Comparison of video container formats

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This table compares many features of container formats (video file formats). To see which multimedia players support which container format, look at comparison of media players.

General information[edit]

Containers related by derivation

In many ways, derived containers are similar to those on which they are based, sometimes extending them, sometimes limiting their capabilities.

Format File extension Owner or creator License Variable bit rate audio Variable frame rate Chapters Metadata / tags Interactive menus Streaming Attachments[i] 3D[1] Hardware players
3GPP (3GP) .3gp 3GPP Patent encumbered Yes Yes No Yes No Yes[2] No No Yes
3GPP2 (3G2) .3g2 3GPP2 Patent encumbered Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No Yes
Advanced Systems Format (ASF) .asf, .wmv Microsoft Proprietary, patent encumbered Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes ? Yes Yes
Audio Video Interleave (AVI) .avi Microsoft Proprietary[3] Yes[ii] Yes[iii] Needs alterations Yes through RIFF chunks No No No No Yes
DivX Media Format (DMF) .divx DivX, Inc. Proprietary Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes ? No Yes
Enhanced VOB (EVO) .evo DVD Forum Patent encumbered Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? No ?
Flash Video F4V .f4v Adobe Inc. Patent encumbered ? Yes ? Yes No Yes ? No ?
Flash Video FLV .flv Adobe Inc. Patent encumbered ? Yes No Yes No Yes ? No ?
Matroska Multimedia Container .mkv, .mk3d CoreCodec, Inc.[iv] Freely licensed[v] Yes[vi] Yes[vi] Yes[7] Yes[8] Pending[9] Yes[vii] Yes[11] Yes[12][11] Yes[viii]
MPEG-4 Part 14 (MP4) .mp4 MPEG Patent encumbered Yes Yes In specially formatted text track (QuickTime); 2) In userdata atom (started by Nero Digital) can't interact with the sceneDescription, or via segmentDescriptor Yes Yes Yes Yes Only at video format level Yes
MPEG Video File
.mpg, .mpeg MPEG Patent encumbered Yes Yes No No No Yes ? No Yes
MPEG program stream (PS) .m2p, .ps MPEG Patent encumbered Yes ? Only in private streams — used in VOB files on DVDs No Only in private streams — used in VOB files on DVDs ? ? No Yes
MPEG transport stream (TS) .ts MPEG Patent encumbered Yes Yes No No No Yes ? No Yes
BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream (M2TS) .m2ts BDA Proprietary Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Needs multiple files[ix] Yes
Material Exchange Format (MXF) .mxf SMPTE Open standard, patent-free[17] Yes Yes ? Yes No ? ? Yes[18] No
Ogg .ogg Xiph.Org Foundation BSD-style license, patent-free Yes Yes Yes CMML, Ogg Skeleton, Vorbis comment[19] No Yes ? No Yes
QuickTime File Format (QTFF) .mov, .qt Apple Inc. Proprietary[20] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Not standard Yes
RealMedia Variable Bitrate (RMVB) .rmvb RealNetworks Proprietary ? Yes ? ? No Yes ? No ?
Video Object (VOB) .vob DVD Forum Proprietary Yes Yes Needs multiple files[x] No Needs multiple files[x] No No No Yes
WebM .webm Google CC BY 3.0 for specs,[21] BSD-like[22] royalty-free[23] for tools Yes Yes Yes[24] Yes[24] No[24] With MPEG-DASH[25] No[24] Some stereo modes[24] of VP8[26] Yes
Format File extension Owner or creator License Variable bit rate audio Variable frame rate Chapters Metadata / tags Interactive menus Streaming Attachments[i] 3D[1] Hardware players
  1. ^ a b Attachments are additional files, such as fonts for subtitles.
  2. ^ ACM cannot handle VBR audio streams in AVI files. Thus, software using ACM to read audio from AVI files will not be able to handle VBR audio streams correctly, even though such files are compliant to the AVI file specification. This is a limitation of the ACM, not of the AVI file format.
  3. ^ Although AVI is not designed for variable framerates, it is possible to use them without creating a non-standard file by using 0-byte chunks for skipped frames. However it requires framerate to be set to Least common multiple of all framerates used, and produces slight overhead compared to true VFR.
  4. ^ Although CoreCodec holds the copyrights and trademarks for the Matroska specification, the specifications are open to everybody. The source code of the libraries developed by the Matroska team is licensed under the LGPL and BSD licenses.
  5. ^ Anyone can use it or modify it for their own needs without paying any license or patents.[4][5]
  6. ^ a b Matroska is designed to store VBR and VFR content.[6]
  7. ^ Matroska can be streamed over HTTP and RTP/RTSP, through it is not meant to be streamed over RTP, as the two have duplicate features. Matroska live streams are different from the files and some features of the file format are not supported in live streams.[10]
  8. ^ Companies producing Matroska-supporting hardware include Asus,[13] OPPO Digital,[14] Panasonic,[15] and LG[16]
  9. ^ Blu-ray 3D adopts a specific file structure to encode stereoscopic video, the MVC stereoscopic data is not in the .m2ts file.
  10. ^ a b VOB adopts a specific file structure to encode DVD content. Chapters and menus require a companion .ifo file.

