Comparison of email clients

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The following tables compare general and technical features of notable email client programs.

General[edit]

Basic general information about the clients: creator/company, O/S, licence, & interface. Clients listed on a light purple background are no longer in active development.

Client Author/Developer Operating system Software license User Interface
Alpine University of Washington Cross-platform Apache-2.0 TUI
Apple Mail Apple macOS, iOS, watchOS Proprietary GUI (Cocoa)
Balsa Stuart Parmenter Linux GPL-2.0-or-later GUI (GTK3)
Becky! Internet Mail Rimarts Windows Proprietary GUI
BlitzMail Dartmouth College BSD licenses GUI
Citadel citadel.org Unix-like GPL-3.0-only Webmail
Claws Mail the Claws Mail team Cross-platform GPL-3.0-or-later GUI (GTK2)
Courier (formerly Calypso) Micro Computer Systems, Inc., continued by Rose City Software Windows Proprietary GUI
Elm Dave Taylor, Sydney Weinstein, Bill Pemberton, Michael Elkins, Kari Hurtta Unix-like BSD-like[1] TUI
eM Client eM Client Inc. Windows, macOS Proprietary GUI
EmailTray Internet Promotion Agency S.A. Windows, Android Proprietary GUI
Eudora OSE Qualcomm Windows, macOS Open source GUI
Evolution The GNOME Project Unix-like LGPL-2.1-only or LGPL-3.0-only GUI (GTK)
FirstClass Open Text Proprietary GUI
Forté Agent Mark Sidell Windows Proprietary GUI
Geary Yorba Foundation Unix-like LGPL-2.1-or-later GUI (GTK)
GNUMail Ludovic Marcotte and others Unix-like, macOS GPL-2.0-or-later GUI
Gnus Gnus team Cross-platform GPL-3.0-or-later TUI and GUI
GroupWise Micro Focus (formerly Novell) Cross-platform Proprietary GUI
Hiri Hiri Cross-platform Proprietary GUI
i.Scribe, InScribe Memecode Windows, macOS, Linux Proprietary GUI
HCL Notes (formerly IBM Notes and IBM Lotus Notes) HCL Technologies (formerly IBM and Lotus Software), HCL Technologies Windows, macOS, Linux Proprietary GUI (Notes), Web (Verse, iNotes) and Mobile (Traveler)
IMP Horde LLC Cross-platform GPL-2.0-only Webmail
K-9 Mail K-9 Dog Walkers: cketti, et al. Android Apache-2.0 GUI
KMail KDE Cross-platform GNU General Public License GUI (Qt)
Mail (Windows) Microsoft Windows Proprietary GUI
Mailbird Mailbird Windows Proprietary GUI
Mailpile Mailpile Windows, macOS, Linux AGPL-3.0-or-later Webmail
mailx ? Unix-like BSD Licenses TUI
Microsoft Entourage Microsoft macOS Proprietary GUI
Microsoft Outlook Microsoft Windows, macOS Proprietary GUI
Mozilla Mail & Newsgroups Mozilla Foundation Mozilla Public License GUI (XUL)
Mozilla Thunderbird Mozilla Foundation Cross-platform MPL-2.0 GUI (XUL)
Mulberry Cyrus Daboo (formerly Cyrusoft International, Inc./ISAMET) Cross-platform Apache-2.0 GUI
Mutt Michael Elkins Cross-platform GPL-2.0-or-later TUI (ncurses)
Netscape Messenger Netscape Communications ? GUI
Netscape Messenger 9 Netscape Communications Mozilla Public License GUI
Nylas Mail Nylas Windows, macOS, Linux MIT GUI
nmh / MH RAND Corporation Unix-like BSD Licenses CLI
Opera Mail Opera Software Cross-platform Proprietary GUI
Outlook Express Microsoft Windows Proprietary GUI
Pegasus Mail David Harris Windows Proprietary GUI
Pine University of Washington Cross-platform Freeware[2] TUI
Pocomail Poco Systems Windows Proprietary GUI
RoundCube The RoundCube Team Cross-platform GPL-3.0-or-later Webmail
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups SeaMonkey Council Cross-platform MPL-2.0 GUI (XUL)
Spark Readdle macOS Proprietary GUI
SquirrelMail The SquirrelMail Project Team Cross-platform GPL-2.0-or-later Webmail
Sylpheed Hiroyuki Yamamoto Cross-platform Sylpheed: GPL-2.0-or-later
LibSylph: LGPL-2.1-or-later
GUI (GTK2)
The Bat! RitLabs Windows Proprietary GUI
Trojitá KDE Cross-platform GPL-2.0-only or GPL-3.0-only[Note 1] GUI (Qt)
Turnpike Thus PLC (Demon Internet) Windows Proprietary GUI
Windows Live Mail Microsoft Windows Proprietary GUI
Windows Mail (Vista) Microsoft Windows Proprietary GUI
YAM YAM Open Source Team and contributing authors AmigaOS GPL-2.0-or-later GUI
Zimbra Desktop Zimbra Cross-platform Mozilla Public License for server and ZPL for client GUI
Client Author/Developer Operating system Software license User interface
  1. ^ Or LicenseRef-KDE-Accepted-GPL: "Any later version accepted by the membership of KDE e.V. (or its successor approved by the membership of KDE e.V.), which shall act as a proxy defined in Section 14 of version 3 of the license."

Release history[edit]

A brief digest of the release histories.

