Comparison of video container formats

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Comparison of container formats)
Jump to navigation Jump to search

These tables compare features of multimedia container formats, most often used for storing or streaming digital video or digital audio content. To see which multimedia players support which container format, look at comparison of media players.

General information[edit]

Containers related by derivation

In many ways, derived containers are similar to those on which they are based, sometimes extending them, sometimes limiting their capabilities.

General information about video container formats
Format Filename extension Owner or creator Initial release License[a] VBR audio VFR Hardware players Streaming[A] Metadata[B] Chapters Attachments[C] Interactive menus 3D[D][3]
Matroska .mkv, .mk3d[E] CoreCodec[F] 2002-12-06 Freely licensed[G] Yes[H] Yes[H] Yes[I] Yes[J] Yes[13] Yes[14] Yes[15] Planned[16] Yes[15]
MPEG-4 Part 14 (MP4) .mp4, .m4v[K] MPEG 2001-10 Patent encumbered[17] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Not standard[L] Yes Yes Only at video format level
QuickTime File Format (QTFF) .mov, .qt Apple Inc. 1991-12-02 Proprietary[20] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Not standard
Advanced Systems Format (ASF) .asf, .wmv[M] Microsoft 1996-09-16 Royalties on codecs[N] Yes Yes Yes Yes[22] Yes Yes No No Not standard
Audio Video Interleave (AVI) .avi Microsoft 1992-11-10 Proprietary[23] Yes[O] Yes[P] Yes No Yes Needs alterations No No No
Material Exchange Format (MXF) .mxf SMPTE 2004-09-22 Patent-free[24] Yes Yes No Yes[24] Yes No No No Yes[25]
MPEG program stream (PS) .m2p, .ps[Q] MPEG 1993-08 Patent-free[26] Yes Yes[R] Yes No No No No No No
MPEG transport stream (TS) .ts, .tsv[S][Q] MPEG 1995-07-10 Patent-free[26] Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
BDAV MPEG-2 transport stream (M2TS) .m2ts, .mts BDA 2004-08 Patent encumbered Yes Yes Yes With DVB[28] Needs multiple files[T] Needs multiple files[U] Needs multiple files[V] Yes Needs multiple files[W]
Video Object (VOB) .vob DVD Forum 1996-11-01 Patent encumbered Yes Yes Yes No No Needs multiple files[X] No Needs multiple files[X] No
Enhanced VOB (EVO) .evo DVD Forum 2006-03-31 Patent encumbered[29] Yes Yes Yes No No Needs multiple files[Y] No Yes No
3GPP (3GP) .3gp 3GPP 2003-04-04 Patent encumbered Yes Yes Yes Yes[31] Yes No No No No
3GPP2 (3G2) .3g2 3GPP2 2004-01 Patent encumbered Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No
Flash Video (F4V) .f4v[Z] Adobe Inc. 2007-12-03 Patent encumbered Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[32] No No No
Flash Video (FLV) .flv Adobe Inc. 2003-09-10 Proprietary[33] Yes[AA] Yes Yes With RTMP Yes Yes[32] No No No
Ogg .ogv, .ogx[AB] Xiph.Org 2003-05 Open source[38] Yes Yes Yes Yes[39] Yes[40] As Vorbis comments[AC] No No No
WebM .webm Google 2010-05-18 Royalty-free[42] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[43] Yes[43] No[43] No[43] Yes[AD]
RealMedia Variable Bitrate (RMVB) .rmvb RealNetworks 2003 Proprietary Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[44] No No No No
DivX Media Format (DMF) .divx DivX, Inc. 2005-06-15 Proprietary Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
  1. ^ Indicates if the container can be used for a container bitstream, for example, for use as an RTP payload format. Some technologies, such as WebRTC, do not use any container formats for streaming. Some use fragmented MP4 (fMP4) or MPEG-TS segment files, such as HLS and MPEG-DASH.[2]
  2. ^ Tags.
  3. ^ Attachments are additional files, such as fonts for subtitles.
  4. ^ Container format level.
  5. ^ Also .mka for content that is primarily audio or .mks for subtitles only.[4]
  6. ^ Although CoreCodec, Inc. holds the copyrights and trademarks for the Matroska specification, the specifications are open to everybody. The source code of the libraries developed by the Matroska team is licensed under the LGPL and BSD licenses.
  7. ^ Anyone can use it or modify it for their own needs without paying any license or patents.[5][6]
  8. ^ a b Matroska is designed to store VBR and VFR content.[7]
  9. ^ Companies producing Matroska-supporting hardware include Asus,[8] OPPO Digital,[9] Samsung,[10] and LG[11]
  10. ^ Matroska can be streamed over HTTP and RTP/RTSP, through it is not meant to be streamed over RTP, as the two have duplicate features.[12]
  11. ^ Also .m4a, .m4b or .m4p for audio-only content.
  12. ^ There are two popular representations: text track (QuickTime), and userdata atom (Nero).[18][19]
  13. ^ Also .wma for audio-only content.
  14. ^ License required from manufacturers or developers of codecs, but no license fees for the distribution of content.[21]
  15. ^ ACM cannot handle VBR audio streams in AVI files. Thus, software using ACM to read audio from AVI files will not be able to handle VBR audio streams correctly, even though such files are compliant to the AVI file specification. This is a limitation of the ACM, not of the AVI file format.
  16. ^ Although AVI is not designed for variable framerates, it is possible to use them without creating a non-standard file by using 0-byte chunks for skipped frames. However, it requires the framerate to be set to the least common multiple of all framerates used, and produces slight overhead compared to true VFR.
  17. ^ a b The following extensions are also often used for an MPEG program or a transport stream: .mpg, .mpeg, .mpv, .m1v; also .mpa, .mp3, .mp2, .mp1, .m2a or .m1a for audio-only content.
  18. ^ MPEG-2 Part 1 specification,[27] p. 64, sec. 2.6.3.
  19. ^ Also .tsa for audio-only content.
  20. ^ Blu-ray adopts a specific file structure. Simple title metadata are stored in the /BMDV/index.bdmv file.
  21. ^ Blu-ray adopts a specific file structure. Chapters require a companion .mpls file in the /BDMV/PLAYLIST/ directory.
  22. ^ Blu-ray adopts a specific file structure. Fonts for subtitles .otf files in the /BDMV/AUXDATA/ directory.
  23. ^ Blu-ray 3D adopts a specific file structure to encode stereoscopic video. MVC stereoscopic data is in .ssif files in the /BDMV/STREAM/SSIF/ directory and require a respective base .m2ts file.
  24. ^ a b VOB adopts a specific file structure to encode DVD content. Chapters and menus require a companion .ifo file.
  25. ^ EVO adopts a specific file structure to encode HD DVD content. Chapters require companion .xpl file.[30]
  26. ^ Also .f4a, .f4b and .f4p for audio-only content.
  27. ^ Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification,[34] p. 1. SWF File Format Specification,[35] p. 188.
  28. ^ Also .oga, .ogg or .opus for audio-only content.[36][37]
  29. ^ Chapters stored as Vorbis comments[41] are well supported by common tools such as FFmpeg and VLC.
  30. ^ Some stereo modes are supported.[43]

