ? ? ? ? ?
Debian 958 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Devuan 868 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre 655 ? Yes ? ? ?
dyne:bolic 1,650 ? up to version 2.x Yes ? ?
Fedora 1,434 256 to 1,024 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Gentoo 260 (Minimal) 2,048 (Live DVD) up to 128 Yes Yes Yes Yes
gNewSense[217] 1,200 512 ? ? Yes ?
Grml 460 32 to 128 Yes No Yes Yes
Guix System[218] 612 146 No Yes Yes Yes
Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre 660 and 688 ? Yes Yes Yes Yes
Knoppix CD 700 128 to 320 Yes Yes Only DVD edition is maintained
Knoppix DVD 4,813 128 to 500 No Yes
LibreCMC ? ? No No No No
Mandriva Linux One 700 128 to 768 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Manjaro Linux 473 to 2,200[219] 256 to 1,024 Yes Yes Yes Yes
MEPIS 700 to 4,000 128 to 512 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Musix GNU+Linux 2,000 ? No Yes Yes Yes
Nanolinux 18 ≈64 Yes Yes Yes Yes
openGEU 700 192 to 512 Yes Yes
openSUSE (Not 42.1) 700 128 to 768 Yes Yes Yes Yes
OpenWrt min 4 min 16 No No No No
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre 400 to 3,300 ? Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pardus 1,256 to 1,276 256 to 1,024 Yes Yes Yes Yes
PCLinuxOS 130 to 700 96 to 512 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Pentoo 666 and 700 48 to 96 Yes Yes By hand[220] By hand
Porteus 224 to 373 min 36 ? ? Yes Yes
Puppy Linux (Slacko) 235 32 to 192 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Puredyne 542 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sabayon Linux Live CD 695 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Sabayon Linux Live DVD 2,400 No Yes Yes Yes
Scientific Linux 431 to 2,300[221] 640 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Slackware 2,600 64 to 1,024[222] Yes Yes Yes Yes
Slax 200 96 to 320 Yes Yes Yes
Solus 1,200 1,024 No Yes Yes Yes
SystemRescueCD 459 Yes Yes Yes Yes
SliTaz GNU/Linux 50 48 to 256 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tails ≈900 ≈1,024 No Yes Yes Yes (when run from DVD)
Tiny Core Linux 16 46 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tiny SliTaz 1.44 4 Yes Yes By SliTaz By SliTaz
Trisquel 1,500[223] 384 Yes Yes Yes Yes
TurnKey GNU/Linux Core (base) appliance ISO 212 ~173 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ubuntu 1,700[224] 384 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Ututo 3,500 ? No Yes Yes ?
Edubuntu 2,900[225] Yes Yes Yes
Kubuntu 1,400[226] 384 Yes Yes Yes Yes
XBMC Live 700 256 to 1,024 Yes No Yes Yes
Zentyal 600 256 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Xubuntu 1,200[227] 256 Yes Yes Yes Yes
Distribution Size of media (MB) RAM use (MB) Boots from CD Boots from DVD Installable live CD/DVD Installable from USB

Security features[edit]

Distribution Compile time buffer checks Mandatory access control Software executable space protection grsecurity RSBAC
Alpine Linux Yes[228] Un­known PaX Discontinued in 3.8.0 Un­known
BLAG Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known
Android (operating system) Yes Yes, since Android Marshmallow Optional Optional Optional
Clear Linux OS Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known
Debian Yes SELinux, AppArmor PaX optional Optional Optional
Dragora GNU/Linux-Libre Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known
dyne:bolic Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known
Fedora Yes SELinux[229] Exec Shield[230] No No
Gentoo Optional SELinux, AppArmor PaX optional Optional Optional
gNewSense Un­known SELinux, AppArmor[v] Un­known Un­known Un­known
Guix System Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known
LibreCMC Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known
Mandriva Un­known AppArmor Un­known Un­known Yes
Musix GNU+Linux Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known
Parabola GNU/Linux-libre Un­known Optional[231] Un­known Optional[231] Un­known
Slackware Un­known AppArmor, tomoyo Un­known Un­known Optional
SUSE Linux Yes AppArmor[232] Hardware NX and other methods in mainline kernel and toolchain[233] No No
Solus Yes AppArmor Un­known No Un­known
Trisquel Un­known SELinux, AppArmor[w] Un­known Un­known Un­known
Ubuntu Yes[234] SELinux, AppArmor [234] PaX optional Optional Optional
Ututo Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known Un­known

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Based on Debian
  2. ^ Based on Fedora
  3. ^ Based on Fedora
  4. ^ Based on Debian
  5. ^ From the Sources.gz files in the main, contrib and non-free sections of Debian Buster. On the 2020-06-12, Debian Sid, the development release, have 31717 source packages.