Client First public Date First public Version First stable Date First stable Version Latest stable release
Alpine 2006-11 0.8 2007 December 1.00 2.25 (September 18, 2021; 2 months ago (2021-09-18)) [±]
Apple Mail ? ? ? ? 1.3.3 (19 September 2019; 2 years ago (19 September 2019))
Becky! Internet Mail 1996 1 ? ? 2.75.04 (May 6, 2021; 6 months ago (2021-05-06) [3]) [±]
Citadel 1987 ? 1988 1.00 906 (January 15, 2017; 4 years ago (2017-01-15)) [±]
Claws Mail 2001-05 0.4.67 2005-01 1.0.0 4.0.0[4] Edit this on Wikidata 10 July 2021
Courier 2004-06 3.5 discontinued discontinued 3.5 (June 2004) [±]
Elm 1986 ? 1987-03 2 2.5.8 (August 18, 2005; 16 years ago (2005-08-18)) [±]
eM Client 2007-11 1.0 2007-11 1.0 8.2 (March 22, 2021; 8 months ago (2021-03-22)) [±]
EmailTray 2010-10 2.0 2011-03 3.11 4.0 (July 2, 2012; 9 years ago (2012-07-02)) [±]
Eudora 1988[5] ? 1988[5] ? 7.1 (Windows), 6.2.4 (Mac OS) (October 11, 2006; 15 years ago (2006-10-11)) [±]
Evolution 2000-05-11 0.0 2001-12-03 1.0 3.42.1[6] Edit this on Wikidata 5 June 2021; 5 months ago (5 June 2021)
Forté Agent ? ? ? ? 8 (October 20, 2014; 7 years ago (2014-10-20)) [±]
Geary 2012 0.1 2012 0.1 40.0 (April 23, 2021; 7 months ago (2021-04-23)[7]) [±]
Gnus 1987[8] ? 1988-02-01[8] 2.0 2015-04-06
GroupWise ? ? 1986 1.0 18.3[9]
(December 2020; 1 year ago (2020-12)) [±]
Hiri 2014-02 0.4 2016-06 1.0 1.0.11 (June 10, 2017; 4 years ago (2017-06-10)) [±]
i.Scribe / InScribe 1999 1.00 ? ? 2.3.18 (March 30, 2021; 8 months ago (2021-03-30)) [±]
IBM Lotus Notes 1989 1.0 1989 1.0 11.0.1 (March 31, 2020; 20 months ago (2020-03-31)) [±]
IMP ? ? 1998 1.0 6.2.16 (September 6, 2016; 5 years ago (2016-09-06)) [±]
K-9 Mail ? ? ? ? 5.800 (24 July 2021; 4 months ago (24 July 2021))
KMail 1998-10 Alpha 1999-02 1.0.17 4.14.38 (November 7, 2017; 4 years ago (2017-11-07)) [±][10]
Mailbird 2013-04-01 Public Beta ? ? 2.9.29 (April 22, 2021; 7 months ago (2021-04-22)) [±]
Mailpile 2011-11 [11] [12] [13] 1.0.0rc6 (September 4, 2019; 2 years ago (2019-09-04)[14]) [±]
Microsoft Entourage ? ? ? ? 2008 (12.3.6) (March 12, 2013; 8 years ago (2013-03-12)) [±]
Microsoft Office Outlook 1997 97 1997 97
Office 3652107 (Beta Channel) (16.0.13901.20462) / June 8, 2021; 5 months ago (2021-06-08)
One-time purchase2021 / October 5, 2021; 59 days ago (2021-10-05)[15]


Mozilla Thunderbird 2003-07-28 0.1 2004-12-07 1.0 91.3.2[16] Edit this on Wikidata 19 November 2021
Mulberry 1996-09-20 1.0 1996-09-20 1.0 4.0.8 (February 21, 2007; 14 years ago (2007-02-21)) [±]
Mutt 1995 ? ? ? 2.1.3[17] (September 10, 2021; 2 months ago (2021-09-10)) [±]
Netscape Messenger ? ? ? ? 7.2 (August 17, 2007; 14 years ago (2007-08-17)) [±]
Netscape Messenger 9 2007-11-15 9.0a1 discontinued discontinued 2007-11-15
nmh / MH 1979 ? ? ? 1.5 (June 11, 2012; 9 years ago (2012-06-11)) [±]
Opera Mail 1996-09 2.1b1 1996-12 2.1 1.0.1044[18] (February 16, 2016; 5 years ago (2016-02-16)) [±]
Outlook Express 1996 3.0 ? ? 6.0 SP3 (April 21, 2008; 13 years ago (2008-04-21)) [±]
Pegasus Mail 1990 ? 1990 ? 4.73 (7 June 2018; 3 years ago (2018-06-07)[19]) [±]
Pine 1992-01-15 2.00 1992-01-15 2.00 4.64 (September 28, 2005; 16 years ago (2005-09-28)) [±]
Pocomail 1999 ? ? ? 4.8 build 4400 (April 6, 2009; 12 years ago (2009-04-06)) [±]
RoundCube 2006 0.1-rc1 2014-04-07 1.0.0 1.5.1 (28 November 2021; 5 days ago (28 November 2021))
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups 2005-09-15 1.0a 2006-01-30 1.0 2.53.9.1 (August 26, 2021; 3 months ago (2021-08-26)[20]) [±]
SquirrelMail 1999-12 0.1 2001-01 1.0 1.4.22 (12 July 2011; 10 years ago (2011-07-12)) [±]
Sylpheed 2000-01 0.1.0 2004-12 1.0.0 3.7.0 (January 31, 2018; 3 years ago (2018-01-31)) [±]
The Bat! 1997-03 1.0 Beta 1998-03 1.00 Build 1310 9.4.5 (October 25, 2021; 39 days ago (2021-10-25)) [±]
Trojitá 2009-08 0.1 2012-12 0.3.90 0.7 (June 15, 2016; 5 years ago (2016-06-15)[21]) [±]
Turnpike 1996 (circa) 1.0 1996 (circa) 1.0 6.06 (May 23, 2006; 15 years ago (2006-05-23)) [±]
Windows Live Mail 2007-11-06 12 2007-11-06 12 2012 (v16.4.3528.0331) (November 4, 2014; 7 years ago (2014-11-04)) [±]
Windows Mail ? ? ? ? 2007-01-01
YAM 1995 1.0 1995 1.0 2.9p1 (April 18, 2014; 7 years ago (2014-04-18)) [±]
Zimbra 2005-11 Beta 2006-03 3.5 8.6.0[22] (December 15, 2014; 6 years ago (2014-12-15)) [±]

Operating system support[edit]

The operating systems on which the clients can run natively (without emulation).