Some common multimedia file formats are not completely distinct container formats. Some are containers for specific audio and video coding formats, such as WebM, a subset of Matroska. Some are combinations of common container formats and audio and video coding profiles, such as AVCHD and DivX formats. Although sometimes compared to DivX products, Xvid is neither a container format nor a video format, it is a software library that encodes video using specific coding profiles of the common MPEG-4 ASP video format. Those types of restrictions are intended to simplify the construction of multimedia recorders and players.

Video coding formats support[edit]

Video container support for video coding formats
Format Type Initial release License[a] MKV MP4[45] QTFF[46] ASF[47] AVI[b] MXF PS, TS[I] M2TS VOB EVO 3GP, 3G2 F4V FLV[II] Ogg[c] WebM[43]
MPEG-H HEVC Lossy or lossless 2013-06-07 Patent encumbered[53] Yes[III] Yes Yes[56] Yes Yes Yes[57] Yes No No No Yes No No No No
MPEG-4 AVC Lossy or lossless 2004-08-17 Patent encumbered[58] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[IV] Yes Yes[59] Yes No Yes Yes Yes Not standard No No
AV1 Lossy or lossless 2018-03-28 Patent claims Beta[60] Yes No No No No Planned No No No No No No No Beta[60]
VP9 Lossy or lossless 2013-06-17 Patent claims Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Needs Firefox[61] Yes
VP8 Lossy or lossless 2008-09-13 Patent claims Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Needs Firefox[61] Yes
Dirac Lossy or lossless 2008-03-06 Patent-free[62] VCM[d] No Not standard No Needs Dirac[63] No Private No No No No No No Yes[64][65] No
MVC Stereoscopic 2009-05 Patent encumbered Yes[15] No No No No No[V][VI] No No No No Yes No No No No
MPEG-1 Video Lossy 1993-08 Expired patents[68][69] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
MPEG-2 Video Lossy 1996-05 Expired patents Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Needs VLC[VII] No
MPEG-4 Visual Lossy 1999-12 Patent encumbered[71] Yes Yes First edition Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Needs VLC[VII] No
Microsoft MPEG4 V2 Lossy 2003 Patent encumbered, proprietary Yes Not standard Not standard Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No
VC-1 Lossy 2006-02-24 Patent encumbered[72] VCM[d] Yes[73] Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes No No No Needs VLC[VII] No
H.263 Lossy 1996-03-20 Patent encumbered[71] No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes Yes No No No
Theora Lossy 2004-06-01 Free license[74] Yes No No No Needs ffdshow No No No No No No No No Yes No
Cinepak Lossy 1991 Proprietary Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No No No
Sorenson Lossy 1998-03-30 Proprietary Yes No Versions 1 and 3 No Version 1 No No No No No No No Spark No No
RealVideo Lossy 1997-02 Proprietary RV10, RV20, RV30, RV40 RV60 No No Not standard No No No No No No No No No No
VP6 Lossy 2003-05-12 Proprietary No No No No Needs VP6[75][76] No No No No No No No Yes No No
DV Intra-frame 1995 Proprietary VCM[d] DVCPRO HD DV 25 Yes Yes Yes[78][VIII] No No No No No No No No No
M-JPEG Intra-frame 1994-05 Expired patents[79] VCM[d] Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No
MJ2 Intra-frame 2003-12 Patent encumbered[80] No Yes No No Not standard Yes No No No No No No No No No
Apple ProRes Intra-frame 2007-04-15 Proprietary No No Yes[81] No No Yes[81] No No No No No No No No No
HuffYUV Lossless 2000 Open source VCM[d] No No No Needs HuffYUV[82] No No No No No No No No No No
YCbCr[IX] Not compressed 1982 Patent-free Yes SheerVideo Yes Yes Yes Yes[83] No No No No No No No Planned[84] No
Other Other Varies DVC Pro 50, Photo JPEG, Graphics, QuickTime Animation Indeo JPEG 2000, TICO Screen Video MNG, JNG, PNG[85]
  1. ^ See the MPEG-2 Part 1 specification[27] and registered TS identifiers.[51]
  2. ^ Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification,[34] p. 72, sec. E.4.3.1; p. 1. SWF File Format Specification,[35] Chapter 14: Video, pp. 204-218.
  3. ^ HEVC is mentioned in the latest (07) draft of Matroska,[54] MKVToolNix and VLC already support it.[55]
  4. ^ B-frames in an AVI file are a problem only for the ancient Video-for-Windows API, not for the AVI container itself.
  5. ^ MVC is not covered by the latest iteration of the MXF standards.[66]
  6. ^ MPEG, MXF, and SMPTE 381M,[67] pp. 201-219.
  7. ^ a b c VLC supports some video codecs in Ogg not officially covered by the specifications of Ogg.[70]
  8. ^ DV, DVC Pro, and DVCam in MXF,[67] pp. 166-172.
  9. ^ The digital YCbCr format is often informally called YUV, the analog format used as basis for it.

