Comparison of graphics file formats

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This is a comparison of image file formats (graphics file formats). This comparison primarily features file formats for 2D images.

General[edit]

Ownership of the format and related information.

Format Full name Owner based on File extension MIME type Application Patented
AI Adobe Illustrator Document Adobe Systems .ai application/illustrator,
application/postscript
Adobe Illustrator files are editable using programs that support the format, such as Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape, CorelDRAW, etc. Yes
ANI ANI file format Microsoft RIFF .ani Used by Microsoft Windows
ANIM Electronic Arts and Commodore Amiga IFF .iff, .anim video/x-anim
APNG Animated Portable Network Graphics Mozilla PNG .png image/png Gecko 1.9 and Opera No
Apple Icon Image Apple Inc. .icns Used by macOS
ART AOL .art
ASCII art .txt, .ansi, .text text/vnd.ascii-art Supported by GIMP
AutoCAD DXF Drawing Interchange Format Autodesk .dxf image/vnd.dxf
ARW Sony Alpha RAW Sony TIFF .arw
AVIF AV1 Image File Format Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia) AV1 .avif image/avif GIMP, Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, WebKit No
BAY Casio RAW Casio .bay
BMP raw-data unencoded or encoded bitmap simple colour image format, far older than Microsoft; some .bmp encoding formats developed/owned by Microsoft .bmp, .dib, .rle,
.2bp (2bpp)
image/x-bmp Used by many 2D applications. No
BPG Better Portable Graphics Fabrice Bellard HEVC .bpg Suggestion to replace JPEG, JavaScript decoder available[1] Yes
BSAVE BSAVE Image .BSV Used by IBM PC.
CAL CALS raster file format .cal, .cals, .ras, .dcl
CIFF Camera Image File Format Canon .crw, .ciff
CR2 Canon RAW 2 Canon TIFF .cr2
CDR CorelDRAW Document Corel Corporation .cdr, .ccx, .cdt, .cmx application/coreldraw CorelDRAW files are editable using programs that support the format, such as CorelDRAW, Adobe Illustrator, Inkscape, etc. Yes
CGM Computer Graphics Metafile .cgm image/cgm CGM files are editable using programs that support the format, such as IBM Lotus Freelance Graphics, Inkscape, etc.
CIN Cineon .cin image/cineon
CPC Cartesian Perceptual Compression Cartesian Products, Inc. .cpc, .cpi image/cpi Highly compressed raster imaging format. Yes
DCS Kodak DCS Pro RAW Kodak .dcs
DCR Digital Camera Raw Kodak TIFF .dcr
DDS DirectDraw Surface Microsoft .dds
DNG Digital Negative Adobe Systems compatible with
ISO 12234-2,
TIFF/EP[2]
.dng A raw image format suitable as an archival format and as the native raw format of digital cameras[3] No: no known intellectual property encumbrances or license requirements[4]
DICOM Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine National Electrical Manufacturers Association .dcm, .dicom application/dicom[5] Numerous biomedical imaging applications[5] (e.g. OsiriX, XMedCon), some general bitmap graphics applications (e.g. GIMP, Photoshop)
DjVu DjVu AT&T Research .djvu, .djv image/vnd.djvu
DPX Digital Picture eXchange file format .dpx image/dpx
DRF Kodak Pro Back RAW Kodak .drf
Encapsulated PostScript page description/scripting language (see PostScript) Adobe .epi, .eps, .eps2,
.eps3, .epsf, .epsi,
.ept
application/postscript printing/publishing industry standard format
ECW Enhanced Compressed Wavelet ERDAS .ecw Wavelet image format used primarily with geo-referenced aerial and satellite imagery Yes
EMF Enhanced Metafile Format Microsoft .emf, .emz Microsoft Office
EMF+ Enhanced Metafile Format Plus Extensions Microsoft .emf, .emz
ERF EPSON RAW EPSON TIFF .erf