Client Microsoft Windows macOS Linux BSD Unix DOS Other
Alpine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Apple Mail No Yes No No No No No
Balsa No No Yes Yes No No No
Becky! Internet Mail Yes No No No No No No
Citadel No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Claws Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Courier Yes No No No No No No
Elm No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
eM Client Yes Yes No No No No No
EmailTray Yes No No No No No No
Eudora Yes Yes No No No No No
Evolution No [Note 1] No Yes Yes Yes No No
Forté Agent Yes No No No No No No
Geary No No Yes Yes Yes No No
Gnus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No
GroupWise Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No
Hiri Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
i.Scribe / InScribe Yes Yes Yes No No No No
IBM Lotus Notes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No
IMP Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
KMail No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Mailbird Yes Yes No No No No No
Mailpile Yes [Note 2] Yes [Note 2] Yes Yes [Note 3] Yes [Note 3] No [Note 4] No [Note 4]
mailx No No Yes Yes Yes No No
Microsoft Entourage No Terminated (2008) No No No No No
Microsoft Office Outlook Yes Yes No No No No No
Mozilla Mail & Newsgroups Terminated (1.7.13) No No
Mozilla Thunderbird Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Mulberry Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Mutt Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[23] No
Netscape Messenger Terminated (4.80) No No
Netscape Messenger 9 Terminated (9.0a1) No No
nmh / MH No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Opera Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No No
Outlook Express Included (up to XP) No No No No No No
Pegasus Mail Yes No No No No Yes NetWare
NLM
Pine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Terminated (3.96)[24] No
Pocomail Yes No No No No No No
RoundCube Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
SquirrelMail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Sylpheed Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
The Bat! Yes No No No No No No
Trojitá Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No MeeGo
Turnpike Yes No No No No No No
Windows Live Mail Yes No No No No No No
Windows Mail Included (Vista) No No No No No No
YAM No No No No No No AmigaOS
AROS
MorphOS
Zimbra Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
Client Microsoft Windows macOS Linux BSD Unix DOS Other
  1. ^ Development stopped in 2008
  2. ^ a b Packaging planned
  3. ^ a b Free Software project, source available.
  4. ^ a b Free Software porting tangible provided OS has web browser.

Protocol support[edit]

Communication and access protocol support[edit]

What email and related protocols and standards are supported by each client.

Client POP3
fetch all messages
POP3
selected by filter
POP3
selected by user
IMAP4
SMTP
NNTP
LDAP v2
LDAP v3
EWS IPv6 MAPI
Alpine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ?
Apple Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes ? Yes ?
Becky! Internet Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [Note 1] Yes ? ? ? ?
Citadel Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ?
Claws Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ?
Courier Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes ? ? ?
Elm No No No ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
eM Client Yes No No Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes No
EmailTray Yes No No Yes Yes No No No No No No
Evolution Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes plug-in ? plug-in
Gnus Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
GroupWise Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
Hiri No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No
i.Scribe / InScribe Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes [Note 2] Yes [Note 2] No No Yes
HCL Notes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
KMail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No [Note 3] Yes ? ? ? ?
Mailbird Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes ? Yes ?
Mailpile Yes No No Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ?
Microsoft Entourage Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes No Yes Partial ? ?
Microsoft Entourage 2008, Web Services Edition Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? ?
Microsoft Office Outlook Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes ? Yes Yes Yes
Mozilla Mail & Newsgroups ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mozilla Thunderbird Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Partial Partial[25] extensible[26] Yes ?
Mulberry Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes ? ? Yes Yes
Mutt Yes No (possible with POP3 browser) No (possible with POP3 browser) Yes Yes No (slrn looks alike) Partial (resolve real names through NSS) ? ? Yes ?
Netscape Messenger Yes ? ? Yes ? Yes ? ? ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger 9 Yes ? ? Yes ? Yes ? ? ? ? ?
nmh / MH Yes ? ? No Yes ? ? ? No ? No
Opera Mail Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No ? Yes Yes
Outlook Express Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No ? No
Pegasus Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [Note 4] Yes ? ? ? ?
Pine Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No ? ? ?
Pocomail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No ? ? ?
RoundCube Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes ? ? ?
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Partial ? ? Yes ?
SquirrelMail Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes ? ? ?
Sylpheed Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No
The Bat! Yes Yes [Note 5] Yes [Note 6] Yes Yes Yes [Note 7] Yes No No Yes Yes
Trojitá No No No Yes Yes No No No No Yes No
Turnpike Yes ? ? ? Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ?
Windows Live Mail Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No Yes No
Windows Mail Yes No No Yes Yes ? ? ? No Yes No
YAM Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No ? ? ?
Zimbra Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes ? ? ?
Client POP3
fetch all messages
POP3
selected by filter
POP3
selected by user
IMAP4 SMTP NNTP LDAP v2 LDAP v3 EWS IPv6 MAPI

Integration protocol support[edit]