Note that some common multimedia file formats are not completely distinct container formats. Some are containers for specific audio and video coding formats, such as WebM, a subset of Matroska. Some are combinations of common container formats and audio and video coding profiles, such as AVCHD and DivX formats. Although sometimes compared to DivX producs, Xvid is neither a container format nor a video format, it is a software library that encodes video using specific coding profiles of the common MPEG-4 ASP video format. Those types of restrictions are intended to simplify the construction of multimedia recorders and players.

Video coding formats support[edit]

Format Type 3GP, 3G2 ASF[27] AVI[a] DMF EVO FLV[I] F4V MKV PS, TS[II] M2TS MP4[34] MXF Ogg[b] QTFF[37] RMVB VOB WebM[24]
DV Intra-frame No Yes Yes No No No No VCM[c] No No DVCPRO HD Yes[39][III] No DV 25 No No No
M-JPEG Intra-frame No Yes Yes No No No No VCM[c] No No Yes No No Yes No No No
MJ2 Intra-frame No No Not standard No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No
MPEG-1 Video Lossy No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No
MPEG-2 Video Lossy No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Needs VLC[IV] Yes No Yes No
MPEG-4 Visual Lossy Yes Yes Yes MPEG-4 ASP with DivX profiles No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Needs VLC[IV] Yes No No No
Microsoft MPEG4 V2 Lossy No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No Yes[42] No No No No No No
VC-1 Lossy No Yes Yes No Yes No No VCM[c] No Yes Yes Yes Needs VLC[IV] Yes No No No
Sorenson Lossy No No Version 1 No No Spark No Yes No No Yes No No Versions 1 and 3 No No No
H.263 Lossy Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No No No Yes No No Yes No No No
VP6 Lossy No No Needs VP6[43][44] No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
RealVideo Lossy No No Not standard No No No No RV10, RV20, RV30, RV40 No No RV60 No No No RV30, RV40, RV60 No No
Cinepak Lossy No No Yes No No No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes No No No
Indeo Lossy No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Theora Lossy No No Needs ffdshow No No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes No No No No
MPEG-4 AVC Lossy or lossless Yes Yes Yes[V] No Yes Not standard Yes Yes Yes[45] Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No
MPEG-H HEVC Lossy or lossless Yes Yes Yes No No No No Beta[VI] Yes No Yes Pending[48] No Yes[49] No No No
Dirac Lossy or lossless No No Needs Dirac[50] No No No No VCM[c] Private No Yes No Yes[51][52] Not standard No No No
VP8 Lossy or lossless No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No Yes No Needs Firefox[53] No No No Yes
VP9 Lossy or lossless No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No Yes No Needs Firefox[53] No No No Yes
AV1 Lossy or lossless No No No No No No No Beta Planned No Yes No No No No No Beta
MVC Stereoscopic Yes No No No No No No Yes[12] No No Yes No[VII][VIII] No No No No No
HuffYUV Lossless No No Needs HuffYUV[55] No No No No VCM[c] No No No No No No No No No
YCbCr[IX] Not compressed No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No SheerVideo Yes[56] Beta[57] Yes No No No
Other Other Screen Video JPEG 2000, TICO MNG, JNG, PNG[58] DVC Pro 50, Photo JPEG, Graphics, Quicktime Animation
Obsolete Other
Format Type 3GP, 3G2 ASF[27] AVI[a] DMF EVO FLV[I] F4V MKV PS, TS[II] M2TS MP4[34] MXF Ogg[b] QTFF[37] RMVB VOB WebM[24]
  1. ^ a b Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification,[31] p. 72, sec. E.4.3.1.
  2. ^ a b See the MPEG-2 Part 1 specification[32] and registered TS identifiers.[33]
  3. ^ DV, DVC Pro, and DVCam in MXF,[40] pp. 166-172.
  4. ^ a b c VLC supports some video codecs in Ogg not officially covered by the specifications of Ogg.[41]
  5. ^ B-frames in an AVI file are a problem only for the ancient Video-for-Windows API, not for the AVI container itself.
  6. ^ HEVC is not mentioned in the latest draft of Matroska,[46] but MKVToolNix and VLC support it.[47]
  7. ^ MVC is not covered by the latest iteration of the MXF standards.[54]
  8. ^ MPEG, MXF, and SMPTE 381M,[40] pp. 201-219.
  9. ^ The digital YCbCr format is often informally called YUV, the analog format used as basis for it.