  6. ^ Based on Debian
  7. ^ Note this number is just of packages in the Official Gentoo Overlay (or Portage Tree). Several hundred other packages are available from other overlays
  8. ^ Can be installed graphically (GTK+ and ncurses), but traditionally done by command line (install cd, live cd, netboot, and from distributions).
  9. ^ Based on Debian
  10. ^ Based on Debian
  11. ^ Based on AUR
  12. ^ Based on Debian
  13. ^ Based on Debian
  14. ^ Based on Debian
  15. ^ Based on Gentoo
  16. ^ Based on Fedora
  17. ^ Based on Debian
  18. ^ From the Sources.gz files in the main, contrib and non-free sections of Debian Jessie. On the 2015-11-21, Debian Sid, the development release, have 24757 source packages.
  19. ^ Based on Debian
  20. ^ From the Sources.gz files in the main,universe, multiverse and restricted sections of Ubuntu Wily.
  21. ^ Based on Debian
  22. ^ Based on Debian
  23. ^ Based on Ubuntu

References[edit]

  1. ^ "List of Free GNU/Linux Distributions - GNU Project - Free Software Foundation". Gnu.org. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  2. ^ "About - AlmaLinux".
  3. ^ "Alpine Linux 3.14.1 Released". www.alpinelinux.org. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  4. ^ "Новые версии операционных систем «Альт» 9.2: возможности и удобства для потребителей". Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  5. ^ "antiX-19.4 (Grup Yorum) available". antixlinux.com. 16 April 2021. Retrieved 21 May 2021.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "List of Free GNU/Linux Distributions".
  7. ^ "Bodhi Linux Release Info". Retrieved 14 May 2021.
  8. ^ "Index of /descargas". CNTI. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
  9. ^ "About - CentOS Wiki".
  10. ^ "Choose Chakra". Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  11. ^ "OmahaProxy CSV Viewer". 2 August 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  12. ^ "ClearOS Server 7.8 Community Edition Released". ClearOS. ClearFoundation. 23 June 2020.
  13. ^ "CrunchBang 11 "Waldorf" Released". Crunchbang.org. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  14. ^ "iB::Topic::dsl 4.4.10". Damnsmalllinux.org. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  15. ^ "Updated Debian 11: 11.1 released". Debian News. Debian. 9 October 2021. Retrieved 10 October 2021.
  16. ^ "FSF and Debian join forces to help free software users find the hardware they need — Free Software Foundation — working together for free software". www.fsf.org. Retrieved 13 November 2017.
  17. ^ Murdock, Ian A. (16 August 1993). "NNTP Subject: New release under development; suggestions requested". Retrieved 17 August 2007.
  18. ^ "Status of Debian Edu "Bullseye"". debian.org. 14 August 2021. Retrieved 14 August 2021.
  19. ^ "Devuan Beowulf 3.1.0 point release". devuan.org. 1 June 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  20. ^ "DEEPIN 20.2 - BEAUTIFUL AND WONDERFUL". Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  21. ^ "Dragora 3.0-beta1 released". nongnu.org. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  22. ^ "elementary OS Juno 5.1.7". elementary.io. 1 January 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  23. ^ "What's new with ELinOS". sysgo.com. 1 March 2020. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  24. ^ "Fedora 34 is officially here!". fedoramagazine.org. 27 April 2021.