Client IMSP
ACAP
RSS 0.91 Feeds RSS 1.0 Feeds RSS 2.0 Feeds ATOM Feeds iCalendar MAPI/RPC CalDAV CardDAV
Alpine ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Apple Mail ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes ? Yes Yes
Becky! Internet Mail ? ? Yes [Note 8] Yes [Note 8] Yes [Note 8] Yes [Note 8] ? ? ? ?
Citadel ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Claws Mail ? ? No Yes [Note 9] Yes [Note 9] Yes [Note 9] Yes [Note 10] ? ? ?
Courier No No No No No No No ? ? ?
Elm ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
eM Client No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes
EmailTray No No No No No No No No ? ?
Eudora No Yes No No No No No ? ? ?
Evolution No No No [Note 11] No [Note 11] No [Note 11] No Yes Yes Yes Yes
Gnus ? ? Yes Yes Yes No ? ? ? ?
GroupWise ? No ? ? ? ? Yes ? ? ?
Hiri No No No No No No No No No No
i.Scribe / InScribe No No No No No No No Yes ? ?
IBM Lotus Notes No No Yes [Note 12] Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
KMail ? ? Yes [Note 13] Yes [Note 13] Yes [Note 13] Yes [Note 13] Yes [Note 14] ? Yes Yes
Mailpile ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Microsoft Entourage ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes ? ? ?
Microsoft Office Outlook ? ? Yes [Note 15] Yes [Note 15] Yes [Note 15] Yes [Note 15] Yes [Note 16] Yes No No
Mozilla Mail & Newsgroups ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mozilla Thunderbird No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [Note 17] Yes [Note 18] Yes Yes
Mulberry Yes Yes No No No No Yes ? Yes ?
Mutt ? ? No No No No No ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger 9 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
nmh / MH ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Opera Mail ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes No ? No No
Outlook Express ? ? No No No No No ? No No
Pegasus Mail ? ? Yes [Note 4] Yes [Note 4] Yes [Note 4] ? ? ? ? ?
Pine No No No No No No No ? ? ?
Pocomail No No Yes Yes Yes No No ? ? ?
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [Note 17] ? ? ?
SquirrelMail ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ?
Sylpheed No No No No No No No No ? ?
The Bat! No No Yes [Note 19] Yes [Note 19] Yes [Note 19] Yes [Note 19] No Yes ? Yes
Trojitá No No No No No No No No ? ?
Turnpike ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Windows Live Mail ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes No ? ? ?
Windows Mail ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
YAM No No No No No No No ? ? ?
Zimbra ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
Client IMSP ACAP RSS 0.91 Feeds RSS 1.0 Feeds RSS 2.0 Feeds ATOM Feeds iCalendar MAPI/RPC CalDAV CardDAV
  1. ^ Becky! requires FRNews or BkNews plugin installed for handling NNTP.
  2. ^ a b i.Scribe / InScribe requires a plugin to handle LDAP.
  3. ^ KDE supports Newsgroups (NNTP) by the use of KNode
  4. ^ a b c d Pegasus Mail can convert Newsgroup messages and/or RSS feeds to emails through the use of free add-ons.
  5. ^ Selective Download filters can skip/delete messages on POP3 server based on header (sender, recipient, subject, etc) information, this doesn't require to retrieve the full message body from the server.
  6. ^ Message Dispatcher allows the user to decide which messages should be retrieved, deleted or skipped based on the header information (sender, recipient, subject, etc) displayed to the user.
  7. ^ The Bat! requires MyGate plugin installed for handling NNTP.
  8. ^ a b c d Becky! requires BkBlogReader or BkRSSviewer or B.F.R or BkRssReader plugin installed for handling RSS and ATOM.
  9. ^ a b c RSSyl plugin is required to read RSS and ATOM in Claws Mail.
  10. ^ vCalendar plugin is required to handle iCalendar in Claws Mail.
  11. ^ a b c The evolution-rss plugin (provided as a separate package by many distributions provides the RSS functionality in Evolution.
  12. ^ Studio Blog Reader is one RSS reader application for IBM Lotus Notes. IBM Lotus Notes version 8.x introduced a native RSS reader.
  13. ^ a b c d KDE supports feeds by the use of Akregator
  14. ^ KDE supports iCal by the use of KOrganizer
  15. ^ a b c d Support of feeds is available in Microsoft Office Outlook 2007. Earlier versions require RSSPopper plug-in.
  16. ^ Microsoft Outlook support of iCalendar varies by version.
  17. ^ a b iCalendar is supported with an extension.
  18. ^ Mozilla Thunderbird only supports SimpleMAPI.[citation needed]
  19. ^ a b c d The Bat! versions prior to 6.3 required rss2mail or rss2pop3 plugin installed for handling RSS and ATOM. The Bat! versions 6.3 and later have built-in support for RSS.

Authentication support[edit]

Client Regular MSN (NTLM)

browser login

Compuserve

(RPA)

MD5 APOP [Note 1] CRAM-HMAC [Note 2] DIGEST-MD5 SCRAM with hardware token

PKCS#11

Biometric SMTP Auth [Note 3] X.509 Client certificate OAuth
LOGIN PLAIN MD5 SHA1 RIPEMD
Alpine Yes Yes No No No Yes No No No ? No No Yes No ?
Apple Mail Yes Yes No No ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes [Note 4]
Becky! Internet Mail Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes Yes ?
Citadel ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Claws Mail Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes No ? Yes No ?
Courier Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes ? No No Yes Yes ?
Elm ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
eM Client Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes ? No No Yes No Yes
EmailTray Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes No ? ? No No Yes No ?
Eudora Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No ? No No No ? ?
Evolution Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes ? No No Yes No Yes
Gnus Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? ? Yes ? ?
GroupWise ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Hiri Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No ? No No No No Yes
i.Scribe / InScribe Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No ? No No Yes No Yes
IBM Lotus Notes Yes ? Yes No No No ? ? ? ? Yes No Yes ? ?
KMail Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes ? No No Yes Yes ?
Mailpile ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Microsoft Entourage Yes No Yes ? ? Yes ? ? ? ? Yes ? Yes Yes ?
Microsoft Office Outlook Yes No Yes No No No No No No ? No No Yes No ?
Mozilla Mail & Newsgroups Yes ? ? Yes ? Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mozilla Thunderbird Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No[27] ? Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Mulberry Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No Yes ? No No Yes Yes ?
Mutt Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes No No Yes ? No No 1.5.15 Yes 1.10.1
Netscape Messenger ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger 9 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
nmh / MH ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Opera Mail Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No ? ? ? No No Yes Yes ?
Outlook Express Yes No Yes No No No No No No ? No No Yes No ?
Pegasus Mail Yes ? No No Yes No No No No ? No No Yes Yes ?
Pine Yes Yes No No No Yes No No No ? No No Yes No ?
Pocomail ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
RoundCube Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? Yes ? Yes ? ?
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No[27] ? Yes No Yes Yes ?
SquirrelMail Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? Yes ? Yes ? ?
Sylpheed Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No No No ? No No Yes No No
The Bat! Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No ? Yes [Note 5] Yes [Note 5] Yes No Yes
Trojitá Yes No No No No No No No No ? No No Yes No ?
Turnpike ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Windows Live Mail Yes No Yes No Yes No No No No ? No No No No No
Windows Mail ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes [Note 6]
YAM Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes AmiSSL ?
Zimbra Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? ? ? ? Yes ? Yes [Note 7] ? ?
Client Regular MSN (NTLM)

browser login

Compuserve

(RPA)

MD5 APOP [Note 1] CRAM-HMAC [Note 2] DIGEST-MD5 SCRAM with hardware token

PKCS#11

Biometric SMTP Auth [Note 3] SSL/TLS Client Certificate OAUTH
LOGIN PLAIN MD5 SHA1 RIPEMD
  1. ^ a b Description: RFC 1734
  2. ^ a b Description: RFC 2195
  3. ^ a b Description: RFC 2554
  4. ^ Minimum Mac OS version 10.11. Minimum iOS version 11.
  5. ^ a b Professional Edition.
  6. ^ Windows 10 required.
  7. ^ Zimbra Desktop supports SMTP auth, not sure about collaboration suite

SSL and TLS support[edit]