Audio coding formats support[edit]

Format Type 3GP 3G2 ASF[27] AVI[a] DMF EVO FLV[α] F4V MKV PS, TS[33] M2TS MP4[34] MXF Ogg[b] QTFF[37] RMVB VOB[59] WebM[24]
Speex Speech No No No No No No Yes No ACM[c] No No No No Yes No No No No
AMR Speech Yes AMR-NB, AMR-WB Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No
QCELP Speech No 13K Yes No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No
G.728 Speech No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No
MPEG-1 Audio Layer I Lossy No No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No
MPEG-1 Audio Layer II Lossy No No Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No Yes No
MPEG-1 Audio Layer III Lossy No No Yes Yes[β][61] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Needs OGMtools[62] Yes No No No
MPEG-2 Audio Lossy No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No Layer II No
AAC Lossy Yes Only AAC-LC, HE-AAC v1 Yes Yes[β][61] No No Yes Yes[γ] Yes Private Yes Yes Yes No Yes Only AAC-LC, HE-AAC v1 No No
AC-3 Lossy No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Private Yes Yes[63] Yes Needs OGMtools[62] Yes Yes Private No
E-AC-3 Lossy No No Yes No No Yes No No QuickTime[δ] No Yes Yes No No Yes No No No
DTS Lossy No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Private Yes Yes No No No No Private No
WMA Lossy No No Yes Yes No No No No ACM[c] No No No No No No No No No
ATRAC3 Lossy No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No Yes No No
QDesign Music 1 and 2 Lossy No No No No No No No No QuickTime[δ] No No No No No Yes No No No
Vorbis Lossy No No No Tricky[ε] No No No No Yes No No Private No Yes No No No Yes
Opus Lossy No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes
FLAC Lossless No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No Not standard[66] No Yes No No No No
ALAC Lossless No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No Yes No No Yes No No No
MLP Lossless No No No No No Yes No No No Private No Yes[34] No No No No Private No
Dolby TrueHD Lossless No No No No No Yes No No No No Yes Yes No No No No No No
DTS-HD Lossless No No No No No Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes[34] No No Yes No No No
WMA Lossless Lossless No No Yes Yes No No No No ACM[c] No No No No No No No No No
ALS Lossless No No No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No No
SLS Lossless No No No No No No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No No
LPCM Not compressed No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Private Yes Yes Yes Beta[67] Yes No Private No
μ-law PCM Not compressed No No Yes Yes No No Yes No ACM[c] No No No No Yes Yes No No No
A-law PCM Not compressed No No No Yes No No Yes No ACM[c] No No No Yes Yes Yes No No No
Microsoft ADPCM Not compressed No No Yes[27] Yes No No No No ACM[c] No No No No No Yes No No No
IEEE floating-point PCM Not compressed No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No
DV Audio Not compressed No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes[39] No Yes No No No
Other Other EVS EVRC, EVRC-B, EVRC-WB, SMV, VMR-WB Microsoft GSM 6.10 G.721, G.722, G.723, G.726, G.729a, CVSD, ATRAC1, Dolby AC-2 Asao, SWF ADPCM[68] Musepack, WavPack, TTA, any format supported by ACM IMA 4:1, non-IEEE floating-point PCM IS-54, Cook Codec, Sipro Lab ACELP-NET, RealAudio Lossless
Obsolete Other Truespeech, many others CELT MACE 3:1, MACE 6:1
Format Type 3GP 3G2 ASF[27] AVI[a] DMF EVO FLV[α] F4V MKV PS, TS[33] M2TS MP4[34] MXF Ogg[b] QTFF[37] RMVB VOB[59] WebM[24]
  1. ^ a b Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification,[31] p. 70, sec. E.4.3.2.
  2. ^ a b Setting dwSampleSize to 0 in the stream headers triggers VBR stream seeking.[60]
  3. ^ Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification,[31] pp. 7-8, sec. 1.8.
  4. ^ a b Matroska can support some codecs privately when wrapped in a QuickTime data structure.[6]
  5. ^ Vorbis is not officially supported in AVI. While it can technically be muxed into AVI using FFmpeg, Nandub and AVI-Mux GUI[64] many sources report trouble playing back the resulting files,[65] which are incompatible with existing Vorbis decoders for DirectShow and ACM, occasionally causing desynchronization when seeking.

