Comparison of orbital rocket engines

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This page is an incomplete list of orbital rocket engine data.

Engine data[edit]

Legend for below table:   [under development] — [retired,canceled] — [operational,inactive]

Engine Origin Manufacturer Vehicle Use Propellant Specific Impulse, Vac (s) Specific Impulse, SL (s) Thrust, Vac (N) Thrust, SL (N) Mass (kg) Thrust-to-weight ratio Combustion chamber pressure (bar) Status Engine
Aestus II[1]  Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 Upper N2O4/MMH 340[1] 55,400[1] 138[1] 40.9?[note 1] 60[1] Development Aestus II
Aestus[2]  Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 ES Upper N2O4/MMH 324[2] 30,000[2] 111[2] 27.6?[note 2] 11[2] Operational Aestus
AR1  United States Aerojet Rocketdyne Vulcan 1st RP-1/LOX 2,200,000[3] Development AR1
Atlas V SRB  United States Aerojet Atlas V Booster Solid 275[4] 1,270,000[4] Operational Atlas V SRB
BE-3  United States Blue Origin New Shepard 1st LH2/LOX 490,000 Operational BE-3
BE-4[5][6]  United States Blue Origin New Glenn
Vulcan
1st Methane/LOX 2,400,000[5][6] 134[7] Development BE-4
Boeing 601HP

First ever ion engine used as a main engine on an operational commercial satellite (PAS-5)

 United States Boeing Boeing 601HP satellites Ion thruster Xenon 2,568 @0.5 kW 0.018 @0.5 kW Operational Boeing 601HP
Boeing 702  United States Boeing Boeing 702 satellites Ion thruster Xenon 3,800 @4.5 kW 0.165 @4.5 kW Operational Boeing 702
CE-20  India ISRO LVM3 Upper LH2/LOX 443 200,000 588 60.00 Development CE-20
CE-7.5[8][9]  India ISRO GSLV Mk II Upper LH2/LOX 454[9] 73,550[8] 445[9] 16.85?[note 3] 58 Operational CE-7.5
F-1

Most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed

 United States Rocketdyne Saturn V 1st RP-1/LOX 304 263 7,770,000 6,770,000 8,391 82.27?[note 4] 70 Retired F-1
Gamma 2[10]  UK Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 2nd H2O2/Kerosene 265[10] 68,200[10] 173[10] 40.22[10] Retired Gamma 2
Gamma 8[11]  UK Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 1st H2O2/Kerosene 265[11] 234,800[11] 342[11] 70.01[11] 47.40[11] Retired Gamma 8
HiPEP