Some containers only support a restricted set of video formats:

Audio coding formats support[edit]

Video container support for audio coding formats
Format Type Initial release License[a] MKV MP4[45] QTFF[46] ASF[47] AVI[b] MXF PS, TS[51] M2TS VOB[86] EVO 3GP 3G2 F4V FLV[α] Ogg[c] WebM[43] RMVB DMF
AAC Lossy 1997-12 Royalties on codecs[β] Yes Yes Yes AAC-LC, HE-AAC[88] AAC-LC, HE-AAC[γ][88] Yes Private No No No AAC-LC, HE-AAC AAC-LC, HE-AAC v1 Yes[δ] Yes No No AAC-LC, HE-AAC v1 No
MP3 Lossy 1991-12-06 Expired patents[89] Yes Yes MPEG-1 Audio Yes Yes[γ] Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes Yes Needs OGMtools[92] No No Yes
AC-3 Lossy 1991-02 Expired patents Yes Yes[93] Yes Yes Yes Yes Private Yes Private Yes No No No No Needs OGMtools[92] No Yes Yes
E-AC-3 Lossy 2005-02 Patent encumbered QuickTime[ε] Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No
DTS Lossy 1993-06-09 Proprietary Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Private Yes Private Yes No No No No No No No Yes
WMA Lossy 1999-08-17 Proprietary[94] ACM[d] No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Opus Lossy 2012-09-11 Royalty-free Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No
Vorbis Lossy 2000-05-08 Open source[95] Yes Private No No Tricky[ζ] No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No
MP2 Lossy 1991-12-06 Patent-free[η] Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No
MP1 Lossy 1991-12-06 Expired patents Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No No No No No No No
QDesign Music 1 and 2 Lossy 1998 Proprietary QuickTime[ε] No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No
ATRAC3 Lossy 2000-09 Proprietary Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No
FLAC Lossless 2001-07-20 Open source Yes Not standard[99] No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No
ALAC Lossless 2004-04-28 Open source Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No
WMA Lossless Lossless 2003-01-07 Proprietary[100] ACM[d] No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No
DTS-HD Lossless 2011-08 Proprietary Yes Yes[45] Yes No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No
Dolby TrueHD Lossless 2006-04-18 Proprietary Mature[θ] Yes No No No No No Yes No Yes No No No No No No No No
MLP Lossless 1999-03 Proprietary No Yes[45] No No No No Private No Private Yes No No No No No No No No
ALS Lossless 2006-03 Patent encumbered No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
SLS Lossless 2006-06 Patent encumbered No Yes No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No
LPCM Not compressed 1979 Patent-free[101] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Private Yes Private Yes No No No Yes Planned[102] No No Yes
A-law PCM Not compressed 1972-12 Expired patents[103] ACM[d] No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No
μ-law PCM Not compressed 1972-12 Expired patents[103] ACM[d] No Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No
IEEE floating-point PCM Not compressed ≥1985 Patent-free[ι] Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No No No Yes No No No
Microsoft ADPCM Not compressed 1992-05 Proprietary ACM[d] No Yes Yes[47] Yes No No No No No No No No No No No No No
DV Audio Not compressed 1995 Proprietary No Yes Yes No No Yes[78] No No No No No No No No No No No No
AMR Speech 1999-06-23 Patent encumbered No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No Yes AMR-NB, AMR-WB No No No No No No
G.728 Speech 1992-09 Expired patents No No No No Yes No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No
Speex Speech 2003-03-24 Open source[104] ACM[d] No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes Yes No No No
QCELP Speech 1994 Proprietary No No Yes Yes No No No No No No No 13K No No No No No No
Other Other Varies Musepack, WavPack, TTA, any format supported by ACM IMA 4:1, non-IEEE floating-point PCM Microsoft GSM 6.10 G.721, G.722, G.723, G.726, G.729a, CVSD, ATRAC1, Dolby AC-2 EVS EVRC, EVRC-B, EVRC-WB, SMV, VMR-WB Asao, SWF ADPCM[105] IS-54, Cook Codec, Sipro Lab ACELP-NET, RealAudio Lossless
Obsolete Other Varies MACE 3:1, MACE 6:1 Truespeech, many others CELT
  1. ^ Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification,[34] p. 70, sec. E.4.3.2; p. 1. SWF File Format Specification,[35] Chapter 11: Sounds, pp. 177-192.
  2. ^ License required from manufacturers or developers of codecs, but no license fees for the distribution of content.[87]
  3. ^ a b Setting dwSampleSize to 0 in the stream headers triggers VBR stream seeking[90] allowing VBR audio formats in AVI.[91]
  4. ^ Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification,[34] pp. 7-8, sec. 1.8.
  5. ^ a b Matroska can support some codecs privately when wrapped in a QuickTime data structure.[77]
  6. ^ Vorbis is not officially supported in AVI. While it can technically be muxed into AVI using FFmpeg, Nandub and AVI-Mux GUI[96] many sources report trouble playing back the resulting files,[97] which are incompatible with existing Vorbis decoders for DirectShow and ACM, occasionally causing desynchronization when seeking.
  7. ^ Proprietary tools.[98]
  8. ^ Dolby TrueHD is supported by common tools such as MKVToolNix and VLC.
  9. ^ Special case of LPCM.[101]