Subtitle/caption formats support[edit]

Format Type 3GP, 3G2 ASF[27] AVI[A] DMF EVO FLV F4V MKV[70] PS, TS[33] M2TS MP4 MXF[B] Ogg[b] QTFF[37] RMVB VOB WebM[24]
VobSub Picture No No Needs alterations No No No No Mature[C] No As PGS[D] Yes No No Not standard No Yes No
DVB-SUB[77] Picture No No No No No No No Mature[E] Yes No No Yes[78] No No No No No
PGS[F] Picture No No No No HD DVD No No Mature[E] No Blu-ray As VobSub[D] No No No No As VobSub[D] No
XSUB Picture No No Needs alterations[79][80] Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Ogg Kate[81] Picture or formatted text No No No No No No No Beta No No No No Yes No No No No
SMIL XML No No No No No No No No No No No No No QuickTime SMIL RealText No No
USF XML No No Needs alterations No No No No Planned No No No No No No No No No
TTXT[G] XML Yes No No No No No Yes[31] No[H] No No Yes No No Yes[37] No No No
SAMI HTML No Yes Needs alterations No No No No No No No No As SMPTE-TT No No No No No
SubRip[I] Formatted text As TTXT[83] As SAMI[J] Needs alterations[64] No No No As TTXT[83] Yes[84] No No As TTXT[83] As SMPTE-TT As Ogg Kate[85] As TTXT[83] No No As WebVTT
WebVTT Formatted text As TTXT[83] No No No No Using ActionScript[K] As TTXT[83] Yes[87] No No Yes[88] As SMPTE-TT No As TTXT[83] No No Yes
ASS, SSA Formatted text No No Needs alterations[64] No No No No Yes[89] No No No As SMPTE-TT No No No No No
TextST[F] Text stream No No No No No No No Beta No Yes No No No No No No No
SMPTE-TT[72] Text stream No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No No No
Ogg Writ[90] Text stream No No No No No No No No No No No No Beta[L] No No No No
MicroDVD Plain text No No Needs alterations No No No No No No No No No As Ogg Writ[L] No No No No
Others Other Generic bitmap images, generic plain text[46] CEA-708 BIFS EBU-TT[92] EIA-608
Obsolete Other CMML
Format Type 3GP, 3G2 ASF[27] AVI[A] DMF EVO FLV F4V MKV[70] PS, TS[33] M2TS MP4 MXF[B] Ogg[b] QTFF[37] RMVB VOB WebM[24]
  1. ^ a b AVI is not designed to embed subtitles, requiring changes to the format and third party tools such as DirectVobSub[69] and VLC.
  2. ^ a b SMPTE standardized the format for text subtitles in MXF[71][72][73] without a reference software implementation, leaving it to independent developers.[74]
  3. ^ Matroska has a generic specification for images,[75] and VobSub has been supported by MKVToolNix for a long time, but the specification is not yet formally approved.[46]
  4. ^ a b c Requires tools that are not officially related to the container format.[76]
  5. ^ a b DVB-SUB and PGS are well supported by common tools such as MKVToolNix and VLC. The storage format is specified,[46] but the specification is not officially approved yet.
  6. ^ a b HDMV PGS and TextST subtitles are used on HD DVD and Blu-ray.
  7. ^ TTXT is often called MPEG-4 Timed Text (MP4TT, MP4-TT) or 3GPP Timed Text (3GPP-TT, tx3g).
  8. ^ MPEG-4 Timed Text subtitles aren't supported in Matroska according to developer of MKVToolNix.[82]
  9. ^ SubRip can be converted losslessly to and from native subtitle formats of several containers, and this conversion is supported by many common tools.
  10. ^ Requires tools that are not officially related to the container format.[74]
  11. ^ Loading subtitles with ActionScript[86] may be restricted to the official Adobe Flash Player.
  12. ^ a b Ogg Writ is well supported in common tools such as OGMtools[62] and VLC, but there's no intention to turn its draft into a fully supported specification. Xiph recommends using Kate for subtitles.[91]

