Comparison of assemblers

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This is a list of assemblers: computer programs that translate assembly language source code into binary programs. Some assemblers are components of a compiler system for a high level language and may have limited or no usable functionality outside of the compiler system. Some assemblers are hosted on the target processor and operating system, while other assemblers (cross-assemblers) may run under an unrelated operating system or processor. For example, assemblers for embedded systems are not usually hosted on the target system since it would not have the storage and terminal I/O to permit entry of a program from a keyboard. An assembler may have a single target processor or may have options to support multiple processor types. Very simple assemblers may lack features, such as macros, present in more powerful versions.

As part of a compiler suite[edit]

Single target assemblers[edit]

6502 assemblers[edit]

Assembler Developer FOSS License Instruction set Host platform
Atari Assembler Editor Shepardson Microsystems No Proprietary MOS Technology 6502 Atari 8-bit family
Atari Macro Assembler Shepardson Microsystems No Proprietary MOS Technology 6502 Atari 8-bit family
EDASM Apple Computer No ? MOS Technology 6502 Apple DOS 3.x
k2asm Andre Kaesmacher, Hauke Brandes, Börje Sieling Yes Artistic License MOS Technology 6502 Linux, Windows, macOS, possibly other Unices
Lisa Randall Hyde No Proprietary MOS Technology 6502 Apple II series
MAC/65 Optimized Systems Software No Proprietary MOS Technology 6502, WDC 65C02 Atari 8-bit family
Merlin Glen Bredon Yes Public-domain MOS Technology 6502, WDC 65C02 Apple II series
ORCA/M The Byte Works No Proprietary, Free for non-commercial use MOS Technology 6502, WDC 65C02, WDC 65C816 ProDOS 8/16, GS/OS
RMAC James Hammons, George Nakos, Landon Dyer Yes Free MOS Technology 6502 Linux, Windows, macOS
VASM Volker Barthelmann, Frank Wille No Free MOS Technology 6502 various
XASM Piotr Fusik Yes Free MOS Technology 6502 Linux, Windows, macOS

680x0 assemblers[edit]

Assembler Developer FOSS License Instruction set Host platform Development active
ASM-One Macro Assembler Rune Gram-Madsen No Free Motorola 680x0 Commodore Amiga No
GAS GNU Project Yes Free Motorola 680x0 various
VASM Volker Barthelmann, Frank Wille No Proprietary Motorola 680x0 various Yes
RMAC James Hammons, George Nakos, Landon Dyer Yes Free MOS Technology 6502 Linux, Windows, macOS Yes

ARM assemblers[edit]

Assembler Developer FOSS License Instruction set Host platform
GAS GNU Project Yes Free ARM various
VASM Volker Barthelmann, Frank Wille No Free ARM various

Mainframe Assemblers[edit]

Assembler Developer FOSS License Instruction set Host platform
Assembly Language for Multics (ALM) Yes MIT GE-645
Honeywell 6180
GE-645
Honeywell 6180
705 Autocoder IBM Free IBM 705
1410/7010 OS Autocoder IBM Free IBM 1410
7010
IBM 1410 Processor Operating System
(1410-PR-155)
7070/7074 Autocoder IBM Free IBM 7070
IBM 7072
7074
7080 Autocoder III IBM Free IBM 7080 IBM 7058 Processor
COMPASS Control Data Corporation Free CDC lower 3000 series CDC MASTER
MSOS
RTS OS
SCOPE
COMPASS Control Data Corporation Free CDC upper 3000 series CDC SCOPE
COMPASS Control Data Corporation Free CDC 6000 series
7600
Cyber 70, 170
CDC Kronos
NOS
NOS/BE
SCOPE
Fortran Assembly Program (FAP) Free IBM 709, 704x, 709x Fortran Monitor System, IBSYS
GCOS Macro Assembly Program (GMAP) Free GE-600 series, Honeywell 6000 series GCOS
Macro Assembly Program (MAP) Free IBM 709, 704x, 709x IBSYS/IBJOB on 709, 704x, 709x
Symbolic Assembly Program (SAP) Free IBM 704 IBM 704
IBM Basic Assembly Language (BAL) IBM Free IBM System/360 IBM BPS/360
ASSIST Penn State University Public Domain Free IBM System/360 MVS
UNIVAC VS/9 Assembler Unisys Proprietary Univac 9060 and 9070 (Similar to IBM System/370) VS/9
BS2000 Assembler H Fujitsu Proprietary Fujitsu Technology Series SE (Similar to IBM System/370) BS2000
z390 Portable Mainframe Assembler Don Higgins GPL Free Simulated IBM System/370 Simulated MVS
IBM High-Level Assembler (HLASM) IBM Proprietary IBM System/370. z/Architecture z/OS, z/VSE, z/VM
IBM Assembler D IBM Free IBM System/360 IBM OS/360
IBM Assembler E IBM Free IBM System/360 IBM OS/360
IBM Assembler F IBM Free IBM System/360 IBM OS/360 and CP-67/CMS
Assembler G University of Waterloo[1] Free IBM System/360 and others (table-driven) IBM OS/360 and CP-67/CMS
IBM Assembler H IBM Proprietary IBM System/360 and System/370 IBM OS/360 and successors
IBM Assembler XF IBM Free IBM System/370 numerous
PL360 IBM Free IBM System/360 IBM OS/360