Exif Exchangeable Image File Format .exif
EVA Extended Vector Animation Sharp Corporation .eva application/x-eva
EXR OpenEXR ILM .exr image/exr Used in film effects for 3d rendering and hdr images. ?
FITS Flexible Image Transport System .fit, .fits Scientific (esp. astronomical) data acquisition
FLIC Autodesk .fli, .flc, .flx, .flh, .flt Supported by GIMP
FLIF Free Lossless Image Format .flif, .flf General-purpose lossless image compression, superior compression. No
FPX FlashPix (1.0.2) .fpx image/vnd.fpx
Gerber Format The Gerber Format Specification Ucamco Printable ASCII .gbr application/vnd.gerber Printed Circuit Board or PCB software No
GIF Graphics Interchange Format CompuServe,
Unisys (compression algorithm)
.gif, .gfa, .giff image/gif Supported by most web browsers. Supports transparency and animation. Expired
HEIF High Efficiency Image Format Motion Pictures Expert Group (MPEG) .heif, .heic image/heif, image/heic,
image/heic-sequence,
image/heif-sequence
Yes
HDRi TIFF .tif, .tiff image/tiff
ICER NASA Mars Rovers
ICO ICO file format Microsoft .ico, .cur image/vnd.Microsoft.icon,
image/x-icon
Used by Microsoft Windows and web browsers as favicon
ICS Image Cytometry Standard .ics, .ids
IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specification .igs image/iges CAD/CAM interoperability No
ILBM InterLeaved BitMap Electronic Arts and Commodore Amiga IFF .iff, .ilbm, .lbm image/x-ilbm Planar graphics format designed for Amiga graphics hardware. No
JBIG Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group .jbig, .bie, .jbg
JBIG2 Joint Bi-level Image Experts Group
JNG JPEG Network Graphics .jng image/x-jng No
JPEG Joint Photographic Experts Group Joint Photographic Experts Group .jpg, .jpeg, .jpe
(containers:
.jif, .jfif, .jfi)
image/jpeg Photographic images. Supported by most web browsers. Expired
see also Forgent#JPEG
JPEG 2000 Joint Photographic Experts Group 2000 Joint Photographic Experts Group .jp2, .j2c, .jpc,
.j2k, .jpx
image/jp2 Wavelet lossy and lossless format for photographic images. Yes
no licence costs for part 1
JPEG-LS Joint Photographic Experts Group .jls
JPEG-HDR Dolby Laboratories/BrightSide Technologies JPEG HDR format based on RGBE floating-point encoding and backward-compatible extensions to JFIF format; included in JPEG XT Part 2.
JPEG XL Joint Photographic Experts Group PIK, FUIF (FLIF) .jxl image/jxl General-purpose raster format with high-performance lossy and lossless compression, including lossless JPEG transcoding. No
JPEG XT Joint Photographic Experts Group Backwards-compatible extension of the JPEG format for high bit depth and floating point HDR encoding of lossy and lossless images
JPEG XR / HD Photo JPEG XR / HD Photo Microsoft .wdp, .hdp, .jxr image/vnd.ms-photo TIFF-like container format with HDR encoding for photographic images Yes (royalty-free)
KDC Kodak DC40/DC50 RAW Kodak TIFF .kdc
K25 Kodak DC25 RAW Kodak TIFF .k25
Logluv TIFF Greg Ward TIFF Supported by Libtiff
MNG Multiple-image Network Graphics PNG .mng video/x-mng No
NEF Nikon RAW Nikon TIFF .nef
MIFF Magick image file format ImageMagick Studio .miff Supported by ImageMagick
MRW Minolta RAW Minolta .mrw
ORF Olympus RAW Olympus TIFF .orf
PAM portable arbitrary map file format .pam image/x-portable-arbitrarymap No
PBM Portable Bitmap File Format ASCII .pbm image/x-portable-bitmap No
PCX ZSoft PC Paintbrush File ZSoft Corporation .pcx, .pcc, .dcx image/x-pcx Dated rle packed indexed image format, used in some early 3d shooting games like Unreal Tournament as it takes up very little space and is easy to decode. ?
PDF Portable Document Format Adobe Systems .pdf, .epdf application/pdf