Note that converting image subtitles to text formats is possible using third-party tools[93] but relies on optical character recognition, which is not perfectly accurate and can at best extract basic formatting. Conversion of text to images is possible while preserving content and style.

Overhead[edit]

Multimedia containers interleave data in media streams to enable efficient playback using less computational resources, such as time spent reading from the storage drive, memory needed to buffer selected media streams, and time spent decoding when seeking to a different position in time. In this sense, muxing overhead is the control information added by the container to carry interleaved streams. A smaller overhead results in a smaller file when carrying the same streams with the same data. Overhead is affected by the total number of packets and by the size of stream packet headers. In high bitrate encodings, the content payload is usually large enough to make the overhead data relatively insignificant, but in low bitrate encodings, the inefficiency of the overhead can significantly affect the resulting file size if the container uses large stream packet headers or a large number of packets.

In general, Matroska[94] offers the least overhead, followed by MP4, AVI and Ogg.[95]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d AVI officially supports all codecs in the Media Foundation[28][27] which is an evolution of VCM and ACM, both of which are now obsolete. Some older codecs used to be officially supported,[29] and there are many known non-standard third-party extensions.[30]
  2. ^ a b c d e f Xiph has standardized the support for codecs in Ogg,[35] but added support for more codecs afterwards.[36]
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Matroska can support some codecs when wrapped in two specific Video for Windows data structures, VCM and ACM,[38] but support outside Windows may be limited.[6]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Gavrilov, Kirill (2017). "Stereoscopic Formats". sView (Guide). Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  2. ^ Transparent end-to-end packet switched streaming service (PSS); 3GPP file format (3GP) (Specification). Version 15.0.0 (2018-06). Valbonne, France: 3GPP. 22 June 2018. 3GPP TS 26.244. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  3. ^ AVI (Audio Video Interleaved) File Format (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  4. ^ Lhomme, Steve; Vialle, Ludovic; Bunkus, Moritz (2018). "Legal Aspect" (License). Roubaix, France: Matroska. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  5. ^ Matroska Multimedia Container (Partial draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 21 December 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  6. ^ a b c "Matroska FAQ" (FAQ). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  7. ^ Chapter Specifications (Specification). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  8. ^ Tag Specifications (Specification). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  9. ^ Menu Specifications (Draft). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  10. ^ "Matroska Streaming" (Guide). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  11. ^ a b "Elements semantic". Specifications (Draft). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  12. ^ a b Lhomme, Steve (19 September 2010). "Matroska Stereo 3D" (Press release). Matroska. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  13. ^ "O!Play Air" (Product). Asus. 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  14. ^ "BDP-83/BDP-83SE Product Support" (Guide). Oppo Digital. 29 December 2001. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  15. ^ Buchanan, Matt (29 December 2008). "Samsung's 2009 HDTV Lineup Leaked". Gizmodo. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  16. ^ Wong, Philip (18 October 2010). "How to select the right LG HDTV (2010)". CNET Asia (Guide). CNET. Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
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  18. ^ Stereoscopic 3D in MXF for Operations - Common Provisions (Standard). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 13 May 2014. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2070-1.2014. ISBN 978-1-61482-808-2. ST 2070-1:2014 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
