Comparison of layout engines (XHTML)

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The following tables compare XHTML compatibility and support for a number of layout engines. Please see the individual products' articles for further information. Unless otherwise specified in footnotes, comparisons are based on the stable versions without any add-ons, extensions or external programs.

Only XHTML 1.1 is considered. XHTML 1.1 is necessarily XHTML 1.0 Strict with more elements and attributes deprecated. XHTML 2.0 was a working draft with no layout engine support, but work on it was abandoned[1] in 2009 in favor of work on HTML5 and XHTML5. XHTML 1.0 and HTML 4 (both served with text/html) are covered in comparison of layout engines (HTML). The comparison of XML capabilities are covered in comparison of layout engines (XML).

Version number, if possible, is provided for feature that is fully supported. Proprietary extensions are not included.

Explanation of the tables[edit]

Engine nomenclature[edit]

Rather than the names of web browsers and HTML to PDF converters, the names of the underlying engines are used. Some of the software and online converters that use the various engines are listed below.

Layout engine Release version Preview version Used by
Amaya 11.4.7[2] N/A No longer developed; Amaya
Blink 537.36 source code[note 1] Chromium/Chrome (28+), Opera (15+), Sleipnir, Vivaldi, Yandex, Liebao and Samsung Browser[citation needed]
EdgeHTML 14.14393[3] N/A Microsoft Edge, Universal Windows Platform (UWP) JavaScript apps
Standard 51.0.1 / January 26, 2017; 28 days ago (2017-01-26)[4]
ESR 45.7.0 / January 24, 2017; 30 days ago (2017-01-24)[5]
Beta 52.0beta / January 25, 2017; 29 days ago (2017-01-25)[6][7] semiweekly release
Developer Edition 53.0a2 / January 27, 2017; 27 days ago (2017-01-27)[8][9] daily release
Nightly 54.0a1 / January 29, 2017; 25 days ago (2017-01-29)[10][11] daily release
All Mozilla software, including Firefox; SeaMonkey and Galeon; Camino; K-Meleon; Flock (up to 2.x); Debian IceWeasel; GNU IceCat (formerly GNU IceWeasel); Cyberfox; Icedove, Iceape and Iceowl; Firefox for Android ("Fennec"). Also used by the Maple platform in 2010 and 2011 Samsung "SmartTV" devices which are based on the build used in Firefox 2.5. The Nokia Asha platform also uses Gecko for web apps rendering.
Goanna 27.1.1 (February 21, 2017; 2 days ago (2017-02-21)[12]) [±] Pale Moon and FossaMail
KHTML 4.12.3[13] N/A Konqueror[note 2]
Martha  ?  ? PDFreactor, Nimbudocs Editor and edit-on NG
Presto 2.12.388 N/A No longer developed; Opera and Opera Mobile use Blink now; Nintendo DS & DSi Browser; Internet Channel
Prince 11 N/A HTML to PDF converters: Prince (previously called PrinceXML), DocRaptor. The information in the Prince columns is also true of Prince for Books, a related layout engine.
Tasman (IE 5.2.3 for Mac) N/A No longer developed (aborted in 2003); Internet Explorer 5+ for Mac OS X
Trident 7.0 (IE 11) N/A Internet Explorer and other Internet Explorer shells like Maxthon (Microsoft Windows operating systems only), Windows Phone 8
WebKit 534.20 nightly build[note 3] Tizen (both OS and browser), Safari (both desktop and mobile), Google Chrome (before 28), Maxthon 3, Shiira, iCab 4, OmniWeb 5.5+, Web, Adobe AIR, Midori, surf, Adobe Dreamweaver CS4 and CS5, Android browser, Palm webOS browser, Symbian S60 browser, OWB, Steam, Rekonq, Arora, Flock (version 3+), RockMelt, Dolphin Browser, Konqueror[note 2]. Used by the LG Smart TV platform to enable web content on TVs. HTML to PDF converters: wkhtmltopdf, PhantomJS, Pdfcrowd[14],[15].
  1. ^ "chromium / chromium/blink". Google. Retrieved 2014-05-27. 
  2. ^ a b In Konqueror, the user can switch the used layout engine.
  3. ^ "WebKit Nightly Builds". Retrieved 2014-05-27. 


Values indicate the level of support in the most recent version of the layout engine, or (if a version number is given) in the specified version. Version numbers without any other value indicate the version at which the layout engine first fully supported the feature.