Audio-only content can sometimes be placed in a simpler audio-only container, such as Native FLAC for FLAC[106] and ADTS for AAC.

Subtitle formats support[edit]

Video container support for subtitle formats
Format Type Initial release License[a] MKV[107] MP4 QTFF[46] ASF[47] AVI[i] MXF[ii] PS, TS[51] M2TS VOB EVO 3GP, 3G2 F4V FLV Ogg[c] WebM[43]
SubRip[iii] Formatted text 2000-03-03 Open source Yes[113] As TTXT[114] As TTXT[114] As SAMI[iv] Needs alterations[96] As SMPTE-TT No No No No As TTXT[114] As TTXT[114] No As Ogg Kate[115] As WebVTT
WebVTT Formatted text 2010-08-10 Open source Yes[116] Yes[117] As TTXT[114] No No As SMPTE-TT No No No No As TTXT[114] As TTXT[114] Using ActionScript[v] No Yes
ASS, SSA Formatted text 1996 Open source Yes[119] No No No Needs alterations[96] As SMPTE-TT No No No No No No No No No
TTXT[vi] XML 2006-04 Patent encumbered No[vii] Yes Yes[46] No No No No No No No Yes Yes[34] No No No
USF XML 2002-11-10 Proprietary Planned No No No Needs alterations No No No No No No No No No No
SAMI HTML 1998-06-25 Proprietary No No No Yes Needs alterations As SMPTE-TT No No No No No No No No No
VobSub Picture 2001 Patent encumbered Mature[viii] Yes Not standard No Needs alterations No No As PGS[ix] Yes No No No No No No
PGS[x] Picture 2006-03-31 Patent encumbered Mature[viii] As VobSub[ix] No No No No No Blu-ray As VobSub[ix] HD DVD No No No No No
DVB-SUB[122] Picture 1997-09 Patent encumbered Mature[viii] No No No No Yes[123] Yes No No No No No No No No
Ogg Kate[124] Picture or formatted text 2008-03 Open source Mature[viii] No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes No
TextST[x] Text stream 2006-03-31 Patent encumbered Beta No No No No No No Yes No No No No No No No
MicroDVD Plain text 2000-03-07 Proprietary No No No No Needs alterations No No No No No No No No As Ogg Writ[xi] No
Other Other Varies Generic bitmap images, generic plain text[54] BIFS Quicktime SMIL, EIA-608 XSUB[xii] SMPTE-TT, EBU-TT[110][127] CEA-708 Ogg Writ[xi]
Obsolete Other CMML
  1. ^ AVI is not designed to embed subtitles, requiring changes to the format and third party tools such as DirectVobSub[108] and VLC.
  2. ^ SMPTE standardized the format for text subtitles in MXF[109][110][111] without a reference software implementation, leaving it to independent developers.[112]
  3. ^ SubRip can be converted losslessly to and from native subtitle formats of several containers, and this conversion is supported by many common tools.
  4. ^ Requires tools that are not officially related to the container format.[112]
  5. ^ Loading subtitles with ActionScript[118] may be restricted to the official Adobe Flash Player.
  6. ^ TTXT is often called MPEG-4 Timed Text (MP4TT, MP4-TT) or 3GPP Timed Text (3GPP-TT, tx3g).
  7. ^ MPEG-4 Timed Text subtitles aren't supported in Matroska according to developer of MKVToolNix.[120]
  8. ^ a b c d VobSub, PGS, DVB-SUB and Ogg Kate are well supported by common tools such as MKVToolNix and VLC. The storage format is specified,[54] but the specification is not officially approved yet.
  9. ^ a b c Requires tools that are not officially related to the container format.[121]
  10. ^ a b HDMV PGS and TextST subtitles are used on HD DVD and Blu-ray.
  11. ^ a b Ogg Writ[128] is well supported in common tools such as OGMtools[92] and VLC, but there's no intention to turn its draft into a fully supported specification. Xiph recommends using Kate for subtitles.[129]
  12. ^ Needs alterations to the container.[125][126]