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  20. ^ QuickTime File Format (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 14 February 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  21. ^ "WebM Bitstream Specification License". The WebM Project (License). 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  22. ^ "Software License". The WebM Project (License). 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  23. ^ "Additional IP Rights Grant (Patents)". The WebM Project (License). 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k WebM Container Guidelines (Specification). WebM Project. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  25. ^ "Instructions to do WebM live streaming via DASH". The WebM Wiki (Guide). The WebM Project. 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  26. ^ VP8 Encode Parameter Guide (Manual). The WebM Project. 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  27. ^ a b c d e f g h "Media Types" (Index). Microsoft. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  28. ^ Supported Media Formats in Media Foundation (Specification). Microsoft. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  29. ^ Fleischman, Eric (June 1998). WAVE and AVI Codec Registries. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC2361. RFC 2361. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  30. ^ Wilson, Dave (2016). "Video Codecs by FOURCC". FOURCC.org (Index). Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  31. ^ a b c d Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification (PDF) (Specification). Version 10.1. San Jose, CA: Adobe Inc. 3 September 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  32. ^ Information technology - Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems (PDF) (Standard) (2nd ed.). ISO. 1 December 2000. ISO/IEC 13818-1:2000. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010.
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  36. ^ Specification of MIME types and respective codecs parameter (Specification). Xiph.Org Foundation. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
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  39. ^ a b For Television - Material Exchange Format (MXF) - Mapping DV-DIF Data to the MXF Generic Container (Standard) (Standard). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 13 March 2008. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST383.2008. ISBN 978-1-61482-525-8. SMPTE ST 383:2008 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
  40. ^ a b Devlin, Bruce; Wilkinson, Jim; Beard, Matt; Tudor, Phil (28 March 2006). Wells, Nick (ed.). The MXF Book: An Introduction to the Material eXchange Format (1st ed.). Burlington, MA: Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-80693-8. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
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  42. ^ Recommended Practice - VC-1 Bitstream Storage in the ISO Base Media File Format (Recommendation). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 4 April 2007. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.RP2025.2007. ISBN 978-1-61482-251-6. SMPTE RP 2025:2007 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
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  44. ^ "On2 VP6". MultimediaWiki (Guide). 14 September 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  45. ^ Lee, Jae-Beom; Kalva, Hari (19 August 2008). The VC-1 and H.264 Video Compression Standards for Broadband Video Services (1st ed.). Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-71042-6. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  46. ^ a b c d Lhomme, Steve; Bunkus, Moritz; Rice, Dave (22 July 2019). Matroska Codec. Version 02. IETF. I-D draft-ietf-cellar-codec. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  47. ^ Bunkus, Moritz (22 June 2019). "News". MKVToolNix - Matroska tools for Linux/Unix and Windows (Changelog). Retrieved 21 July 2019.
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  50. ^ "Dirac". SourceForge (Repository). 4 June 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  51. ^ "OggDirac" (Index). Xiph.Org Foundation. 11 July 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
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