Most efficient inert gas ion thruster ever built

 United States NASA Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Ion thruster Xenon 9,620 @39.3 kW 0.670 @39.3 kW Canceled HiPEP
HM7B[12][13]  Europe Snecma Ariane 5 ECA Upper LH2/LOX 446[13] 310[12] 64,800[13] 43,600[12] 165[13] 40.05?[note 5] 37[13] Operational HM7B
J-2[14]  United States Rocketdyne Saturn V
Saturn IB
2nd, 3rd LH2/LOX 421 1,033,100 1,438 73.18 30 Retired J-2
J-2X[15][16]  United States Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Space Launch System Upper LH2/LOX 448 1,310,000 2,430[16] 54.97?[note 6] 30 Development J-2X
LE-5  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
NASDA
H-I Upper LH2/LOX 450[17] 103,000[17] 245[17] 42.87[note 7] 36.0[17] Retired LE-5
LE-5A  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
NASDA
H-II Upper LH2/LOX 452[18] 121,500[18] 242[18] 51.19[note 8] 40.0[18] Retired LE-5A
LE-5B  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
JAXA
H-IIA
H-IIB
Upper LH2/LOX 447[19] 137,000[19] 269[19] 51.93[note 9] 36.0[19] Operational LE-5B
LE-7  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
NASDA
H-II 1st LH2/LOX 446[20] 1,078,000[20] 843,500[20] 1,714[20] 64.13[20] 127[20] Retired LE-7
LE-7A  Japan Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
JAXA
H-IIA
H-IIB
1st LH2/LOX 438[21] 338[21] 1,098,000[21] 1,800[21] 62.2[note 10] 121[21] Operational LE-7A
Merlin 1C  United States SpaceX Falcon 9
Falcon 1
1st,2nd RP-1/LOX 304[22] 266[23] 480,408[22] 422,581[22] 630 92[22] 67.7 Retired Merlin 1C
Merlin 1D  United States SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 1st RP-1/LOX 311 [24] 282 [24] 723,000[25] 470[25] 158[25] 97 Retired Merlin 1D
Merlin 1D FT  United States SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 FT
Falcon Heavy
1st RP-1/LOX 311 [24] 282 [24] 914,000[26] 845,000[26] 470[25] 199.5[26] 97 Operational Merlin 1D FT
Merlin Vacuum 1C  United States SpaceX Falcon 9
Falcon 1
2nd RP-1/LOX 336[23] 413,644[23] 92 Retired Merlin Vacuum 1C
Merlin Vacuum 1D  United States SpaceX Falcon 9
Falcon Heavy
2nd RP-1/LOX 348[27] 934,000[27] Operational Merlin Vacuum 1D
NewtonFour  United States Virgin Galactic LauncherOne 2nd RP-1/LOX 22,241[28] Development NewtonFour
NewtonThree  United States Virgin Galactic LauncherOne Booster RP-1/LOX 266,893[29] Development NewtonThree
NEXT  United States NASA Ion thruster Xenon 4,100 @6.9 kW 0.236 @6.9 kW Development NEXT
NK-33A (AJ26-58)[30]

11Д111

 Soviet Union Kuznetsov Design Bureau
Aerojet
Antares
Soyuz-2.1v
1st RP-1/LOX 331[30] 1,638,000[30] 1,222[30] 136.8[30] 145[30] Operational NK-33-1 (AJ26-58)
NSTAR[31][32]

First ever ion engine used as a main engine on an operational science spacecraft

 United States Hughes Electron Dynamics
Boeing
Deep Space 1
Dawn
Ion thruster Xenon 3,100 @2.3 kW 0.0920 @2.3 kW 8.2 Operational NSTAR
P230[33]  Europe SNPE (Societe Nationale des Poudres et Explosifs) Ariane 5 Booster HTPB(68/18) 286[33] 259[33] 6,472,300[33] 5,861,300[33] 269,000 with fuel[33] Operational P230
PPS-1350  Russia
 Europe
OKB Fakel
Snecma
SMART-1 Hall thruster Xenon 1,650 @1.5 kW 0.088 @1.5 kW 5.3 Operational PPS-1350
PSLV-1[34]  India ISRO PSLV 1st HTPB 269[34] 486,000[34] 160,200
with fuel[34]
58[34] Operational PSLV-1
Raptor Vacuum[35]  United States SpaceX Interplanetary Transport System 2nd[36], 1st on Mars Methane/LOX[35] 382[37] 3,500,000[37] 300[37] Development Raptor Vacuum
Raptor[35]  United States SpaceX Interplanetary Transport System 1st,2nd (incl. 2nd-stage use as Earth & planetary lander)[38][37] Methane/LOX[35] 361[37] 334[37] ~3,285,000[37] 3,050,000[37] 300[37] Development Raptor
RD-0120[39]

11Д122

 Soviet Union KBKhA Energia 1st LH2/LOX 455[39] 1,962,000[39] 3,450[39] 57.80 219 Retired RD-0120
RD-0124[40]

14Д23

 Russia TsSKB Progress Soyuz-2.1b
Soyuz-2-1v
Angara
2nd,3rd RP-1/LOX 359[40] 294,300[40] 520[40] 57.7[note 11] 160[40] Operational RD-0124
RD-107A[41]