  25. ^ "Licensing:Main - FedoraProject". Fedora Project. 11 August 2017. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
  26. ^ "Freespire 7.7 released".
  27. ^ Ludovic Courtès, Maxim Cournoyer (11 May 2021). "GNU Guix 1.3.0 released". Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  28. ^ "gNewSense 4.0 released". lists.nongnu.org. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  29. ^ "Distribution Release: Grml 2020.06". 24 June 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  30. ^ "Milky Way v0.3 install medium release". Hyperbola Project. 23 September 2019. Retrieved 26 September 2019.
  31. ^ "Releases". Hyperwiki. 16 November 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  32. ^ Larabel, Michael. "FSF-Approved Hyperbola GNU/Linux Switching Out The Linux Kernel For Hard Fork Of OpenBSD". phoronix. Retrieved 22 January 2021.
  33. ^ "Official Kali Linux Releases". Retrieved 3 June 2020.
  34. ^ Knopper, Klaus (8 August 2019). "KNOPPIX 8.6.0 Public Release". Retrieved 18 August 2019.
  35. ^ "Korora 26 is here". kororaproject.org. 16 September 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2017.
  36. ^ "LibreCMC Releases". Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  37. ^ "Linspire 9.5 Released".
  38. ^ "青汁選びのパートナー|カルシウム不足にコレ!~ユーグレナ青汁~". Shop.linspire.com. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  39. ^ Clem (8 July 2021). "Linux Mint 20.2 "Uma" Cinnamon released!". The Linux Mint Blog. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  40. ^ "Linux Lite 5.0 Final Released".
  41. ^ "Mageia 7.1, Mageia 7 with Ryzen 3000 hardware support". mageia.org.
  42. ^ Singer, Roland (ying) (10 July 2011). "Manjaro Linux Distribution". Community Contributions, Arch Linux Forums. Retrieved 12 December 2015. Hi all, I am working now since a longer time on my arch linux livecd. It is called manjaro linux and uses the Desktop Environment Xfce. I uploaded a first testing livecd which is very experimental and many features are still missing. I would be thankful for any bugs reported,.... or if somebody wants to help and join the project he is always welcome.
  43. ^ Team, Netrunner (23 February 2020). "Netrunner 20.01 – "Twenty" released".
  44. ^ "NixOS manual". nixos.org. Retrieved 9 December 2020.
  45. ^ "Shop Online: SUSE Linux Enterprise Server". SUSE.com. Retrieved 26 February 2020.
  46. ^ DeMaio, Douglas (2 July 2020). "openSUSE Leap "15.2" Release Brings Exciting New Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning, and Container Packages". openSUSE Release Notes. openSUSE. Retrieved 2 July 2020.
  47. ^ "Lifetime". Lifetime. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  48. ^ "OpenWrt 18.06.4 - Fourth Service Release - July 2019".
  49. ^ "Announcing Oracle Linux 8 Update 1". Retrieved 22 November 2019.
  50. ^ "Get Parabola". parabola.nu.
  51. ^ "Pardus 19.1 released". Retrieved 25 February 2020.
  52. ^ "Parted Magic LLC - Store". partedmagic.com. Retrieved 24 January 2020.
  53. ^ "PCLinuxOS KDE ISOs updated to 2020.1015". 14 October 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  54. ^ "What's New in Pop!_OS 20.10". System76 Blog. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  55. ^ "Porteus-v4.0 is released!". 29 April 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  56. ^ "DistroWatch Puppy Linux". 11 April 2019. Retrieved 12 April 2019.
  57. ^ "Download PureOS". pureos.net. Retrieved 11 September 2019.
  58. ^ "Qubes OS 4.0.4 has been released!". 4 March 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2020.
  59. ^ "Red Hat Opens the Linux Experience to Every Enterprise, Every Cloud, and Every Workload with Red Hat Enterprise Linux 8". access.redhat.com. Retrieved 7 May 2019.