Some containers only support a restricted set of subtitle formats:

Converting image subtitles to text formats is possible using third-party tools[130] but relies on optical character recognition, which is not perfectly accurate and can at best extract basic formatting. Conversion of text to images is possible while preserving content and style. Round-trip format conversion between text formats may not be possible without losing some formatting features.

Overhead[edit]

Multimedia containers interleave data in media streams to enable efficient playback using fewer computational resources, such as time spent reading from the storage drive, memory needed to buffer selected media streams, and time spent decoding when seeking to a different position in time. In this sense, muxing overhead is the control information added by the container to carry interleaved streams. A smaller overhead results in a smaller file when carrying the same streams with the same data. Overhead is affected by the total number of packets and by the size of stream packet headers. In high bitrate encodings, the content payload is usually large enough to make the overhead data relatively insignificant, but in low bitrate encodings, the inefficiency of the overhead can significantly affect the resulting file size if the container uses large stream packet headers or a large number of packets.

In general, Matroska[131] offers the least overhead, followed by MP4, AVI and Ogg.[132]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Indicates whether the standard is open or proprietary, patent-free or encumbered, whether royalty payments are required for streaming and codec implementation, and may indicate the availability of free tools for it.[1]
  2. ^ a b AVI officially supports all codecs in the Media Foundation[48][47] which is an evolution of VCM and ACM, both of which are now obsolete. Some older codecs used to be officially supported,[49] and there are many known non-standard third-party extensions.[50]
  3. ^ a b c Xiph has standardized the support for codecs in Ogg,[36] but added support for more codecs afterwards.[52][37]
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Matroska can support some codecs when wrapped in two specific Video for Windows data structures, VCM and ACM,[77] but support outside Windows may be limited.[77]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Multimedia format issues for CWS task forces (PDF). Eighth Session of the Committee on WIPO Standards (CWS). Geneva: World Intellectual Property Organization. 23 October 2020. CWS/8/ITEM 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 December 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  2. ^ Siglin T (8 April 2020). "Understanding How to Acquire and Deliver Live Streams". Wowza Media Systems. Archived from the original on 8 December 2021. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  3. ^ Gavrilov K (2017). "Stereoscopic Formats". sView (Guide). Archived from the original on 26 February 2021. Retrieved 26 July 2019.
  4. ^ "Matroska Media Container Homepage". Matroska. 2018. Archived from the original on 2003-12-10. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  5. ^ Lhomme S, Vialle L, Bunkus M (2018). "Legal Aspect" (License). Roubaix, France: Matroska. Archived from the original on 2020-06-14. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  6. ^ Matroska Multimedia Container (Partial draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 19 August 2020. Retrieved 17 December 2021.{{cite techreport}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  7. ^ "Matroska FAQ" (FAQ). Matroska. 2018. Archived from the original on 2020-06-14. Retrieved 17 December 2021.
  8. ^ "O!Play Air" (Product). Asus. 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  9. ^ "BDP-83/BDP-83SE Product Support" (Guide). Oppo Digital. 29 December 2001. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  10. ^ Buchanan M (29 December 2008). "Samsung's 2009 HDTV Lineup Leaked". Gizmodo. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  11. ^ Wong P (18 October 2010). "How to select the right LG HDTV (2010)". CNET Asia (Guide). CNET. Archived from the original on 10 January 2011. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  12. ^ "Matroska Streaming" (Guide). Matroska. 2018. Archived from the original on 2010-05-25. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  13. ^ Tag Specifications (Specification). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.{{cite techreport}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  14. ^ Chapter Specifications (Specification). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  15. ^ a b c "Elements semantic". Specifications (Draft). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  16. ^ Menu Specifications (Draft). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  17. ^ MPEG-4 File Format, Version 2 (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 2 March 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  18. ^ "MP4: how are chapters and text subs stored?". Doom9's Forum (Forum message). 28 December 2012. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  19. ^ FFmpeg Formats Documentation (Manual). FFmpeg. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  20. ^ QuickTime File Format (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 14 February 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  21. ^ ASF (Advanced Systems Format) (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 6 April 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  22. ^ "Real-Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) – Relationship to Other Protocols" (Guide). Microsoft. 14 February 2019. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  23. ^ AVI (Audio Video Interleaved) File Format (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 9 March 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  24. ^ a b Material Exchange Format (MXF) (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 17 January 2012. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  25. ^ Stereoscopic 3D in MXF for Operations – Common Provisions (Standard). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 13 May 2014. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2070-1.2014. ISBN 978-1-61482-808-2. ST 2070-1:2014 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
