Comparison of orbital rocket engines

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This page is an incomplete list of orbital rocket engine data.

Current and Upcoming Engine Data[edit]

     Under development;      Operational or inactive;

Engine Origin Designer Vehicle Use Propellant Specific impulse (s)[a] Thrust (N)[a] Mass (kg) Thrust:​weight ratio[b] Chamber pressure (bar) Oxidiser:​fuel ratio
Aeon 1  USA Relativity Space Terran 1 1st CH4 / LOX 310 86,740 (SL)[1]
Aeon 1 Vacuum  USA Relativity Space Terran 1 2nd CH4 / LOX 360 100,085 (SL)[2]
AJ-60A  USA Aerojet Atlas V Booster Solid 275 1,270,000[3]
AR1  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Beta (potential)[4] 1st RP-1 / LOX 2,200,000 (SL)[5] 2.72
BE-3  USA Blue Origin New Shepard 1st LH2 / LOX 490,000[6]
BE-3U  USA Blue Origin New Glenn 2nd LH2 / LOX 710,000[7]
BE-4  USA Blue Origin New Glenn
Vulcan
1st CH4 / LOX 2,400,000[8][9] 134[10]
Boeing 601HP[c]  USA Boeing Boeing 601HP satellites Vacuum Xenon 2,568 @0.5 kW 0.018 @0.5 kW
CE-20  India LPSC GSLV Mk III Upper LH2 / LOX 443 200,000 588 34.7 60.00 5.05
CE-7.5  India LPSC GSLV Mk II Upper LH2 / LOX 454[11] 73,500 to 93,100 445 16.85 58
Engine-2  USA Launcher Space Rocket-1 1st RP-1 / LOX 327[12]

290 (SL)