PEF PENTAX RAW PENTAX TIFF .pef
PGF Progressive Graphics File xeraina GmbH .pgf Photographic images, eventual replacement for JPEG. No
PGM Portable Graymap File Format ASCII .pgm image/x-portable-graymap No
PGML Precision Graphics Markup Language Adobe Systems, IBM,
Netscape, Sun Microsystems
No
PNM Portable Anymap File Format ASCII .pnm image/x-portable-anymap No
PICT Macintosh PICT Format Apple Inc. .pict, .pic, .pct,
.pct1, .pct2
image/pict Metafile for Classic Mac OS, not meant for print publishing. Likely expired
PICtor John Bridges, Doug Wolfgram .pic Supported by PCPaint
PNG Portable Network Graphics World Wide Web Consortium .png image/png W3C endorsed replacement for GIF. Supported by most web browsers. No
PostScript page description/scripting language, levels 1–3 Adobe .ps, .ps2, .ps3 printing/publishing industry standard format
PPM Portable Pixmap File Format ASCII .ppm image/x-portable-pixmap Very easy to understand. Programs to analyze and write to this format are easily written. No
PSD Photoshop Document Adobe Systems .psd, .psb, .pdb,
.pdd
image/vnd.adobe.photoshop[6] Used mainly for storing image manipulation & editing data. Yes
PSP Paint Shop Pro Document Corel Corporation .psp, .tub,
.pspimage
image/x-psp Supported by Paint Shop Pro, GIMP ?
QOI Quite OK Image Format Dominic Szablewski .qoi No
RAD Gregory Ward Larson .rad Radiance
RAF Fujifilm RAW Fujifilm .raf
RGBE Gregory Ward Larson .hdr image/vnd.radiance Radiance, most HDR imaging software
SGI Silicon Graphics Image .sgi, .rgb, .rgba,
.bw, .int, .inta,
.icon
SRF Sony RAW File Sony TIFF .srf, .sr2
SVG Scalable Vector Graphics World Wide Web Consortium XML .svg,
.svgz (compressed)
image/svg+xml Scriptable vector image format; supported by major web browsers, occasionally via plug-in. No
SWF Shockwave Flash Adobe Systems .swf application/x-shockwave-flash Supported by many web browsers via plug-in.
TGA Truevision Targa Truevision Inc. .tga, .tpic image/tga Used by many 3D rendering applications and 3d videogames for storing textures. Yes?
TIFF Tagged Image File Format Adobe Systems .tiff, .tif image/tiff Document scanning and imaging format, also functions as a container. No
TIFF/EP Tag Image File Format / Electronic Photography International Organization for Standardization TIFF .tiff, .tif
UFO Ulead File for Objects .ufo
VML Vector Markup Language Microsoft XML .htm, .html application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.vmlDrawing Internet Explorer, Microsoft Office No
WBMP Wireless Application Protocol Bitmap Format Open Mobile Alliance (formerly WAP Forum) .wbmp, .wbm, .wbp image/vnd.wap.wbmp Used in WAP-pages No
WebP WebP image format Google .webp image/webp Provides an alternative to JPEG, PNG and GIF with superior compression Yes (royalty-free)
WMF Windows Metafile Format Microsoft .wmf, .wmz
XAML Extensible Application Markup Language Microsoft XML .xaml application/xaml+xml Used by Windows Presentation Foundation and Microsoft Silverlight. ?
XAR Xar Xara Xar (graphics) .xar application/vnd.xara Used by Xara Photo & Graphic Designer No
XBM X BitMap, colour variant of original black-and-white bitmap (bmp) format .xbm, .bm,
.icon, .bitmap
image/x-xbitmap Used by many legacy Unix applications.
XCF XCF, name derived from eXperimental Computing Facility The GIMP Team .xcf,
.xcfbz2 (compressed),
.xcfgz (compressed)
application/x-gimp-image Used by GIMP
XPM X-Pixmap .xpm, .pm image/x-xpm Used by many legacy Unix applications.
X3F SIGMA RAW SIGMA .x3f
Format Full name Owner based Format File extension MIME type Application Patented