  60. ^ "Enterprise Linux". Red Hat. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  61. ^ "Enterprise Linux Desktop Operating Systems". Red Hat. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  62. ^ "ROSA Desktop Fresh R11". 15 March 2019. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  63. ^ crew, Sabayonlinux (31 March 2019). "Sabayon 19.03 - New stable release". www.sabayon.org. Retrieved 8 July 2019.
  64. ^ "SL7 Scientific Linux".
  65. ^ "Slackware Release Announcement". The Slackware Linux Project. 30 June 2016.
  66. ^ "Changelog". 14 September 2019. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  67. ^ "SolydXK 201902 released — English".
  68. ^ "Sparky 6.0 "Po Tolo"". 19 August 2021. Retrieved 20 August 2021.
  69. ^ "SteamOS update 2.195 released". SteamOS discussion board. The SteamOS team. 19 July 2019. Retrieved 31 October 2019.
  70. ^ "SUSE Product Support Lifecycle".
  71. ^ "How To Buy - SUSE Linux Enterprise Server". SUSE. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  72. ^ "Tails 4.21 is out". 10 August 2021. Retrieved 12 August 2021.
  73. ^ "v15.x - Updated apps, plus new Redis appliance". TurnKey GNU/Linux. TurnKey GNU/Linux. 22 December 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2021.
  74. ^ "Ubuntu Ecosystem - Recognised Flavors".
  75. ^ "Ubuntu 21.10 (Impish Indri) released". lists.ubuntu.com. 14 October 2021. Retrieved 15 October 2021.
  76. ^ "Release notes for the installation and update of Univention Corporate Server (UCS) 4.4-7". 1 December 2020. Retrieved 11 December 2020.
  77. ^ "Prices and subscriptions". Univention.
  78. ^ "UCS 4.4 Release". 28 August 2017. Retrieved 10 July 2019.
  79. ^ "Zentyal Server 6.2 Commercial Now Available". zentyal.com. Zentyal S.L. 4 June 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  80. ^ "Zenwalk Current 15.0 Santa Claus edition". 10 December 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  81. ^ "Zorin OS 15.3 is here". Zorin Group. 8 September 2020.
  82. ^ Reproducible alpine continuous tests
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i "gnu.org". www.gnu.org.
  84. ^ Čeština (31 October 2016). "Installation guide - ArchWiki". Wiki.archlinux.org. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  85. ^ "Profiles in Archinstall". gitlab.archlinux.org.
  86. ^ - Arch Linux Wiki
  87. ^ Reproducible builds progress report #2 and package rebuilders
  88. ^ a b "/gnewsense/packages-parkes/linux-2.6 : contents of debian/README.gNewSense at revision 16". bzr.savannah.gnu.org.
  89. ^ "Index of /debian-cd/current/amd64/iso-cd". Retrieved 7 March 2015.
  90. ^ ReproducibleBuilds - Debian
  91. ^ Toward a fully reproducible Debian
  92. ^ "Fedora 33 is officially here!". Fedora Magazine. 27 October 2020. Retrieved 18 November 2020.
  93. ^ Reproducible Builds for Fedora
  94. ^ Abbott, David. "Gentoo Linux releases 11.2 LiveDVD". Gentoo Linux. Archived from the original on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 21 December 2011.
  95. ^ "A "Hello World" virtual machine running the Hurd". guix.gnu.org.
  96. ^ "Childhurds and GNU/Hurd substitutes". guix.gnu.org.
  97. ^ Quick reproducible test for GNU Guix
  98. ^ Reproducible builds: a status update
  99. ^ "End of systemd support". Hyperbola Project. 5 August 2017. Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  100. ^ "LibreCMC package sources". Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  101. ^ "Linux Mint". DistroWatch.com. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  102. ^ "Installation Guides - Manjaro Linux". Wiki.manjaro.org. 26 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  103. ^ "Get Manjaro". Manjaro Linux. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  104. ^ "Musix Packages". Archived from the original on 26 December 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  105. ^ openSUSE:Reproducible Builds
  106. ^ "Filesystems [OpenWrt Wiki]". openwrt.org. 7 June 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  107. ^ "What is procd? [OpenWrt Wiki]". openwrt.org. 4 March 2018. Retrieved 11 June 2018.