100,000[12] 2.62
Engine-2 Vacuum  USA Launcher Space Rocket-1 2nd RP-1 / LOX 365[12] 100,000[12] 2.62
GEM 63  USA Northrop Grumman Atlas V Booster Solid 373,800[13] 49,300
GEM 63XL  USA Northrop Grumman Atlas V Booster Solid 450,000[14] 53,400
Hadley  USA Ursa Major Technologies GOLauncher 1[15] 1st RP-1 / LOX 22,241 (SL)[16]
HM-7B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
Ariane 4
Ariane 5 ECA
Upper LH2 / LOX 446[17]
310 (SL)[18]
64,800[17]
43,600 (SL)[18]
165[17] 43.25 37[17] 5
LE-5B  Japan Mitsubishi
JAXA
H-IIA
H-IIB
Upper LH2 / LOX 447[19] 137,000 269 51.93 36.0 5
LE-7A  Japan Mitsubishi
JAXA
H-IIA
H-IIB
1st LH2 / LOX 438[20]
338 (SL)[20]
1,098,000
870,000 (SL)
1,800 62.2 121 5.9
Lightning 1[21]  USA Firefly Aerospace Alpha 2nd RP-1 / LOX 322 70,100
Merlin 1D FT  USA SpaceX Falcon 9 FT
Falcon Heavy
1st RP-1 / LOX 311 914,000[22]
845,000 (SL)[22]
470 194.5[22]
Merlin Vacuum 1D  USA SpaceX Falcon 9
Falcon Heavy
2nd RP-1 / LOX 348[23] 934,000[23] 2.36
Mira (LM10)  Italy Avio Vega E[24] 3rd[24] CH4 / LOX[24] 362.3[24] 98,100[24] 250[24] 40[24] 3.4[24]
NewtonThree  USA Virgin Galactic LauncherOne Booster RP-1 / LOX 266,893[25]
NewtonFour  USA Virgin Galactic LauncherOne 2nd RP-1 / LOX 22,241[25]
NEXT  USA NASA Vacuum Xenon 4,100 @6.9 kW 0.236 @6.9 kW
NK-33A (AJ26-62)
11Д111 / 14Д15
 Soviet Union JSC Kuznetsov Antares 100
Soyuz-2-1v
1st RP-1 / LOX 331[26]
297 (SL)
1,680,000
1,510,000 (SL)
1,222 136.8 145
NSTAR[27][28][d]  USA Hughes Electron Dynamics
Boeing
Deep Space 1
Dawn
Vacuum Xenon 3,100 @2.3 kW 0.0920 @2.3 kW 8.2
P80[29][30]:5[31]  Europe Vega 1st HTPB 280 2,261,000 96,000 with fuel
P120C[32]  Europe Ariane 6
Vega-C
Booster, 1st HTPB[33] 279[32] 4,650,000[32] 161,000 with fuel[32]
P230  Europe SNPE and Avio Spa (Italy) Ariane 5 Booster HTPB 286[34]
259 (SL)
6,470,000
5,860,000 (SL)
269,000 with fuel[34]
PPS-1350 (СПД-100)  Russia
OKB Fakel SMART-1 Vacuum Xenon 1,650 @1.5 kW 0.088 @1.5 kW 5.3
S139  India SDSC PSLV 1st HTPB 269[35] 4,860,000 160,200
with fuel
58
Raptor[36]  USA SpaceX Starship 1st, 2nd CH4 / LOX 356[37]
330 (SL)
1,700,000 (SL) ~1,360 (goal)[38] ≥170 (goal)[38] 300[39] 3.6[40]
Raptor Vacuum[36]  USA SpaceX Starship 2nd, 1st on Mars CH4 / LOX 380+[41] 1,900,000[37] ~1,360 (goal)[38] ≤120 (goal)[38] 300[39] 3.6[40]
RD-0124
14Д23
 Russia KBKhA Soyuz-2.1b
Soyuz-2-1v
Angara
2nd, 3rd RP-1 / LOX 359[42] 294,300 520 57.7 160
RD-0146D  Russia KBKhA Angara Upper LH2 / LOX 470[43] 68,600 59
RD-107A
14Д22
 Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
1st RP-1 / LOX 320.2[44]
263.3 (SL)
1,019,892
839,449 (SL)
1,090 78.53 61.2
RD-108A
14Д21
 Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
2nd RP-1 / LOX 320.6[44]
257.7 (SL)
921,825
792,377 (SL)
1,075 75.16 55.5
RD-171M[e]11Д520  Russia NPO Energomash Zenit-2M
Zenit-3SL
Zenit-3SLB
Zenit-3SLBF
Soyuz-5
1st RP-1 / LOX 337.2[45]
309.5 (SL)
7,904,160
7,256,921 (SL)
9,300 79.57 250
RD-180  Russia NPO Energomash Atlas V
Atlas III
1st RP-1 / LOX 338.4[46]
311.9 (SL)
4,152,136
3,826,555 (SL)
5,480 71.2 261.7 2.72
RD-181  Russia NPO Energomash Antares 200 1st RP-1 / LOX 339.2[47]
311.9 (SL)
2,085,000
1,922,000 (SL)
2,200 89 262.6
RD-191  Russia NPO Energomash Angara 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.5[48]
311.2 (SL)
2,084,894
1,922,103 (SL)
2,200 89.09 262.6
RD-193  Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-2-1v 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.5[49]
311.2
2,084,894
1,922,103 (SL)
1,900 103.15
RD-276
14Д14М
 Russia NPO Energomash Proton-M 1st N2O4 / UDMH 315.8[50]
288 (SL)
1,831,882
1,671,053 (SL)
1,120 171.2 168.5
RD-8
11D513
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Zenit 2nd vernier RP-1 / LOX 342 78,450 380 77.47 2.4
RD-801  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Mayak 1st RP-1 / LOX 1,340,000, 1,198,000 (SL) 1,630 180 2.65