Value Meaning
Yes Indicates that the layout engine fully supports this property/element when valid values are used.
No Indicates that the property/element is completely ignored.
Partial Indicates that the property/element is understood, but that not all values are supported. Supported values are implemented correctly.
Incorrect Indicates that the property/element is understood, but that it is not implemented correctly in all cases.
Experimental Indicates that the property/element is understood, but supported under an alternate name. May be incomplete or buggy.
Dropped Indicates that the property/element is no longer supported.
Nightly build Indicates that the property/element is supported to some extent in an experimental/nightly build. Future support is expected.
Depends Indicates that the property/element is supported only on certain platforms, or if certain settings are configured.

Media types[edit]

The responses when a well-formatted XHTML document is served with different media types. Note that only application/xhtml+xml is the recommended media type.

Internet media type Trident Tasman Gecko WebKit KHTML Presto Prince XML
application/atom+xml  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? 8.00 beta 2[o 1][o 2]  ?
application/mathml+xml No No 2.0[g 1] No No 9.50 beta 2[o 3]  ?
application/rss+xml  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? 7.50 beta 1[o 4][o 5]  ?
application/xhtml+xml XHTML 5.0 Prompt for download XHTML XHTML
application/xml XHTML 5.0 Crash XHTML XHTML
application/xslt+xml  ?  ?  ?  ?  ? 9.00 beta 1[o 6]  ?
image/svg+xml  ?  ? 1.0[g 2]  ?  ? 9.50[o 7][o 8]  ?
text/xml XHTML 5.0 Crash XHTML XHTML

KHTML media type notes[edit]

  1. application/xhtml+xml — KHTML supports this media type, but processes the document as HTML.
  2. application/xml, text/xml — HTML entities and custom entities defined by custom DTD are not recognized.

Combined profiles[edit]

Extending XHTML by combining with other applications of XML (not referring using img/object element).

Trident Tasman Gecko WebKit KHTML Presto Prince XML
MathML No No 1.0 No[w 1] No 2.1 6.0
SVG 5.0 1.8 522 3.2 1.0 5.1
XForms No No[g 3] No[w 2] No No  ?
VoiceXML No No 1.0 No


Gecko references[edit]

Opera references[edit]

  1. ^ Feature History, Opera 
  2. ^ "Opera Features". RSS/Atom. Archived from the original on May 9, 2005. 
  3. ^ Feature History, Opera 
  4. ^ Feature History, Opera 
  5. ^ "Opera Features". RSS. Archived from the original on August 2, 2004. 
  6. ^ Feature History, Opera 
  7. ^ Feature History, Opera 
  8. ^ "Opera Features". SVG. Archived from the original on April 14, 2005. Retrieved May 1, 2005. 

WebKit references[edit]

Other references[edit]

  1. ^ "W3C XHTML FAQ". 
  2. ^ Amaya Binary Releases, Most recent download link in stable
  3. ^ Introducing EdgeHTML 14 with the Windows 10 Anniversary Update
  4. ^ "Firefox — Notes (51.0.1) — Mozilla". 2017-01-26. Retrieved 2017-01-26. 
  5. ^ "Firefox Extended Support Release — Notes (45.7.0) — Mozilla". 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-24. 
  6. ^ "Firefox — Beta Notes (52.0beta) — Mozilla". 2017-01-25. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  7. ^ "Mozilla Firefox Web Browser — Download Firefox Beta in your language — Mozilla". Retrieved 2016-07-02. 
  8. ^ "Firefox — Aurora Notes (53.0a2) — Mozilla". 2017-01-27. Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  9. ^ "Mozilla Firefox Web Browser — Download Developer Edition in your language — Mozilla". Retrieved 2017-01-27. 
  10. ^ "RapidRelease/Calendar - MozillaWiki". Retrieved 2017-01-29. 
  11. ^ "Mozilla Firefox Web Browser — Download Firefox Nightly in your language — Mozilla". Retrieved 2017-01-29. 
  12. ^ "Pale Moon Release Notes". Pale Moon. 2017-02-09. Retrieved 2017-02-21. 
  13. ^ Download for kdelibs, Most recent download link in stable
  14. ^ Pdfcrowd FAQ, “Pdfcrowd is built around Webkit.”
  15. ^ ‘Producer’ metadata in the resulting pdf., Free Online HTML Converter around Webkit
  • "W3C". XHTML media type test. Retrieved May 1, 2005. 
  • "Developer's corner". Authoring XHTML+Voice. Retrieved May 1, 2005.