  108. ^ Reproducible OpenWrt continuous tests
  109. ^ "Sabayon Forums • View topic - Sabayon Linux 4.1 KDE: Stable release". forum.sabayonlinux.org.
  110. ^ Prior to v7.0, Scientific Linux used sysvinit. Since v7.0, it uses systemd. "Scientific Linux 7.0 Release Notes". ScientificLinux.org. 14 October 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2016.
  111. ^ "Release Notes • Comparison of Supported File Systems". www.suse.com.
  112. ^ Have your cake and eat it, too!
  113. ^ Verifying a Tails image for reproducibility
  114. ^ a b c "MaverickMeerkat/ReleaseNotes - Ubuntu Wiki". Wiki.ubuntu.com. 20 January 2011. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  115. ^ "scripts.tgz". Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  116. ^ [1][permanent dead link]
  117. ^ "Parisc-Linux". Parisc-Linux. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  118. ^ "LinuxMIPS". LinuxMIPS. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  119. ^ "The AlphaLinux Homepage". AlphaLinux.org. Archived from the original on 17 January 1999. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  120. ^ Lawrence, Chris (2 April 2000). "The Linux/m68k Home Pages". Linux-m68k.org. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  121. ^ "Arch Linux 32". Arch Linux 32. Retrieved 20 April 2018.
  122. ^ "The end of i686 support". Arch Linux. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  123. ^ "Arch Linux ARM". Arch Linux ARM. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  124. ^ "MIPS Installation - Parabola Wiki".
  125. ^ "BackTrackDownloads". Backtrack-linux.org. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  126. ^ "Dropping Official Support for ARM Devices". Forums,bodhilinux.com. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  127. ^ a b c d e Pasi Pirhonen (13 October 2005). "CentOS-4.2 is Released for i386, x86_64, ia64, s390, s390x and alpha architectures". CentOS-announce (Mailing list).
  128. ^ Pasi Pirhonen (24 May 2006). "EOL notice for CentOS-4/sparc beta release". CentOS-announce (Mailing list).
  129. ^ a b Pasi Pirhonen (24 June 2005). "CentOS-4.1 s390(x) Release Announcement". CentOS-announce (Mailing list).
  130. ^ Pasi Pirhonen (26 June 2005). "CentOS-4/alpha 4.1beta is there to play". CentOS-announce (Mailing list).
  131. ^ Pasi Pirhonen (25 June 2006). "EOL notification for CentOS-4/axp (alpha)". CentOS-announce (Mailing list).
  132. ^ "Ports". Debian. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  133. ^ Cyril Brulebois (19 March 2014). "Debian Installer Jessie Alpha 1 release". debian-devel-announce (Mailing list).
  134. ^ Jurij Smakov (18 July 2007). "Retiring the sparc32 port". debian-devel-announce (Mailing list).
  135. ^ Philipp Kern (26 April 2014). "SPARC removed from Jessie". debian-devel-announce (Mailing list).
  136. ^ "RISC-V - Debian Wiki". Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  137. ^ "Architectures". FedoraProject. 31 July 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  138. ^ "Architectures/ARM". Retrieved 20 July 2010.
  139. ^ "Architectures/IA64". Retrieved 24 March 2012.
  140. ^ "Architectures/SPARC". Retrieved 19 May 2012.
  141. ^ "Architectures/MIPS". Retrieved 27 January 2011.
  142. ^ "Architectures/RISC-V - Fedora Project Wiki". Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  143. ^ "Downloads – Gentoo Linux". Gentoo.org. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  144. ^ "Project:ARM - Gentoo Wiki". Gentoo.org. 21 May 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  145. ^ "Project:MIPS - Gentoo Wiki". Wiki.gentoo.org. 28 June 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  146. ^ "MIPS/FAQ - Gentoo Wiki". Gentoo.org. 5 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  147. ^ "Gentoo/MIPS Linux Hardware Requirements".