POWER, PowerPC, and Power ISA assemblers[edit]

Assembler Developer FOSS License Instruction set Host platform
GAS GNU Project Yes GNU GPL POWER, PowerPC 74xx, PowerPC 970 All platforms supported by GNU Binutils
IBM AIX assembler IBM No Proprietary POWER IBM AIX
VASM Volker Barthelmann, Frank Wille No Free POWER, 40x, 440, 460, 6xx, 7xx, 7xxx, 860, Book-E, e300 and e500 various

x86 assemblers[edit]

Assembler Developer Operating system FOSS License Development active
A86/A386 Eric Isaacson Windows, DOS No Proprietary No
ACK Andrew Tanenbaum, Ceriel Jacobs Linux, MINIX, Unix-like Yes BSD since 2003 1985-? [1]
IBM ALP IBM OS/2 No Proprietary No
AT&T AT&T Unix System V No Proprietary 1985-?[2]
Digital Research ASM86 Digital Research CP/M-86, DOS, Intel's ISIS and iRMX No Proprietary 1978-1992
FASM Tomasz Grysztar Windows, DOS, Linux, Unix-like Yes BSD with added Copyleft Yes
GAS GNU Project Unix-like, Windows, DOS, OS/2 Yes GNU GPL Since 1987
HLA Randall Hyde Windows, Linux, FreeBSD, macOS Yes Public domain Yes
Open Watcom Assembler
(HJWASM a.k.a. UASM, JWASM, WASM)
Watcom Linux, Windows, DOS, FreeBSD, OS/2 approved by OSI, but not by FSF Sybase Open Watcom Public Yes
MASM Microsoft Windows, DOS, OS/2 No Microsoft EULA Since 1981[3]
NASM Simon Tatham, Julian Hall, Hans Peter Anvin, et al. Linux, macOS, Windows, DOS, OS/2 Yes BSD Yes
Tim Paterson's ASM Tim Paterson 86-DOS, DOS DEBUG No Proprietary 1979-1983
TASM Borland Windows, DOS No Proprietary ?[4][5]
TCCASM Fabrice Bellard Unix-like, Windows Yes LGPL Yes
VASM Volker Barthelmann, Frank Wille various No Free Yes
86-Assembler for DOS Stephen Duffy DOS Yes GPL2 No
Xenix Microsoft Xenix 2.3 and 3.0 (before 1985) No Proprietary 1982-1984
YASM[2] Windows, DOS, Linux, Unix-like Yes BSD Yes
  1. ^ Part of the MINIX 3 source tree, but without obvious development activity.
  2. ^ Developed by Interactive Systems Corporation in 1986 when they ported UNIX System V to Intel iAPX286 and 80386 architectures. Archetypical of ATT syntax because it was used as reference for GAS. Still used for The SCO Group's products, UnixWare and OpenServer.
  3. ^ Home site appears inactive. Also offered as part of FreeBSD Ports, in bcc-1995.03.12.
  4. ^ Active, supported, but unadvertised.
  5. ^ Developed in 1982 at MIT as a cross-assembler, it was picked up by Interactive Systems Corporation in 1983 when they developed PC/IX under IBM contract. The syntax was later used as base for ACK assembler, to be used in MINIX 1.x toolchain.
  6. ^ RosAsm project on WebArchive.org.
  7. ^ Part of the C++Builder Tool Chain, but not sold as a stand-alone product, or marketed since the CodeGear spin-off; Borland was still selling it until then. Version 5.0, the last, is dated 1996.
  8. ^ Turbo Assembler was developed as Turbo Editasm by Uriah Barnett from Speedware Inc (Sacramento, CA) between 1984 and 1987, then later sold to, or marketed by, Borland as their Turbo Assembler.
  9. ^ Last stable version 1.3.0 was released in August 2014, and low maintenance since then: https://github.com/yasm/yasm

x86-64 assemblers[edit]