Technical details[edit]

Format Compression
algorithm
Raster/
vector
Color depth Indexed color Transparency Metadata Interlacing Multi-page Animation[7] Layers Color management Extend­able HDR format
AI Lossy and lossless Both 1, 8, 24, and 32 (possibly with multiple palettes) Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Un­known No
AVIF AV1 Lossy and lossless Raster 1, 8, 10, and 12-bit color depths per channel/alpha. 4:2:0, 4:2:2, 4:4:4 chroma subsampling and RGB Un­known Yes Yes No Un­known Yes Un­known Yes Yes Yes
BMP None, RLE, JPEG, and PNG Raster 1, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, and 64 Yes Yes No No No No No Yes No No
BPG HEVC, Lossy and lossless Raster 8 to 14 bits per channel No Yes Yes No No Yes Un­known Yes Un­known Un­known
CD5 Lossless, ACSC Both 1, 8, 24, 32 and 64 Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Partial Yes No
CDR Lossy and lossless Both 1, 8, 24,and 32 (multiple palettes) Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Un­known No
CPC CPC Raster 1 No No Yes No Yes No No No Yes, via embedded dictionary No
EPS None, LZW, Deflate, RLE, DCT Both Device specific No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
EXR None, RLE, ZIP, Piz, PXR24, and B44, B44A, DWAA, DWAB Raster 16–128 (floating-point) No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
FLIF Lossless, MANIAC entropy coding Raster 1 to 16 bits per channel Yes Yes Yes Yes, Adam∞ No Yes No Yes Yes, via chunks Yes, with suitable color profile
GIF LZW Raster Indexed (1bpc to 8bpc) and grayscale (8bpc) Yes Yes; 1bpp plane-only mask using color index Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes (GIF89a) No
HD Photo / JPEG XR Lossy and lossless bi-orthogonal transform Raster 1, 2, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48, 64, and 128 (floating-point) No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes
ILBM Optional run-length encoding Raster 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 64 EHB, 128, 256 (8-bit), 4,096 (HAM6 pseudo 12-bit), 4,096 pure 12-bit, 262, 144 (HAM8 pseudo 18-bit), and 24-bit Yes No Yes Yes No Yes,
Palette-shifting
No No Yes No
JPEG Lossy (and partly lossless), DCT, RLE, and Huffman predictive nearest neighbor Raster 8-bit (greyscale), 12-bit, and 24-bit No No Yes Yes No No No Yes No No (see unofficial JPEG-HDR)
JPEG 2000 Lossy and lossless (DWT) Raster 8- and 16-bit (greyscale) with possibly color up to 48-bit No Yes Yes Yes No No No Yes Un­known No
JPEG XL Lossy and lossless (VarDCT mode, Modular mode) Raster up to 32 bits per channel Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
KRA None Both grayscale, RGB, XYZ (8bpc, 16bpc, float16bpc, float32bpc), CMYK, L*a*b* and YCbCr (8bpc, 16bpc, float32bpc) No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
ORA Lossless Both 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32, 48, and 64 Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes
PAM None Raster Up to 16 No Yes Yes No Yes No No No Yes No
PCX None, RLE Raster 1, 2, 4, 8, 24 and 32 Yes Yes No No Yes No No No No No
PGF Lossy and lossless (DWT) Raster grayscale: 1, 8, 16, 31; RGB: 12, 16, 24, 32, and 48 Yes Yes Yes Yes No No No No Un­known No
PICT None, RLE, and QuickTime Both 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32 Yes Yes Yes Un­known No No No Un­known No? No
PNG Lossless and deflate Raster bitmap (1bpc), indexed (8bpc), grayscale and RGB (8bpc, 16bpc) Yes Yes; indexed, grayscale and RGB Yes Yes, Adam7 algorithm No No (but see MNG and APNG) No Yes Yes, via chunks No, see discussion
PPM None Raster Up to 16 No No Yes No Yes No No No No No
PSD and PSB None and RLE Both bitmap (1bpc), duotone, indexed (8bpc), grayscale, RGB, CMYK, Lab and multichannel (8bpc, 16bpc, 32bpc) Yes Yes; indexed, grayscale, RGB, CMYK and Lab Yes No Yes Yes Yes No? Yes
PSP None Both 1, 2, 8, 16, 24, 32, and 48 Yes Yes; 8b and 16b per-pixel alpha channel Yes No Un­known No Yes Un­known Un­known No
SVG None and lossless gzip Vector[8] RGB (8bpc) No Yes Yes Yes (1.2 draft)[9] Yes (SMIL/SVG) Yes Yes[10] Yes, XML based
TGA None, RLE, and other Raster 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32 Yes Yes Yes No No No No No Un­known No
TIFF None, LZW, RLE, ZIP, and other Both 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 32 Yes (1–8 bit modes) Yes Yes Yes, for JPEG compression Yes No Yes Yes Yes, via tags Yes, TIFF float
WebP Lossy and lossless Raster YUV420P (12bpp), YUVA420P (20bpp) and RGB (8bpc) Internally in lossless mode, but not user-accessible[11][12] Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No
XAML None Vector 32 and 64 No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes
XCF None and lossless (gzip, bzip2 and xz) Both indexed (8bpc), grayscale and RGB (8bpc, 16bpc, float16bpc, 32bpc, float32bpc, float64bpc) Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Format Compression algorithm Raster/
vector
Color depth Indexed color Transparency Metadata Interlacing Multi-page Animation Layers Color management Extend­able HDR format

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "BPG Image format". bellard.org.
  2. ^ Adobe: DNG Specification
  3. ^ Adobe: Introducing the Digital Negative Specification: Information for manufacturers
  4. ^ Adobe Labs: CinemaDNG (last bullet point)
  5. ^ a b RFC 3240
  6. ^ "vnd.adobe.photoshop". Retrieved 2010-01-28.
  7. ^ Animations are often encoded as video.
  8. ^ Supports raster data embedding with the use of Base64
  9. ^ "Multiple pages (SVG 1.2)". www.w3.org.
  10. ^ "Removed: Color — SVG 2". www.w3.org.
  11. ^ "Issue 437: allow palette extraction from indexed lossless images". WebP issue tracker. Retrieved 1 December 2020.
  12. ^ "Lossless Bitstream Specification, section Color Indexing Transform". WebP official reference at Google Developers. Retrieved 1 December 2020.