Client Secure POP3 Secure IMAP4 Secure SMTP Secure NNTP Secure LDAP SNI OCSP [Note 1] CRL [Note 2]
SSL TLS [Note 3] SSL TLS [Note 3] SSL TLS [Note 4] SSL TLS SSL TLS
Alpine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? ?
Apple Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Becky! Internet Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Citadel ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Claws Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes
Courier No No No No No No No No No No No No No
Elm ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
eM Client Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No ? No Yes
EmailTray Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No ? No No
Eudora Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes ? ? ?
Evolution Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No No
Gnus ? ? Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
GroupWise ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Hiri No No No No No No No No No No No No No
i.Scribe / InScribe Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No No No ? No No
IBM Lotus Notes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? Yes Yes
KMail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No ? ? ? ? ?
Mailpile ? Yes ? Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Microsoft Entourage Yes ? Yes ? Yes ? Yes ? Yes ? ? ? ?
Microsoft Office Outlook Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mozilla Mail & Newsgroups ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mozilla Thunderbird Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes
Mulberry Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes ? ? ?
Mutt Yes Yes Yes Yes 1.5.15 1.5.15 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger 9 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
nmh / MH ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Opera Mail Yes Partial [Note 5] Yes Partial [Note 5] Yes Partial [Note 5] Yes No N/A N/A ? Yes Yes
Outlook Express Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Pegasus Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes ? ? ? ?
Pine Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No ? ? ?
Pocomail ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
RoundCube Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes ? ? ?
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
SquirrelMail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes ? ? ?
Sylpheed Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ?
The Bat! Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes [Note 6] Yes [Note 6]
Trojitá ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? Yes (system) Yes (system)
Turnpike ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Windows Live Mail Yes No Yes No Yes No ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Windows Mail Yes No Yes ? Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
YAM Yes Yes No No ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Zimbra Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
Client Secure POP3 Secure IMAP4 Secure SMTP Secure NNTP Secure LDAP SNI OCSP [Note 1] CRL [Note 2]
SSL TLS [Note 3] SSL TLS [Note 3] SSL TLS [Note 4] SSL TLS SSL TLS
  1. ^ a b Online Certificate Status Protocol - Description: RFC 2560
  2. ^ a b Certificate revocation list - Description: RFC 3280
  3. ^ a b c d Description: RFC 2595
  4. ^ a b Description: RFC 2487
  5. ^ a b c Opera Mail does not support STARTTLS command on special ports, like 995 for pop3 connection
  6. ^ a b Since version 4.2, The Bat! supports two modes of X.509 certificate handling: Internal Implementation and via Microsoft CryptoAPI. CRLs and OCSP are only supported in the latter mode during TLS connections.

Features[edit]

Information on what features each of the clients support.

General features[edit]

For all of these clients, the concept of "HTML support" does not mean that they can process the full range of HTML that a web browser can handle. Almost all email readers limit HTML features, either for security reasons, or because of the nature of the interface. CSS and JavaScript can be especially problematic.

Client HTML email UTF-8 support Image blocking Junk filtering Phishing filtering Thread view Conversation view PGP support S/MIME support
local server- side inline PGP/MIME or OpenPGP protocol OCSP CRL certificates on tokens, smartcards support
Alpine Read only Yes Yes ? ? ? Yes ? Yes ? Yes ? ? ?
Apple Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No
Becky! Internet Mail Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes No Yes ? Yes ? ? ?
Citadel Yes Yes No Yes [Note 1] ? ? No ? ? ? ? ? ?
Claws Mail Read-only Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes
Courier Yes No No Yes Yes ? No ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Elm ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
eM Client Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
EmailTray Yes Yes Yes No Yes ? No No No No No No No No
Eudora Yes No Yes Pro only Pro only ? Yes No Yes [Note 2] Yes [Note 2] Yes ? ? ?
Evolution Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No Yes No Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
Gnus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes
GroupWise Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Hiri Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes No No No No No
i.Scribe / InScribe Read-only Yes Yes Yes No ? Yes ? Yes No No No No No
HCL Notes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [Note 3] ? Yes Yes
(4.1.2+)
Yes Yes[28] Yes Yes
KMail Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes
(with GPG)
Yes
(1.5+, with GPGME)
Yes Yes Yes ?
Mailbird Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No No No No No
Mailpile ? Yes ? ? ? ? ? Yes ? Yes ? ? ? ?
Microsoft Entourage Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? Yes Yes ? ? Yes
Microsoft Office Outlook Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (2010+)[29] No No Yes ? Yes Yes
Mozilla Mail & Newsgroups ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mozilla Thunderbird Yes Yes [Note 4] Yes Yes Yes Yes [Note 5] Yes Yes Yes [Note 6] Yes Yes Yes ? Yes
Mulberry Yes Yes Yes No Yes ? Yes ? Yes [Note 7] Yes [Note 7] Yes [Note 7] ? ? ?
Mutt Read-only Yes Yes
(no support for images)
Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes (with GPGME) ?
Netscape Messenger ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger 9 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
nmh / MH ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Opera Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No No No No No No
Outlook Express Yes Yes Yes No ? ? Yes ? Yes [Note 8] No [Note 9] Yes ? ? ?
Pegasus Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes
(sending is broken)
? No No No
Pine Read-only Yes Yes No ? ? Yes ? Yes
(with Pine Privacy Guard)
No Yes ? ? ?
Pocomail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
RoundCube Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (depends on antivirus) Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? ? ?
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes ? Yes [Note 6] Yes [Note 6] Yes Yes ? Yes
SquirrelMail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (depends on antivirus) Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? ? ?
Sylpheed No [Note 10] Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes ? No Yes ? ? ? ?
The Bat! Yes Yes Yes [Note 11] Yes Yes ? Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Partial [Note 12] Partial [Note 12] Yes [Note 12]
Trojitá Read only Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No Read only Read only Read only Read only Read only
Turnpike Read-only ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Windows Live Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? ?
Windows Mail Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
YAM ? Yes ? Yes ? ? No No Yes ? ? ? ? ?
Zimbra Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes (depends on antivirus) Yes ? ? No ? ? ?
Client HTML email UTF-8 support Image blocking Junk filtering Phishing filtering Thread view Conversation view PGP support S/MIME support
local server- side inline PGP/MIME or OpenPGP protocol OCSP CRL certificates on tokens, smartcards support
  1. ^ Citadel plugs Mail into SpamAssassin
  2. ^ a b Eudora requires a plugin to handle PGP.
  3. ^ First release 6.0 (September 2003), [1] enhancements introduced in release 7.0 (August 2005)
  4. ^ Although Thunderbird supports UTF-8, its handling of line wraps causes problems with long lines of text that don't contain spaces, which essentially makes it unusable for certain languages (e.g. Chinese, Japanese, Korean) [2]
  5. ^ Mozilla Thunderbird adds this feature in Thunderbird 1.5.0.4
  6. ^ a b c Using PGP in Thunderbird requires Enigmail.
  7. ^ a b c PGP/GPG and S/MIME support require a free (included) plugin.
  8. ^ Using PGP in Outlook Express requires a plugin.
  9. ^ Outlook Express does not display PGP/MIME signed messages.
  10. ^ Sylpheed has some limited ability to show HTML email. It can show the plain text that's left after stripping away all the HTML tags. Sylpheed has no ability to compose HTML.
  11. ^ The Bat is not able to display inline images.
  12. ^ a b c The Bat! supports two modes of S/MIME: Internal Implementation and via Microsoft CryptoAPI.[30] CRLs and OCSP are only supported in the latter mode. Internal implementation only supports Aladdin eToken Pro or Rainbow iKey1000[31] tokens and can import certificates (from PKCS#12/PFX format) which were created outside The Bat!. CryptoAPI supports any kind of tokens and smart cards which have a corresponding Cryptographic Service Provider installed.