14Д22

 Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
1st RP-1/LOX 320.2[41] 263.3[41] 1,019,892[41] 839,449[41] 1,090[41] 78.53[note 12] 61.2[41] Operational RD-107A
RD-108A[41]

14Д21

 Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
2nd RP-1/LOX 320.6[41] 257.7[41] 921,825[41] 792,377[41] 1,075[41] 75.16[note 13] 55.5[41] Operational RD-108A
RD-117[42]

11Д511

 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 1st RP-1/LOX 316[42] 253[42] 978,000[43] 778,648[42] 1,100[42] 72.18[note 14] 54.2[42] Operational RD-117
RD-118[42]

11Д512

 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 2nd RP-1/LOX 314[42] 257[42] 1,000,278[42] 818,855[42] 1,100[42] 75.91[note 15] 59.7[42] Operational RD-118
RD-171M[44]

Most powerful multi-chamber rocket engine in the world

 Russia NPO Energomash Zenit-2M
Zenit-3SL
Zenit-3SLB
Zenit-3SLBF
1st RP-1/LOX 337.2[44] 309.5[44] 7,904,160[44] 7,256,921[44] 9,300[44] 79.57[note 16] 250[44] Operational RD-171M
RD-170

Most powerful multi-chamber rocket engine in the world

 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Energia 1st RP-1/LOX 337.2 309.5 7,904,160 7,256,921 9,300 79.57[note 17] 250 Retired RD-170
RD-180[45]  Russia NPO Energomash Atlas V
Atlas III
1st RP-1/LOX 338.4[45] 311.9[45] 4,152,136[45] 3,826,555[45] 5,480[45] 71.2[note 18] 261.7[45] Operational RD-180
RD-181  Russia NPO Energomash Antares 1st RP-1/LOX 337.5 Development RD-181
RD-191[46]  Russia NPO Energomash Angara 1st RP-1/LOX 337.5[46] 311.2[46] 2,084,894[46] 1,922,103[46] 2,200[46] 89.09[note 19] 262.6[46] Operational RD-191
RD-193[47][48]  Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-2.1v 1st RP-1/LOX 337.5[48] 311.2[48] 2,084,894[48] 1,922,103[48] 1,900[47][48] 103.15[note 20] Development RD-193
RD-264[42]

11Д119

 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Dnepr 1st N2O4/UDMH 318.4[42] 293.3[42] 4,511,059[42] 4,158,020[42] 3,600[42] 117.77[note 21] 210[42] Operational RD-264
RD-275M[49]

14Д14М

 Russia NPO Energomash Proton-M 1st N2O4/UDMH 315.8[49] 288[49] 1,831,882[49] 1,671,053[49] 1,070[49] 159.25[note 22] 165.2[49] Operational RD-275M
RD-56(KVD-1)[50]

11Д56У

 Russia KBKhM GSLV Mk I Upper LH2/LOX 462[50] 69,626[50] 282[50] 25.17 55.9 Retired RD-56(KVD-1)
RL-10A-4-2[51][52]  United States Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Atlas V Upper LH2/LOX 451 99,100 167 59 39 Operational RL-10A-4-2
RL-10B-2[53][51]  United States Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Delta III
Delta IV
Upper LH2/LOX 462 109,890 277 41 44 Operational RL-10B-2
RS-25 - SSME  United States Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Space Shuttle 1st LH2/LOX 452.3 2,279,000 3,526 53.79[note 23] 206.4 Inactive since STS-135 RS-25
RS-68A[54]

Most powerful hydrogen-fueled engine in the world

 United States Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne Delta IV
Delta IV Heavy
1st LH2/LOX 414[54] 3,560,000[54] 3,137,000[54] 6,747[54] 53.80[note 24] 196[54] Operational RS-68A
Rutherford  New Zealand Rocket Lab Electron 1st, 2nd LOX/RP-1 327 22,000 16,890 Certified for flight Rutherford
S200[55]  India ISRO LVM3 Booster HTPB 274.5[55] 5,150,000[56][57]