RD-805 (RD-802)  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Upper RP-1 / LOX
RD-809 (RD-809M)  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Antares Upper RP-1 / LOX
RD-809K  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Mayak Upper RP-1 / LOX
RD-810  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Mayak, Zenit 1st RP-1 / LOX 2,105,000 1,876,000 (SL) 2,800 180 2.65
RD-843  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Vega upper N2O4 / UDMH 315.5 2,452,000 15.93 20.4 2.0
RD-861K  Ukraine Pivdenne/Pivdenmash (Cyclone-4M) 3rd N2O4 / UDMH
Reaver 1[21]  USA Firefly Aerospace Alpha 1st RP-1 / LOX 295.6 184,000
RL-10A-4-2[51]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Atlas IIIB
Atlas V
Upper LH2 / LOX 451 99,195 168 60.27 42 5.5
RL-10B-2[51]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Delta III
Delta IV
SLS
Upper LH2 / LOX 465.5 110,093 301 37.27 44 5.88
RL-10C-1[51]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Delta III
Delta IV
SLS,
Vulcan
Upper LH2 / LOX 450 101,820 191 54.5 44 5.5
RS-25 (SSME)[f]  USA Rocketdyne Space Shuttle
SLS
1st LH2 / LOX 452.3
366 (SL)
2,279,000
1,860,000 (SL)[52]
3,526 53.79 206.4
RS-68A[g]  USA Rocketdyne Delta IV
Delta IV Heavy
1st LH2 / LOX 414[53]
365 (SL)
3,560,000
3,137,000 (SL)
6,747 53.80 196[unreliable source?]
Rutherford  New Zealand  USA Rocket Lab Electron 1st RP-1 / LOX 311 24,465
16,890 (SL)
Rutherford Vacuum  New Zealand  USA Rocket Lab Electron 2nd RP-1 / LOX 343 24,465
S200  India SDSC GSLV Mk III Booster HTPB 274.5[54] 5,150,000[55][56][57] 207,000
with fuel[54]
SCE-200  India LPSC GSLV Mk III
ULV
Upper, main RP-1 / LOX 335
299 (SL)
2,030,000
1,820,000 (SL)
2,700 180
SLS Solid Rocket Booster[h]  USA Orbital ATK SLS Booster PBAN 267 16,000,000 730,000
with fuel
SLV-1  India Godrej & Boyce PSLV Booster HTPB 253[58] 502,600 10,800
with fuel
43
SPT-100  Russia OKB Fakel LS-1300 satellites Vacuum Xenon 1,500 @1.35 kW 0.083 @1.35 kW 3.5
SRB-A  Japan IHI Aerospace
JAXA
H-IIA Booster HTPB 280[59] 2,250,000 76,400 with fuel
SRB-A3  Japan IHI Aerospace
JAXA
H-IIB
Epsilon
Booster BP-207J[60] 283.6[60] 2,305,000
2,150,000 (SL)
76,600
with fuel
111
TQ-12[61]  China Landspace ZQ-2 1st CH4 / LOX 284 667,000 (SL) 101
VASIMR  USA Ad Astra Rocket Company Vacuum Argon 5,000 @200 kW 5.7 @200 kW
Vikas (rocket engine)  India LPSC 2nd, main, booster N2O4 / UDMH 262 680,500–804,500
600,500–756,500 (SL)
53.0–58.5
Vinci  Europe Snecma Ariane 6 Upper LH2 / LOX 467[62] 180,000 280 65.60 61
Vulcain 2  Europe Snecma Ariane 5 1st LH2 / LOX 429[63]
318 (SL)[64]
1,359,000[63]
939,500 (SL)[64]
1,800[63] 77.04 117.3[63]
XIPS-25  USA Boeing Boeing 702 satellites Vacuum Xenon 3,500 @4.5 kW 0.165 @4.5 kW
YF-100  China AALPT Booster, 1st RP-1 / LOX 335[65]
300 (SL)
1,340,000
1,200,000 (SL)
180
YF-115  China AALPT 2nd RP-1 / LOX 341.5 176,500
YF-21B  China AALPT Booster, 1st N2O4 / UDMH 260.66 (SL)[66] 740,400 (SL)[66]
YF-21C  China AALPT 1st N2O4 / UDMH 260.7 (SL)[66] 740,400 (SL)[66]
YF-25  China AALPT Booster N2O4 / UDMH 260.66 (SL)[66] 740,400 (SL)[66]
YF-22B  China AALPT 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[66] 738,400
YF-22C  China AALPT 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[66] 742,040
YF-22D  China AALPT 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[66] 741,400
YF-22E  China AALPT 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[66] 741,400
YF-40  China AALPT 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 303 103,000
YF-50D  China AALPT Upper N2O4 / UDMH 315.5 6,500
YF-73  China AALPT Long March 3 3rd LH2 / LOX 420.0 44,150
YF-75  China AALPT 3rd LH2 / LOX 438.0[66] 167,170
YF-75D  China AALPT Long March 5 2nd LH2 / LOX 442.0 86,260
YF-77  China AALPT Long March 5 1st LH2 / LOX 430
310.2 (SL)
700,000
510,000 (SL)
2,700 102
Zefiro 9A  European Union Avio Vega 3rd Solid 72,000 75
Zefiro 23  European Union Avio Vega 2nd Solid 209,000 (SL)