Messages features[edit]

Client Label messages Reformat received messages Bi-directional text support Composing messages Native images preview Postpone / scheduled message sending Native documents preview
with colors with flag antidelete add note edit headers (e.g., Subject) forced recode [Note 1] Spell checking Signatures Bottom-posts replies jpeg gif bmp png others txt pdf doc xls odt ods others
Alpine Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ?
Becky! Internet Mail Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Citadel ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Claws Mail Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes with a plugin ? ? ? ? ?
Courier Yes Yes No No Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? No No No No No Yes ? No No No No No ?
Elm ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
eM Client Yes Yes No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
EmailTray Yes No No No No No ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No ?
Eudora Yes Yes No No Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes QuickTime Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Evolution Yes Yes ? ? No ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Gnus Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes XPM Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
GroupWise Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
Hiri Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No No
i.Scribe / InScribe Yes No No Yes No No No Yes [Note 2] Yes Yes Yes [Note 3] Yes Yes Yes [Note 4] ICO, TIFF Yes No No No No No No No
HCL Notes Yes Yes ? ? Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes No CGM, Lotus PIC, PCX, TIFF ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ?
KMail Yes[32] Yes No Yes ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mailbird Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No ?
Mailpile ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Microsoft Entourage Yes Yes ? Yes[Note 5] ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? ? Yes ? ? ? ? ?
Microsoft Office Outlook Yes Yes No Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes with a plugin Yes Yes 2010 2010 PowerPoint
Mozilla Mail & Newsgroups ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mozilla Thunderbird Yes Yes ? ? with a plugin[33] ? ? Yes Yes Yes [Note 6] Yes Yes Yes Yes ICO Yes [Note 7] Yes Yes No No No No No
Mulberry ? Yes ? ? ? ? ? Yes Yes ? No No No No No ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mutt Yes Yes No No Yes ? ? Yes Yes ? No No No No No postpone ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger 9 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
nmh / MH ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Opera Mail Yes Yes No No ? ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes APNG, ICO, SVG, WBMP, XBM, WebP No No No No No No No No
Outlook Express No Yes No No ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ICO, art ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Pegasus Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes in index No No Yes Yes No [Note 8] Yes Yes Yes Yes TIFF N/A Yes No No No No No RTF, HTML
Pine Yes Yes ? ? No with a patch [Note 9] ? Yes [Note 10] Yes ? No No No No No ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Pocomail Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
RoundCube Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups Yes Yes No No ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
SquirrelMail Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ?
Sylpheed Yes Yes No No ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes No No No No No ?
The Bat! Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ICO, emf Yes Yes No No No No No No
Trojitá No Yes ? ? No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Yes
Turnpike Yes ? ? No ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes No ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Windows Live Mail No Yes No No ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Windows Mail ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
YAM No No No No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Zimbra Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Client Label messages Reformat received messages Bi-directional text support Composing messages Native images preview Postpone/?scheduled message sending Native documents preview
with colors with flag antidelete add note edit headers (e.g., Subject) forced recode [Note 1] Spell checking Signatures Bottom-posts replies jpeg gif bmp png others txt pdf doc xls odt ods others
  1. ^ a b It's a frequent problem for people dealing with Cyrillic/Russian in email messages that the message is not encoded in the encoding declared in its headers and thus can't be read. With such a message (with a wrong declaration of the encoding), it well might be the case that it passed through several incorrect recoding stages while it was being sent and delivered; thus it's not possible to correctly render it and read it if one uses the common type of the interface for choosing the encoding (such as the menu in Mozilla Firefox). An example of such a complex case of a wrongly declared encoding: a message was entered through a webform in the windows-1251 encoding, but the web interface incorrectly assumed that it was in latin-1; based on this assumption, it performed the recoding from latin-1 to utf-8. The result of this operation cannot be correctly decoded through the common encoding-selection interface; it can only be decoded through a two-stage recoding: first from utf-8 to latin-1, then from windows-1251 to utf-8 (assuming that one works in a Unicode environment). After it is decoded, it is desirable to store it in the recoded form instead of the original, in order to be able to read it easily afterwards, and to quote it for replies.
  2. ^ i.Scribe / InScribe supports full integration with GNU Aspell, which is its requirement for spell checking.
  3. ^ i.Scribe / InScribe requires libjpeg.
  4. ^ i.Scribe / InScribe requires libpng.
  5. ^ Entourage can link a message to a note.
  6. ^ Configurable to start replies at top or bottom, with separate configuration of signature position
  7. ^ Thunderbird requires SL8TR extension.
  8. ^ Starts replies with cursor at top, but is configurable regarding whether to include a blank space at the top for replies or not; some interleaved-posting users prefer starting the cursor at the top so they can trim the quotes
  9. ^ The recoding engine and interface extensions that would solve the described recoding problems have been developed as a patch for Pine; it is to be found in the package pine-4.58L-alt4.src.rpm(ftp) for ALTLinux (under the name pine-4.58L-alt2-0.4.1.diff). Its essential feature is to enable to forcibly recode messages, save them in the recoded form, and quote in replies.
  10. ^ Pine supports full integration with GNU Aspell or other external speller, which is its requirement for spell checking.