  148. ^ "RISC-V".
  149. ^ "Download". gnu.org. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  150. ^ "Re: Long term plan for GuixSD security: microkernels, ocap, RISC-V support". Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  151. ^ "POWER (ppc64le) porting". Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  152. ^ "RISC-V (riscv64) porting + multilib support". Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  153. ^ "manjaro32.org". manjaro32. Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  154. ^ "Home". Manjaro. 1 June 2020. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  155. ^ "OpenWrt". OpenWrt. 16 December 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  156. ^ "Oracle Linux" (PDF). Oracle.com. Retrieved 1 June 2020.
  157. ^ "Linux Operating System | Technologies". Oracle. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  158. ^ Delgado, André Fabian Silva (3 October 2015). "Parabola GNU/Linux-libre supports ARMv7". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  159. ^ "ARM Installation Guide". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
  160. ^ Andreas Grapentin. "Re: [GNU-linux-libre] ppc64el support in endorsed distros".
  161. ^ a b "MIPS Installation - Parabola Wiki".
  162. ^ "Index of /parabola-ports/". mirror.grapentin.org.
  163. ^ a b "今日红旗-新闻中心-北京中科红旗软件技术有限公司". Redflag-linux.com. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  164. ^ a b "Red Flag Asianux Server 4-应用服务器-产品-北京中科红旗软件技术有限公司". Redflag-linux.com. Archived from the original on 30 October 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  165. ^ "Index of /pub/redhat/linux". Archive.download.redhat.com. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  166. ^ a b c d [2][dead link]
  167. ^ "We make open source technologies for the enterprise". Redhat.com. 13 October 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  168. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 23 February 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  169. ^ "Red Hat introduces Arm server support for Red Hat Enterprise Linux". Retrieved 21 August 2020.
  170. ^ "redhat.com | Enterprise Linux 2.1". 9 December 2003. Archived from the original on 9 December 2003. Retrieved 12 November 2016.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  171. ^ RHEL 4 is the last version to support 31-bit s390. RHEL 5 only supports 64-bit s390x.
  172. ^ "The Slackware Linux Project: Slackware Ports". Slackware.com. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  173. ^ a b "Index of /pub/slack390". Ftp.slackware.pl. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  174. ^ "The Slackware Linux Project: Slackware Ports". Slackware.com. 19 July 2002. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  175. ^ "SUSE Linux Enterprise Server | SUSE". Novell.com. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  176. ^ "SUSE Linux Enterprise Server 12 SP3 Release Notes". SUSE. 7 September 2017. Retrieved 12 September 2017.
  177. ^ "Ubuntu 16.04 LTS for IBM LinuxONE and IBM z Systems is now available". Ubuntu. 22 April 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2019.
  178. ^ a b "Void Linux for PowerPC/Power ISA (unofficial)".
  179. ^ apk list command, Alpine Linux v3.13
  180. ^ "aports - Main aports tree". Git.alpinelinux.org. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  181. ^ "Sisyphus - intro". Sisyphus.ru. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  182. ^ pacman -Sl core extra community command
  183. ^ "Arch Linux - Package Search". Archlinux.org. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  184. ^ "All packages in the AUR". Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  185. ^ a b "AUR (en) - Packages". Aur.archlinux.org. Retrieved 12 June 2020.
  186. ^ "Now using Zstandard instead of xz for package compression". Archlinux.org. Retrieved 14 March 2020.
  187. ^ Schmitz, Pierre (22 July 2012). "Install media 2012.07.15 released". Arch Linux. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  188. ^ Razzolini, Giancarlo (1 April 2021). "Installation medium with installer". Arch Linux. Retrieved 6 April 2021.
  189. ^ "BLAG • View topic - rolling or frozen". Forums.blagblagblag.org. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  190. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "All Debian packages in "buster"" (TXT). Packages.debian.org. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  191. ^ yum list all command, CentOS Linux 8
  192. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 15 March 2013. Retrieved 17 March 2013.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  193. ^ "Chakra | CCR (en) -Home". ccr.chakralinux.org. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  194. ^ yum list all command, Fedora 34
  195. ^ "Fedora Package Database". fedoraproject.org. Retrieved 20 October 2017.