Retired and Canceled Rocket Engines[edit]

Engine Origin Designer Vehicle Use Propellant Specific impulse (s)[a] Thrust (N)[a] Mass (kg) Thrust:​weight ratio[i] Chamber pressure (bar) Oxidiser:​fuel ratio
Aestus  Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 G, G+, ES Upper N2O4 / MMH 324[67] 30,000 111 27.6 11 1.9
Aestus II  Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 Upper N2O4 / MMH 340[68] 55,400 138 41.0 60 1.9
F-1[j]  USA Rocketdyne Saturn V 1st RP-1 / LOX 304
263 (SL)
7,770,000
6,770,000 (SL)
8,391 82.27 70 2.27
F-1A[k][69]  USA Rocketdyne 1st RP-1 / LOX 303
270 (SL)
8,989,000
8,007,000 (SL)
9,015 90.6 80 2.27
Gamma 2  United Kingdom Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 2nd RP-1 / H2O2 265[70] 68,200 173 40.22 8
Gamma 8  United Kingdom Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 1st RP-1 / H2O2 265[71] 234,800 342 70.01 47.40 8
HiPEP[l]  USA NASA Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Vacuum Xenon 9,620 @39.3 kW 0.670 @39.3 kW
HM-7A  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 3rd LH2 / LOX 443[72]
308 (SL)
61,700 149 42.2 30 5
J-2  USA Rocketdyne Saturn V
Saturn IB
2nd, 3rd LH2 / LOX 421[73]
200 (SL)
1,033,100
486,200 (SL)
1,438 73.18 30 5.5
J-2X  USA Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne SLS Upper LH2 / LOX 448[74] 1,310,000 2,470 58.41 95 5.5–4.5
Kestrel  USA SpaceX Falcon 1 Upper RP-1 / LOX 317 31,000 52 65 9.3
LE-5  Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-I Upper LH2 / LOX 450[75] 103,000 245 42.87 36.0 5.5
LE-5A  Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-II Upper LH2 / LOX 452[76] 121,500 242 51.19 40.0 5
LE-7  Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-II 1st LH2 / LOX 446[77] 1,078,000
843,500 (SL)
1,714 64.13 127 5.9
Merlin 1C  USA SpaceX 1st, 2nd RP-1 / LOX 304[78]
266 (SL)[79]
480,408[78]
422,581 (SL)[78]
630 92[78] 67.7
Merlin 1D  USA SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 1st RP-1 / LOX 311[80]
282 (SL)[80]
723,000 470 158 97 2.34
Merlin Vacuum 1C  USA SpaceX 2nd RP-1 / LOX 336[79] 413,644[79] 92
RD-0120
11Д122
 Soviet Union KBKhA Energia 1st LH2 / LOX 455[81] 1,962,000
1,526,000 (SL)
3,450 57.80 219
RD-56 (KVD-1)
11Д56У
 Russia KBKhM GSLV Mk I Upper LH2 / LOX 462[82] 69,626 282 25.17 55.9
RD-117
11Д511
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 1st RP-1 / LOX 316[83]
253 (SL)
978,000
778,648 (SL)
1,100 72.18 54.2
RD-118
11Д512
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 2nd RP-1 / LOX 314[83]
257 (SL)
1,000,278
818,855 (SL)
1,100 75.91 59.7
RD-170[m]11Д521[84]  Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.2
309.5 (SL)
7,904,160
7,256,921 (SL)
9,300 79.57 250
RD-264
11Д119
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Dnepr 1st N2O4 / UDMH 318[85]
293 (SL)
4,521,000 3,600 128.15 206
RD-275
14Д14
 Russia NPO Energomash Proton-M 1st N2O4 / UDMH 316[86]
287 (SL)
1,831,882
1,671,053 (SL)
1,070 171.2 160.0
RD-854
8D612
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36ORB 3rd N2O4 / UDMH
RD-855
8D68M
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36, Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3 1st vernier N2O4 / UDMH 328,000 320 65.70 1.97
RD-856
8D69M
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36, Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3, (Tsyklon-4) 2nd vernier N2O4 / UDMH 54,230 112.5 71.60 1.98
RD-861
11D25
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash Tsyklon-2, Tsyklon-3 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 78,710 123 88.8 2.1
RD-864
15D177
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36 (missile), Dnipro 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 309 high, 298 low 20,200 high, 8,450 low 199 41 high/17 low 1.8
RD-869
15D300
 Soviet Union Pivdenne/Pivdenmash R-36M 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 313 high, 302.3 low 20,470 high, 8,580 low 196 41 high/17 low 1.8
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster[n]  USA Thiokol Space Shuttle
Ares I
Booster PBAN / APCP 268 14,000,000
12,500,000 (SL)
590,000
with fuel
UA1207  USA United Technologies Titan IV Booster PBAN 272[87]
245 (SL)
7,116,000
6,410,400 (SL)
319,330
with fuel
Viking 2  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 1st N2O4 / UDMH 690,000
611,200 (SL)
776 90.67
Viking 2B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
1st N2O4 / UH 25 643,000 (SL) 776 84.5
Viking 4  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 713,000 826 88
Viking 4B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
Ariane 4
2nd N2O4 / UH 25 800,000 826 98.76
Viking 5C  Europe Snecma Ariane 4 1st N2O4 / UH 25 758,000
678,000 (SL)
826 93.57
Viking 6  Europe Snecma Ariane 4 Booster N2O4 / UH 25 750,000 826 92.59
Vulcain
HM-60
 Europe Snecma Ariane 5 1st LH2 / LOX 439[88]
326 (SL)[89]
1,113,000[88]
773,200 (SL)[89]
1,300[89] 84.38 109[88]
Waxwing  United Kingdom Bristol Aerojet Black Arrow Upper Solid 278[90]
245 (SL)
29,400
25,900 (SL)
87 34.48