  26. ^ a b MPEG-2 Encoding Family (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 14 February 2012. Retrieved 13 December 2021. Licenses pertain to tools and not to streams or files per se.
  27. ^ a b Information technology – Generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information: Systems (PDF) (Standard) (2nd ed.). ISO. 1 December 2000. ISO/IEC 13818-1:2000. Archived from the original on 26 November 2010.
  28. ^ "Questions on m2ts". Doom9's Forum (Forum message). 18 May 2015. Retrieved 8 December 2021.
  29. ^ Caulfield I (16 January 2007). "Support for HDDVD .evo files (MPG PS variant) in ffmpeg". ffmpeg-devel (Mailing list).
  30. ^ "Matching HD DVD chapter information to EVO file". Doom9's Forum (Forum message). 8 December 2007. Retrieved 1 December 2021. I figured these 4 files are needed to accomplish the task: the .xpl file where the chapter name and timestamp are located...
  31. ^ Transparent end-to-end packet switched streaming service (PSS); 3GPP file format (3GP) (Specification). Version 15.0.0 (2018-06). Valbonne, France: 3GPP. 22 June 2018. 3GPP TS 26.244. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  32. ^ a b "Understanding cue points" (Guide). Adobe Inc. 10 September 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  33. ^ Macromedia Flash FLV Video File Format (Partial draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 8 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  34. ^ a b c d e Adobe Flash Video File Format Specification (PDF) (Specification). Version 10.1. San Jose, CA: Adobe Inc. 3 September 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  35. ^ a b c SWF File Format Specification (PDF) (Specification). Version 19. San Jose, CA: Adobe Inc. 23 April 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  36. ^ a b Gonçalves I, Pfeiffer S, Montgomery C (September 2008). Ogg Media Types. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC5334. RFC 5334. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  37. ^ a b Terriberry T, Lee R, Giles R (April 2016). Ogg Encapsulation for the Opus Audio Codec. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC7845. RFC 7845. Retrieved 30 November 2021.
  38. ^ Ogg File Format (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  39. ^ "Ogg bitstream overview". Xiph.org. Xiph.Org. 2016. Archived from the original on 2000-01-18. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  40. ^ Metadata (Specification). Xiph.Org Foundation. 24 July 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  41. ^ Chapter Extension (Specification). Xiph.Org Foundation. 19 August 2015. Retrieved 2 December 2021.
  42. ^ WebM (Partial draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 19 August 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  43. ^ a b c d e f g h WebM Container Guidelines (Specification). WebM Project. 28 November 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  44. ^ "RealMedia". MultimediaWiki (Guide). 28 November 2018. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  45. ^ a b c d "Codecs". MP4RA – The MP4 Registration Authority – Official Registration Authority for the ISOBMFF family of standards (Registry). ISO. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  46. ^ a b c d "Media Data Atom Types". QuickTime File Format Specification (Specification). Cupertino, CA: Apple, Inc. 13 September 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  47. ^ a b c d e "Media Types" (Index). Microsoft. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 24 July 2019.
  48. ^ Supported Media Formats in Media Foundation (Specification). Microsoft. 30 May 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  49. ^ Fleischman E (June 1998). WAVE and AVI Codec Registries. IETF. doi:10.17487/RFC2361. RFC 2361. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  50. ^ Wilson D (2016). "Video Codecs by FOURCC". FOURCC.org (Index). Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  51. ^ a b c "List of Registered MPEG TS Identifiers". SMPTE Registration Authority, LLC (Registry). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  52. ^ Specification of MIME types and respective codecs parameter (Specification). Xiph.Org Foundation. 17 November 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  53. ^ High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) Family, H.265, MPEG-H Part 2 (Preliminary draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 19 November 2020. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  54. ^ a b c Lhomme S, Bunkus M, Rice D (22 July 2019). Matroska Codec. Version 02. I-D draft-ietf-cellar-codec. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  55. ^ Bunkus M (22 June 2019). "News". MKVToolNix – Matroska tools for Linux/Unix and Windows (Changelog). Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  56. ^ "Using HEIF or HEVC media on Apple devices". Apple Support (Knowledge base article). Cupertino, CA: Apple, Inc. 12 April 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  57. ^ Material Exchange Format – Mapping HEVC Streams into the MXF Generic Container (Standard). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 5 November 2020. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST381-5.2020. ISBN 978-1-68303-227-4. SMPTE ST 381-5:2020 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