  196. ^ "Search Results for -bin". packages.gentoo.org. Gentoo Foundation, Inc. 12 October 2015. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
  197. ^ "Gentoo Packages". packages.gentoo.org. Gentoo Foundation, Inc. 28 November 2015. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
  198. ^ "Packages". 19 October 2021. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  199. ^ "Invoking guix system". 15 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  200. ^ "GNU Guix 1.1.0 released". 15 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  201. ^ "Invoking guix deploy". 15 April 2020. Retrieved 17 April 2020.
  202. ^ "Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre packages". Retrieved 7 December 2018.
  203. ^ "Linux Free Software Catalog and Packages Search". Linux Free Software Catalog and Packages Search. Retrieved 23 December 2011.
  204. ^ "Build system status". Pkgsubmit.mageia.org. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  205. ^ "Calamares – The universal installer framework". Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  206. ^ "Graphical Software Managers - Manjaro Linux". Wiki.manjaro.org. 18 July 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  207. ^ "OpenELEC.tv/packages at master · OpenELEC/OpenELEC.tv · GitHub". Github.com. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  208. ^ https://software.opensuse.org/ Queried on Leap 15.2 using zypper se -s | wc -l on 22 June 2020, with default repositories plus packman.
  209. ^ "Parabola GNU/Linux-libre - Package Search". Retrieved 14 July 2018.
  210. ^ "EPEL". FedoraProject. 26 May 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  211. ^ "SBo - packages".
  212. ^ found this in /usr/lib/setup/setup
  213. ^ "3383 packages and 430719 files in stable database (Sat 22 October 2016 04:04:55 PM UTC)". Pkgs.slitaz.org. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  214. ^ SliTaz Contributors (22 July 2016). "Builder". Tiny SliTaz. Retrieved 12 November 2016.
  215. ^ "All Trisquel Packages in "belenos"". Trisquel. Archived from the original on 10 January 2016. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
  216. ^ "All Ubuntu packages in "hirsute"" (TXT). Packages.ubuntu.com. Retrieved 23 May 2021.
  217. ^ "Download gNewSense 4". Archived from the original on 6 December 2017. Retrieved 4 December 2017.
  218. ^ "GNU Guix Reference Manual, 6.1.3: USB Stick and DVD Installation". Retrieved 19 October 2018.
  219. ^ "Get Manjaro". Retrieved 3 February 2018.
  220. ^ Pentoo Development Website Archived 8 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine
  221. ^ "Scientific Linux i386 Live CD/DVD". Archived from the original on 20 September 2012. Retrieved 26 September 2012.
  222. ^ "System Requirements". slackware. Retrieved 1 August 2019.
  223. ^ "Download Trisquel GNU/Linux". trisquel.info. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  224. ^ "Ubuntu 18.04 (Bionic Beaver)". ubuntu.com. Retrieved 13 May 2018.
  225. ^ "Edubuntu 14.04.3 LTS (Trusty Tahr)". ubuntu.com. Archived from the original on 17 August 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2015.
  226. ^ "Kubuntu 16.04 (Xenial Xerus)". ubuntu.com. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  227. ^ "Xubuntu 16.04 (Xenial Xerus)". Ubuntu.com. Retrieved 8 May 2016.
  228. ^ "Package details". Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  229. ^ "Mandatory Access Control with SELinux". linux-magazine.com. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  230. ^ "Fedora Core 0.94 Release Notes". distrowatch.com. Retrieved 17 May 2020.
  231. ^ a b "Xtreme - ParabolaWiki". wiki.parabola.nu.
  232. ^ "AppArmor (2.3.1) Quick Start". Suse.com. 10 July 2010. Retrieved 17 July 2020.
  233. ^ "Security Features". Retrieved 23 November 2009.
  234. ^ a b "Ubuntu Security/Features". Retrieved 16 May 2021.

External links[edit]