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d At sea level if denoted SL, in vacuum otherwise
  2. ^ Weight is calculated at standard gravity.
  3. ^ First ever ion engine used as a main engine on an operational commercial satellite (PAS-5)
  4. ^ First ever ion engine used as a main engine on an operational science spacecraft (Deep Space 1)
  5. ^ Most powerful multi-chamber rocket engine in the world
  6. ^ Inactive since last Shuttle flight STS-135 in 2011
  7. ^ Most powerful hydrogen-fueled engine in the world
  8. ^ Largest, most powerful solid-fuel rocket motor ever built
  9. ^ Weight is calculated at standard gravity.
  10. ^ Most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed
  11. ^ Tested but never flown
  12. ^ Most efficient inert gas ion thruster ever built
  13. ^ World's most powerful liquid fueled rocket engine
  14. ^ Largest solid-fuel rocket motor ever flown, and the first to be used for primary propulsion on human spaceflight missions


References[edit]

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  2. ^ "Terran 1 Technical Specifications". Retrieved 2019-10-05.
  3. ^ "Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor". Aerojet Rocketdyne. Archived from the original on 2017-03-14. Retrieved 2015-06-02.
  4. ^ http://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2019/10/18/1932085/0/en/Aerojet-Rocketdyne-and-Firefly-Aerospace-to-Provide-Flexible-Access-to-Space.html
  5. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-10-26.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  6. ^ https://www.blueorigin.com/engines/be-3
  7. ^ https://www.blueorigin.com/engines/be-3
  8. ^ Ferster, Warren (2014-09-17). "ULA To Invest in Blue Origin Engine as RD-180 Replacement". Space News. Retrieved 2014-09-19.
  9. ^ "BE-4". Blue Origin. Archived from the original on 17 September 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014.
  10. ^ Berger, Eric (2016-03-09). "Behind the curtain: Ars goes inside Blue Origin's secretive rocket factory". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016-03-09.
  11. ^ "GSLV Launch Vehicle Information". Retrieved 6 January 2014.
  12. ^ a b c d "Engine-2". LAUNCHER. Retrieved 2019-11-09.
  13. ^ "Solid Rocket Motor Test-Fired".
  14. ^ "GEM 63 and GEM 63XL Fact Sheet" (PDF).
  15. ^ TMRO (2016-09-11), Generation Orbit - 9.28, retrieved 2017-05-20
  16. ^ "Home". Ursa Major Technologies. Retrieved 2017-05-20.
  17. ^ a b c d "HM-7 and HM-7B Rocket Engine - Thrust Chamber". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 2015-03-18. Retrieved 1 November 2015.
  18. ^ a b Wade, Mark. "HM7-B". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 10 June 2017.
  19. ^ "LE-5B". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
  20. ^ a b "LE-7A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2016.
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  23. ^ a b "SpaceX Falcon 9 Product Page". Archived from the original on 2014-08-05. Retrieved 2015-11-01.
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h Avio. "LM10 - Mira Motor". Retrieved 12 May 2018.
  25. ^ a b "LauncherOne Service Guide" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-10-22.
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  28. ^ "Hughes' Ion Engine Serving as Primary Propulsion to NASA's Deep Space 1". www.boeing.com. 24 December 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2005.
  29. ^ "Vega Satellite Launcher" (PDF). Avio. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  30. ^ "Press Kit - Vega qualification flight VV01" (PDF). ESA. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  31. ^ "Vega Launcher - Launcher Composition". European Launch Vehicle S.p.A. P.IVA. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
  32. ^ a b c d Press release: Successful first test firing for the P120C solid rocket motor for Ariane 6 and Vega-C
  33. ^ Powerful new European solid-fueled rocket motor aces first test-firing
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