  58. ^ MPEG-4, Advanced Video Coding (Part 10) (H.264) (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 5 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  59. ^ Lee J, Kalva H (19 August 2008). The VC-1 and H.264 Video Compression Standards for Broadband Video Services (1st ed.). Springer Publishing. ISBN 978-0-387-71042-6. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  60. ^ a b AOM AV1 codec mapping in Matroska/WebM. GitHub (Draft). Version 1. IETF CELLAR working group. 2 August 2020. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  61. ^ a b Media container formats (file types) (Specification). Mozilla. 13 June 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  62. ^ "FAQ – Diracvideo". Dirac Video Compression. Archived from the original on 15 April 2009.
  63. ^ "Dirac". SourceForge (Repository). 4 June 2013. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  64. ^ "OggDirac" (Index). Xiph.Org Foundation. 11 July 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  65. ^ Encapsulation of Dirac in Ogg (PDF) (Specification). Version 1.0. London: BBC. 8 October 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 31 July 2009. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  66. ^ Material Exchange Format – Mapping AVC Streams into the MXF Generic Container (Standard). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 22 September 2017. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST381-3.2017. ISBN 978-1-68303-108-6. SMPTE ST 381-3:2017 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
  67. ^ a b Devlin B, Wilkinson J, Beard M, Tudor P (28 March 2006). Wells N (ed.). The MXF Book: An Introduction to the Material eXchange Format (1st ed.). Burlington, MA: Focal Press. ISBN 978-0-240-80693-8. Retrieved 23 July 2019.
  68. ^ Web video codec guide (Specification). Mozilla. Retrieved 11 May 2022.
  69. ^ MPEG-1 Video Coding (H.261) (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 1 December 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  70. ^ "Ogg". VideoLAN Wiki (Guide). 30 October 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  71. ^ a b MPEG-4, Visual Coding (Part 2) (H.263) (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 14 March 2011. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  72. ^ Windows Media 9 Video Codec; SMPTE VC-1 (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 26 May 2010. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  73. ^ Recommended Practice – VC-1 Bitstream Storage in the ISO Base Media File Format (Recommendation). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 4 April 2007. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.RP2025.2007. ISBN 978-1-61482-251-6. SMPTE RP 2025:2007 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
  74. ^ "Theora FAQ". Xiph.org. Xiph.Org. 2016. Archived from the original on 2006-05-20. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  75. ^ "VP6". Codecs.com (Repository). Version 6.4.2.0. 29 December 2004. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  76. ^ "On2 VP6". MultimediaWiki (Guide). 14 September 2011. Retrieved 27 November 2019.
  77. ^ a b c Codec Specs (Specification). Matroska. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  78. ^ a b For Television – Material Exchange Format (MXF) – Mapping DV-DIF Data to the MXF Generic Container (Standard) (Standard). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 13 March 2008. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST383.2008. ISBN 978-1-61482-525-8. SMPTE ST 383:2008 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
  79. ^ MJPEG (Motion JPEG) Video Codec (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 10 March 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  80. ^ Motion JPEG 2000 File Format (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 11 January 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  81. ^ a b Apple ProRes (PDF) (White Paper). Cupertino, CA: Apple, Inc. January 2020. pp. 5, 26. Archived (PDF) from the original on 1 November 2021. Retrieved 21 July 2019. With Final Cut Pro 10.3 or later, you can also export ProRes files inside an MXF metadata wrapper instead of exporting .mov files. ... A ProRes-encoded bitstream, typically in the form of a .mov file
  82. ^ "HuffYUV". Codecs.com (Repository). Version 2.2.0. 4 May 2004. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  83. ^ Material Exchange Format (MXF) – File Format Specification (Standard). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 7 June 2011. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST377-1.2011. ISBN 978-1-61482-517-3. SMPTE ST 377-1:2011 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
  84. ^ OggUVS (Draft). Xiph.Org Foundation. 28 August 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  85. ^ OggMNG (Specification). Xiph.Org Foundation. 10 September 2015. Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  86. ^ DVD-Video – MPEG differences (Specification). DVD Resources for Open Source Development. 2004. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  87. ^ Advanced Audio Coding (MPEG-4) (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  88. ^ a b AAC Decoder (Specification). Microsoft. 25 August 2021. Retrieved 22 December 2021.
  89. ^ MP3 (MPEG Layer III Audio Encoding) (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 3 May 2017. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  90. ^ AVISTREAMHEADER Structure (Specification). Microsoft. 6 March 2008. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  91. ^ Noé A (2006). "Myths about AVI" (Guide). Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  92. ^ a b c Bunkus M. "OGMtools" (Project). Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  93. ^ "Annex F: AC-3 and Enhanced AC-3 bit streams in the ISO Base Media File Format". Digital Audio Compression (AC-3, Enhanced AC-3) Standard (PDF) (Standard). Version 1.4.1 (2017-09). Valbonne, France: ETSI. 1 September 2017. ETSI TS 102 366. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  94. ^ WMA (Windows Media Audio) File Format (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 13 December 2016. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  95. ^ Ogg Vorbis Audio Format (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 13 December 2021.