[58]

207,000
with fuel[55]
Operational S200
SCE-200  India ISRO LVM3/Unified Launch Vehicle Upper/Main RP-1/LOX 335 299 2,030,000 1,820,000 2,700 180 Development SCE-200
SLS Solid Rocket Booster

Largest, most powerful solid-fuel rocket motor ever built

 United States Orbital ATK SLS Booster PBAN 267 16,000,000 730,000
with fuel
Development SLS Solid Rocket Booster
SLV-1[59]  India ISRO PSLV Booster HTPB 253[59] 502,600
with fuel[59]
10,800
with fuel[59]
43[59] Operational SLV-1
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster

Largest solid-fuel rocket motor ever flown, and the first to be used for primary propulsion on human spaceflight missions

 United States Thiokol Space Shuttle
Ares I
Booster APCP 268 14,000,000 12,500,000 590,000
with fuel
Inactive since STS-135 Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster
SPT-100  Russia OKB Fakel LS-1300 satellites Hall thruster Xenon 1,500 @1.35 kW 0.083 @1.35 kW 3.5 Operational SPT-100
SRB-A  Japan IHI Aerospace
JAXA
H-IIA Booster HTPB 280[60] 2,250,000[60] 76,400 with fuel[60] 118[60] Operational SRB-A
SRB-A3  Japan IHI Aerospace
JAXA
H-IIB Booster BP-207J[61] 283.6[61] 2,305,000[61] 2,150,000[61] 76,600 with fuel[61] 111[61] Operational SRB-A3
UA1207[62]  United States United Technologies Titan IV Booster PBAN 272 245 7,116,000 6,410,400 319,330
with fuel
Retired UA1207
VASIMR  United States Ad Astra Rocket Company Electro-magnetic thruster Argon 5,000 @200 kW 5.7 @200 kW Development VASIMR
Vikas (rocket engine)  India ISRO PSLV/GSLV/LVM3 Second/Main/Booster N2O4/UDMH 262 680,500-804,500 600,500-756,500 5.30-5.85 Operational Vikas (rocket engine)
Vinci[63][64]  Europe Snecma Ariane 6 Upper LH2/LOX 465[63] 180,000[63] 280[64] 65.55[note 25] 60.8[63] Development Vinci
Vulcain 2[65][66]  Europe Snecma Ariane 5 1st LH2/LOX 429[66] 318[65] 1,359,000[66] 939,500[65] 1,800[65] 76.99?[note 26] 117.3[66] Operational Vulcain 2
Vulcain[67][68]

HM-60

 Europe Snecma Ariane 5 1st LH2/LOX 439[68] 326[67] 1,113,000[68] 773,200[67] 1,300[67] 84.318[67] 109[68] Retired Vulcain
Waxwing[69]  UK Bristol Aerojet Black Arrow Upper Solid 278[69] 29,400[69] 87[69] Retired Waxwing
YF-100  China CASC Long March 5, Long March 6 and Long March 7[70]

[71] [72]

Long March 5 K-3-1 and K-2-1 boosters, Long March 6 first stage and Long March 7 first stage and boosters.[73]

[74] [75]

RP-1/LOX[76] 335[76] 300[76] 1,340,000[76] 1,200,000[76] Operational YF-100
YF-21C  China CASC Long March 2,3 1st N2O4/UDMH 260.7[77] 2,961,600[77] Operational YF-21C
YF-24E  China CASC Long March 2,3 2nd N2O4/UDMH 298.0[77] 742,000[77] Operational YF-24E
YF-75  China CALT Long March 3 3rd LH2/LOX 438.0[77] 167,170[77] Operational YF-75

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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