Database, folders and customization[edit]

Client Message file format Encrypted database Virtual folders Scheduled backup New mail notification Customizable interface Customizable keybindings Fragmented messages [Note 1] Database search with regular expressions support Indexed search Search folders [Note 2] IMAP
ticker tray icon tooltip sound Search IDLE
Alpine mbox, mbx, MIX, maildir (with patches), MMDF, tenex, mtx, MH, mx, news, phile ? Yes Partial ? ? ? Yes Yes No ? No Yes Yes Yes No
Becky! Internet Mail mbox ? ? No Yes ? Yes Yes ? ? ? Yes ? Yes Yes Yes
Citadel ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Claws Mail MH, mbox (plugin) No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? No Yes No
Courier Proprietary Yes (weak) Yes ? ? ? ? ? Yes (layout) No ? No No Yes No Yes
Elm ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
eM Client Proprietary (sqlite) Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes
EmailTray Proprietary Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No No No No Yes Yes ? ?
Eudora modified mbox No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[specify] Yes Yes Yes ?
Evolution maildir, mbox, MH No Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Partial Yes [Note 3] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Gnus babyl, maildir, mbox, MMDF, news, rnews, SOUP, outlook, oe-dbx No Yes No No ? ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes[Note 4] Yes Yes ?
GroupWise Proprietary Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? Yes Yes Yes No
Hiri Proprietary No No No No No No No Yes No No No Yes Yes No No
IBM Notes Proprietary Yes[35] Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes [Note 5] No Yes Yes ? No
KMail mbox, maildir No Yes No ? ? ? ? Yes Yes No Yes ? Yes Yes Yes
Mailbird Proprietary No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Partial Yes Yes Yes
Mailpile ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Microsoft Entourage Proprietary (Personal Storage Table) ? Yes Partial [Note 6] ? ? ? ? Partial No No Partial [Note 7] Yes Yes Yes Yes
Microsoft Office Outlook Proprietary (Personal Storage Table) Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes [Note 8] Yes ? Yes
Mozilla Mail & Newsgroups mbox ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mozilla Thunderbird mbox, maildir No Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes [Note 9] ? No ? Yes (as of 3.0) Yes Yes Yes
Mulberry mbox [Note 10] Partial [Note 11] Partial [Note 11] Partial [Note 11] ? ? ? ? Yes ? ? Yes[specify] Partial [Note 11] No Yes No
Mutt mbox, MMDF, MH, maildir Yes (with compressed folders patch[36]) ? (has limit command) No ? ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes[Note 12] Yes[Note 12] Yes Yes
Netscape Messenger mbox ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger 9 mbox ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
nmh / MH MH No Yes No No ? ? ? Yes Yes ? Yes Yes Yes No ?
Opera Mail mbox, MH, Proprietary No Yes
(all folders are virtual)
No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes ? Yes
Outlook Express Proprietary No No No ? Yes No Yes No No Yes ? No ? ? Yes
Pegasus Mail Proprietary (mbox-like) No Yes No ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes ? Yes Yes No[39]
Pine mbox, mbx, MIX, maildir (with patches), MMDF, tenex, mtx, MH, mx, news, phile ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? No
Pocomail mbox Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? Yes ? ? Yes Yes Yes ? ?
RoundCube [IMAP Server] ? ? ? Yes No No Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? Yes Yes ?
i.Scribe / InScribe Proprietary (sqlite) No No No No Yes No Yes Yes No No No No No No Yes
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups mbox ? ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes Yes
SquirrelMail [IMAP Server] ? ? ? Yes No No Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? Yes Yes ?
Sylpheed MH No Yes No ? Yes ? ? Yes Yes No No [Note 13] No [Note 13] Yes ? No
The Bat! Proprietary Yes (AES 128 bit)

(with Pro and Voyager version) [Note 14]

Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

(PCRE 6.2)

No Yes Yes Yes
Trojitá IMAP No No No No Yes No No Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes
Turnpike Proprietary Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes ? ? Yes ? ?
Windows Live Mail File System (.eml) No No No No Yes ? Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes ? ?
Windows Mail ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Yes
YAM mbox, maildir, oe-dbx No No No ? ? Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No No
Zimbra File system No Yes Yes ? ? ? ? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Client Message file format Encrypted database Virtual folders Scheduled backup New mail notification Customizable interface Customizable keybindings Fragmented messages [Note 1] Database search with regular expressions support Indexed search Search folders [Note 2] IMAP
ticker tray icon tooltip sound Search IDLE
  1. ^ a b Fragmented messages make it possible, for example, to send a large audio message as several partial messages, and still have it appear to the recipient as a simple audio message rather than as an encapsulated message containing an audio message. RFC 2046
  2. ^ a b Search Folders are virtual folders that contain views of all email items matching specific search criteria. Search Folders display the results of previously defined search queries.
  3. ^ Editable keybindings is part of GNOME, provided "Editable menu accelerators" is enabled in GNOME's "Menus & Toolbars" control applet.
  4. ^ Via nnir backends such as Notmuch[34]
  5. ^ Fragmented messages are called truncated document in Lotus Notes.
  6. ^ With Entourage 2008, you can use AppleScript and various internal/external scheduling mechanisms to create timed backups of Entourage Data.
  7. ^ With Entourage 2008 and later versions of 2004, you can use the Spotlight data to search what's in the Entourage database via regular expression in the file system in Terminal or via Spotlight's ...interesting...version of "regular expressions".
  8. ^ supported since Office 2007.
  9. ^ Thunderbird's interface can be user customized via the use of themes (which can reposition and skin controls)
  10. ^ This is for Mulberry's 'offline browsing' capability, which is turned off by default. In the default configuration no local copy of the mail is created.
  11. ^ a b c d Mulberry is a dedicated IMAP client; If the IMAP server has these abilities, Mulberry can use them.
  12. ^ a b Via Notmuch or other indexers.[37][38]
  13. ^ a b Because MH stores each letter in a separate file, it is trivially easy to (externally) search them with grep. This ease is shattered when non-raw encodings are used, such as base64.
  14. ^ The Bat! Pro support two methods access to program when database is encrypted: password authorization and token authorization; Voyager support only password authorization and encrypted database is default and only available storage method.