  96. ^ a b c Noé A (26 August 2010). "AVI-Mux GUI" (Project). 1.17.8.3. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  97. ^ Supported output formats (Specification). Avidemux. 11 November 2012. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  98. ^ MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 Layer II Audio Encoding (Partial draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 17 May 2012. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  99. ^ Encapsulation of FLAC in ISO Base Media File Format. GitHub (Draft). Version 0.0.4. Xiph.Org Foundation. 27 October 2016. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  100. ^ Windows Media 9 Lossless Audio Codec (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 13 May 2010. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  101. ^ a b Linear Pulse Code Modulated Audio (LPCM) (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  102. ^ OggPCM (Draft). Xiph.Org Foundation. 21 August 2015. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  103. ^ a b US patent 4404544A, Mirmira Dwarakanath, "μ-Law/A-law PCM CODEC", issued 13 September 1983, assigned to AT&T Corporation 
  104. ^ Speex Audio Codec, Version 1.2 (Full draft). Sustainability of Digital Formats. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. 19 February 2008. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  105. ^ "ADPCM Compression". SWF File Format Specification (PDF) (Specification). Version 10. Adobe, Inc. November 2008. pp. 213–215. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
  106. ^ "FLAC – faq". Free Lossless Audio Codec (FAQ). Xiph.Org Foundation. 2014. Archived from the original on 2013-01-11. Retrieved 1 December 2021.
  107. ^ "Subtitles" (Index). Matroska. Retrieved 26 December 2021.
  108. ^ "DirectVobSub (VSFilter)". Codecs.com (Repository). Version 2.46.4616. 15 July 2009. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  109. ^ D-Cinema Packaging – Timed Text Track File (Standard). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 9 March 2009. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST429-5.2009. ISBN 978-1-61482-578-4. SMPTE ST 429-5:2009 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
  110. ^ a b Timed Text Format (SMPTE-TT) (Standard). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 5 June 2013. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST2052-1.2013. ISBN 978-1-61482-759-7. SMPTE ST 2052-1:2013 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
  111. ^ "Timed Text Track Files". Cinepedia (Guide). 11 March 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  112. ^ a b "ccConvert Suite for Closed Captioning" (Product). Toronto: Drastic Technologies. 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  113. ^ SRT Subtitles (Specification). Matroska. 2020. Retrieved 2020-11-28.
  114. ^ a b c d e f g Concolato C (4 September 2014). Subtitling with GPAC (Manual). GPAC. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  115. ^ Cherlin E, Wilson H, Gerber J, Lang S (15 August 2009). "Embedding Subtitles". In Hyde A (ed.). Ogg Theora Cook Book. Berlin. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  116. ^ WebVTT (Specification). Matroska. 2020. Retrieved 2020-11-28.
  117. ^ Information technology – Coding of audio-visual objects – Part 30: Timed text and other visual overlays in ISO base media file format (Standard) (2nd ed.). ISO. 1 November 2018. ISO/IEC 14496-30:2018.
  118. ^ FLVPlaybackCaptioning – Adobe ActionScript 3 (AS3) API reference (Manual). Adobe, Inc. 6 December 2018. 96-38. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  119. ^ SSA/ASS Subtitles (Specification). Matroska. 2020. Retrieved 2020-11-28.
  120. ^ Bunkus M (25 February 2018). "Subtitles importation issue with an MP4 file". GitLab – MKVToolNix (Forum message). Retrieved 21 July 2019. Well, MPEG-4 Timed Text subtitles are standard for the MP4 container format, they just aren't supported in anything else out there. ...
  121. ^ Oth V, Juhasz M (28 December 2013). "BDSup2Sub". GitHub (Project). Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  122. ^ Digital Video Broadcasting (DVB); Subtitling systems (PDF) (Standard). Version 1.3.1 (2006-11). Valbonne, France: ETSI. 1 November 2006. ETSI EN 300 743. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  123. ^ MXF Mappings for VI Lines and Ancillary Data Packets (Standard). White Plains, NY: SMPTE. 6 November 2013. doi:10.5594/SMPTE.ST436-1.2013. ISBN 978-1-61482-783-2. SMPTE ST 436-1:2013 – via IEEE Xplore Digital Library.
  124. ^ OggKate (Specification). Xiph.Org Foundation. 21 November 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  125. ^ "AVIAddXSubs" (Project). 19 April 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  126. ^ "How do I play a video file with subtitles in the DivX Player?". DivX Community Support Portal (Knowledge base article). DivX, Inc. 12 July 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  127. ^ Transport of subtitles using MXF in an IT-Based Television Production Environment (PDF) (Recommendation) (1st ed.). Geneva: EBU. 9 May 2012. p. 8. EBU R 133. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
  128. ^ OggWrit (Specification). Xiph.Org Foundation. 10 November 2007. Retrieved 27 July 2019.
  129. ^ OggWrit (Draft). Xiph.Org Foundation. 10 November 2007. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  130. ^ Sonderfeld R (18 December 2017). "VobSub2SRT". GitHub (Project). Retrieved 4 August 2019.
  131. ^ Overhead (Technical report). Matroska. 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2019.
  132. ^ Noé A (2006). "Overhead comparison" (Guide). Retrieved 3 August 2019.