Assembler Developer Operating system FOSS License Development active
FASM Tomasz Grysztar DOS, Unix-like, Windows Yes BSD Yes
GAS GNU Project DOS, OS/2, Unix-like, Windows Yes GNU GPL Yes
MASM Microsoft DOS, OS/2, Windows No Commercial Yes
NASM Simon Tatham, Julian Hall, Hans Peter Anvin, et al. DOS, Linux, macOS, OS/2, Windows Yes BSD Yes
Open Watcom Assembler Watcom DOS, FreeBSD, Linux, OS/2, Windows approved by OSI, but not by FSF Sybase Open Watcom Public Yes
POASM Windows, Windows Mobile No Freeware Yes
TCCASM Fabrice Bellard Unix-like, Windows Yes GNU LGPL Yes
YASM[3] DOS, Unix-like, Windows Yes BSD Yes

Z80 assemblers[edit]

Assembler Developer Operating system FOSS License Development active
Microsoft MACRO-80 Microsoft CP/M, ISIS-II, TRSDOS, TEKDOS, MSX-DOS No Commercial No
Zeus Assembler Crystal Computing No Commercial No
z80asm Unix-like, Windows Yes GNU GPL No
sjasmplus Sjoerd Mastijn, Aprisobal, Peter Helcmanovský, ... Unix-like, Windows Yes BSD Yes
Rasm Berge Edouard Unix-like, Windows Yes MIT Yes

Other single target assemblers[edit]

Assembler Developer FOSS License Instruction set Host platform
Autocoder IBM Free IBM 1400 series IBM 1401, 1440, 1460
Babbage No Proprietary GEC 4000 series GEC 4000 series
MACRO-10 Digital Equipment Corporation Free PDP-10 PDP-10
MACRO-11 Digital Equipment Corporation Free PDP-11 PDP-11
VAX MACRO Digital Equipment Corporation Proprietary VAX ISA, Alpha OpenVMS
VASM Volker Barthelmann, Frank Wille No Free Zilog Z80, Motorola 6800 family various
GPASM James Bowman, Craig Franklin, David Barnett Yes GNU GPL PIC microcontroller many
MIPS Free MIPS MIPS
Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program (SOAP) IBM Free IBM 650 IBM 650
Technical Assembly System (TASS) Free IBM 650 IBM 650
Symbolic Programming System (SPS)[4] Gary Mokotoff Free IBM 14xx, 1620, 1710 IBM 1401, 1440, 1460, 1620, 1710
ASMB, ASBL, NSBL - Numeric op codes,
used for 1900 Operating System Executive
No Proprietary ICL 1900 ICL 1900
GINerator mnemonic opcodes,
used for GEORGE (operating system)
No Proprietary ICL 1900 ICL 1900
PLAN mnemonic opcodes,
used for commercial 1900 programs
No Proprietary ICL 1900 ICL 1900
Single Address Assembly Language (SAAL) Free UNIVAC 1005 UNIVAC 1005
Sleuth Free UNIVAC 1107 EXEC, EXEC II, EXEC 8
Meta Assembler (MASM) Free UNIVAC 1100/2200 series UNIVAC EXEC 8
UTMOST ? UNIVAC III UNIVAC III

Other[edit]

Assembler Developer FOSS License Instruction set Host platform
The Macroassembler AS Alfred Arnold Free 29xxx, AVR, 65816, ACE, F2MC-8L, F2MC-16L, HMCS400, 6301, 6309, H8/300(H), H8/500, SH7000 / SH7600 / SH7700, HuC6280, PPC403GA, 4004/4040, 8008, MCS-48, MCS-41, MCS-51, MCS-251, MCS-96/196/296, 8080/8085, [ Win32, DOS/DPMI, DOS (no longer maintained), OS/2 (no longer maintained), Linux
Meta-Symbol Scientific Data Systems (SDS) Free SDS Sigma series BTM, UTS, CP-V
Meta Assembler (MASM) UNIVAC Free UNIVAC 1100/2200 series UNIVAC EXEC 8
ASxxxx Cross Assemblers Alan R. Baldwin Yes GNU GPL 1802, S2650, SC/MP, MPS430, 6100, 61860, 6500, 6800(6802/6808), 6801(6803/HD6303), 6804, 6805, 68HC(S)08, 6809, 68HC11, 68HC(S)12, 68HC16, 740, 78K/0, 78K/0S, 8008, 8008S, 8048(8041/8022/8021), 8051, 8085(8080), AT89LP, 8X300(8X305), DS8XCXXX, AVR, EZ80, F2MC8L/FX, F8/3870, Game Boy(sm83), H8/3xx, Cypress PSoC(M8C), PIC, Rabbit 2000/3000, ST6, ST7, ST8, Z8, Z80(HD64180), and Z280 series Win32, DOS, Linux, Android

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Modification of IBM's Assembler F
  2. ^ The Yasm Modular Assembler Project
  3. ^ The Yasm Modular Assembler Project
  4. ^ SPS is actually a family of assemblers for disparate machines.

External links[edit]