Templates, scripts and programming languages[edit]

Client Message templates Message templates individual for Support in message templates scripts, programming languages
new reply forward read confirmation save print JavaScript VBScript PHP Scripts Python Regular expressions Java Other (specify)
Alpine Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? any No No No No ? No ?
Becky! Internet Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes any
account
folder
? ? ? ? ? ?
Citadel ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Claws Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes account
folder
No No No Yes ? ? Perl
Courier Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes ? No No No No No No No
Elm ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
eM Client Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes account No No No No No No No
Eudora Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes any No No No No Yes No No
Evolution Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Gnus Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? No No No No Yes No elisp
GroupWise Yes No No Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Hiri Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes any No No No No No No No
i.Scribe / InScribe Yes Yes Yes No No No any No No No No No No Internal macros (similar to JavaScript)
IBM Notes Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? Yes No No No Yes[40] Yes LotusScript, Formula language
KMail Yes Yes Yes No No No none ? No No No ? ? ?
Mailpile ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Microsoft Entourage Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? AppleScript, Automator
Microsoft Office Outlook Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? No No ? No ? No ?
Mozilla Mail & Newsgroups ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mozilla Thunderbird Yes Yes[Note 1] Yes[Note 1] Yes Yes Yes profile Yes ? ? ? ? ? ?
Mulberry Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? No No No No ? ? ?
Mutt Yes Yes Yes No ? ? any No No No No Yes ? Internal macros
Netscape Messenger ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Netscape Messenger 9 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
nmh / MH ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Opera Mail No No No No No No N/A No No No No No No No
Outlook Express Yes Yes ? Yes ? ? ? Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ?
Pegasus Mail Yes Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Pine Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? any ? No No ? ? No ?
Pocomail Yes Yes Yes ? ? Yes ? No No No No No No PocoScript
RoundCube Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No ?
SeaMonkey Mail & Newsgroups ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
SquirrelMail Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No No No ?
Sylpheed Yes Yes Yes ? ? ? ? No No No No No ? ?
The Bat! Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes account
folder
address book group
contact
Yes [Note 2] Yes [Note 3] Yes [Note 4] Yes [Note 5] Yes PCRE 6.2 Internal and plugins macros
Turnpike ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Windows Live Mail Yes[Note 6] Yes[Note 6] ? Yes[Note 6] ? ? ? Yes No ? ? ? ? ?
Windows Mail ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
YAM Yes Yes Yes ? Yes Yes ? No No No No ? ? ARexx
Zimbra Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes any No No No No No ? ?
Client Message templates Message templates individual for Support in message templates scripts, programming languages
new reply forward read confirmation save print JavaScript VBScript PHP Scripts Python Regular expressions Java Other (specify)
  1. ^ a b Thunderbird supports HTML templates with "Stationery" add-on.
  2. ^ The Bat! supports JavaScript in message templates with the JavaScript Macro plugin.
  3. ^ The Bat! supports VBScript in message templates with the XMP plugin.
  4. ^ The Bat! supports PHP in message templates with the XMP plugin.
  5. ^ The Bat! supports Python in message templates with the TBPyxie plugin.
  6. ^ a b c Weak "stationery" system that only accept pages done with Word.

Internationalization[edit]

The Bat! supports Email Address Internationalization (EAI).[41][discuss]

As of October 2016, email clients supporting SMTPUTF8 included Outlook 2016,[42] mail for iOS, and mail for Android.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Elm Mail System GPL
  2. ^ "Pine License". Archived from the original on 2018-06-02. Retrieved 2006-02-24.
  3. ^ "Change Log". Retrieved 2021-05-06.
  4. ^ "Claws Mail 3.18.0 and 4.0.0 unleashed!!!"; author name string: Paul Mangan; publication date: 10 July 2021; retrieved: 11 July 2021.
  5. ^ a b "The Birth of Eudora". Archived from the original on 2002-11-08. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  6. ^ "evolution 3.42.1". 29 October 2021.
  7. ^ "Tags - GNOME / Geary".
  8. ^ a b "GNUS: a NNTP based news reader for GNU Emacs (1 of 2)". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03. Retrieved 2008-08-04.
  9. ^ GroupWise 18.3 Has Been Released!
  10. ^ "KDE Ships KDE Applications and Platform 4.14.3". KDE. 11 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2015.
  11. ^ Alpha
  12. ^ tbd 2017
  13. ^ 1.00 RC
  14. ^ "Releases - mailpile/Mailpile". Retrieved 29 June 2020 – via GitHub.
  15. ^ Warren, Tom. "Microsoft Office 2021 will launch on October 5th". The Verge. Retrieved October 5, 2021.
  16. ^ "Thunderbird — Release Notes (91.3.2) — Thunderbird". Retrieved 19 November 2021.
  17. ^ "The Mutt E-Mail Client". Stable. Retrieved 13 September 2021.
  18. ^ "Opera 12 and Opera Mail security update". 2016-02-16.
  19. ^ Pegasus Mail v4.7x Release Notes: June 7th 2018 - Pegasus Mail v4.73
  20. ^ "SeaMonkey 2.53.9.1". 2021-09-28. Retrieved 2021-09-28.
  21. ^ "Почтовый клиент Trojitá 0.7". linux.org.ru.
  22. ^ https://wiki.zimbra.com/wiki/Zimbra_Releases
  23. ^ "Other Programming Projects and Downloads". Archived from the original on 2007-04-04. Retrieved 2007-04-06.
  24. ^ "PC-PINE-3.96 README". Retrieved 2007-04-06.[permanent dead link]
  25. ^ Write to LDAP still missing after 10 years, Mozilla bug 86405
  26. ^ Add-ons include MesQuilla ExQuilla Exchange Web Services (alpha) (see also ExQuilla for Microsoft Exchange) and Provider for Microsoft Exchange
  27. ^ a b "335924 - No authentication with DIGEST-MD5".
  28. ^ [3]
  29. ^ Sort Your Emails by Conversation in Outlook 2010 - How-To Geek
  30. ^ "List of features of The Bat! email client".
  31. ^ "The Bat! with Hardware Tokens".
  32. ^ "Configure KMail: Appearance Page". KDE (Documentation page). Archived from the original on May 30, 2018. Retrieved May 30, 2018.
  33. ^ "Header Tools Lite".
  34. ^ Ingebrigtsen, Lars Magne (2015). "The Gnus Newsreader". Free Software Foundation, Inc. Retrieved 2016-11-21.
  35. ^ "Find product documentation and support".
  36. ^ "Compressed folders patch for Mutt".
  37. ^ Using Notmuch with bare Mutt, the old fashioned way
  38. ^ "MuttWiki: UserCases/SearchingMail". Archived from the original on 2013-12-10. Retrieved 2013-02-13.
  39. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-03-11. Retrieved 2014-03-11.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  40. ^ [4]
  41. ^ "Starting with the version 6.0 The Bat! supports IDN (Internationalized Domain Names))".[better source needed]
  42. ^ "International email addresses - Outlook". support.office.com. Archived from the original on 2016-10-28. Retrieved 2016-10-27.

External links[edit]