Comparison of orbital rocket engines

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

This page is an incomplete list of orbital rocket engine data.

Engine data[edit]

Legend: [under development] — [operational or inactive] — [retired or canceled]

Engine Origin Designer Vehicle Use Propellant Specific impulse (s)[a] Thrust (N)[a] Mass (kg) Thrust/ weight ratio[b] Chamber pressure (bar) Oxidiser to Fuel Ratio
Aestus  Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 G, G+, ES Upper N2O4 / MMH 324[1] 30,000 111 27.6 11 1.9
Aestus II  Europe Airbus Defence and Space Ariane 5 Upper N2O4 / MMH 340[2] 55,400 138 41.0 60 1.9
AJ-60A  USA Aerojet Atlas V Booster Solid 275 1,270,000[3]
AR1  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Vulcan 1st RP-1 / LOX 2,200,000 (SL)[4] 2.72
BE-3  USA Blue Origin New Glenn
New Shepard
1st,2nd,3rd LH2 / LOX 490,000
BE-4  USA Blue Origin New Glenn
Vulcan
1st CH4 / LOX 2,400,000[5][6] 134[7]
Boeing 601HP[c]  USA Boeing Boeing 601HP satellites Ion thruster Xenon 2,568 @0.5 kW 0.018 @0.5 kW
CE-20  India LPSC GSLV Mk III Upper LH2 / LOX 443 200,000 588 60.00 5.05
CE-7.5  India LPSC GSLV Mk II Upper LH2 / LOX 454[8] 73,500 to 93,100 445 16.85 58
F-1[d]  USA Rocketdyne Saturn V 1st RP-1 / LOX 304
263 (SL)
7,770,000
6,770,000 (SL)
8,391 82.27 70 2.27
F-1A[e][9]  USA Rocketdyne 1st RP-1 / LOX 303
270 (SL)
8,989,000
8,007,000 (SL)
9,015 90.6 80 2.27
Gamma 2  United Kingdom Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 2nd RP-1 / H2O2 265[10] 68,200 173 40.22 8
Gamma 8  United Kingdom Bristol Siddeley Black Arrow 1st RP-1 / H2O2 265[11] 234,800 342 70.01 47.40 8
Hadley  USA Ursa Major Technologies GOLauncher 1[12] 1st RP-1 / LOX 22,241 (SL)[13]
HiPEP[f]  USA NASA Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter Ion thruster Xenon 9,620 @39.3 kW 0.670 @39.3 kW
HM-7A  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 3rd LH2 / LOX 443[14]
308 (SL)
61,700 149 42.2 30 5
HM-7B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
Ariane 4
Ariane 5 ECA
Upper LH2 / LOX 446[15]
310 (SL)[16]
64,800[15]
43,600 (SL)[16]
165[15] 43.25 37[15] 5
J-2  USA Rocketdyne Saturn V
Saturn IB
2nd, 3rd LH2 / LOX 421[17]
200 (SL)
1,033,100
486,200 (SL)
1,438 73.18 30 5.5
J-2X  USA Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne SLS Upper LH2 / LOX 448[18] 1,310,000 2,470 58.41 95 5.5-4.5
LE-5  Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-I Upper LH2 / LOX 450[19] 103,000 245 42.87 36.0 5.5
LE-5A  Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-II Upper LH2 / LOX 452[20] 121,500 242 51.19 40.0 5
LE-5B  Japan Mitsubishi
JAXA
H-IIA
H-IIB
Upper LH2 / LOX 447[21] 137,000 269 51.93 36.0 5
LE-7  Japan Mitsubishi
NASDA
H-II 1st LH2 / LOX 446[22] 1,078,000
843,500 (SL)
1,714 64.13 127 5.9
LE-7A  Japan Mitsubishi
JAXA
H-IIA
H-IIB
1st LH2 / LOX 438[23]
338 (SL)[23]
1,098,000 1,800 62.2 121 5.9
Merlin 1C  USA SpaceX 1st,2nd RP-1 / LOX 304[24]
266 (SL)[25]
480,408[24]
422,581 (SL)[24]
630 92[24] 67.7
Merlin 1D  USA SpaceX Falcon 9 v1.1 1st RP-1 / LOX 311[26]
282 (SL)[26]
723,000[27] 470[27] 158[27] 97 2.34
Merlin 1D FT  USA SpaceX Falcon 9 FT
Falcon Heavy
1st RP-1 / LOX 311[26]
282 (SL)[26]
914,000[28]
845,000 (SL)[28]
470[27] 199.5[28]
Merlin Vacuum 1C  USA SpaceX 2nd RP-1 / LOX 336[25] 413,644[25] 92
Merlin Vacuum 1D  USA SpaceX Falcon 9
Falcon Heavy
2nd RP-1 / LOX 348[29] 934,000[29] 2.36
Mira (LM10)  Italy Avio Vega E[30] 3rd[30] CH4/LOX[30] 362.3 [30] 98,100 [30] 250 [30] 40 [30] 3.4 [30]
NewtonThree  USA Virgin Galactic LauncherOne Booster RP-1 / LOX 266,893[31]
NewtonFour  USA Virgin Galactic LauncherOne 2nd RP-1 / LOX 22,241[31]
NEXT  USA NASA Ion thruster Xenon 4,100 @6.9 kW 0.236 @6.9 kW
NK-33A (AJ26-62)
11Д111 / 14Д15
 Soviet Union JSC Kuznetsov Antares 100
Soyuz-2-1v
1st RP-1 / LOX 331[32] 1,638,000 1,222 136.8 145
NSTAR[33][34][g]  USA Hughes Electron Dynamics
Boeing
Deep Space 1
Dawn
Ion thruster Xenon 3,100 @2.3 kW 0.0920 @2.3 kW 8.2
P230  Europe SNPE and Avio Spa (Italy) Ariane 5 Booster HTPB 286[35]
259 (SL)
6,472,300
5,861,300 (SL)
269,000 with fuel[35]
PPS-1350 (СПД-100)  Russia
OKB Fakel SMART-1 Hall thruster Xenon 1,650 @1.5 kW 0.088 @1.5 kW 5.3
S139  India SDSC PSLV 1st HTPB 269[36] 4,860,000 160,200
with fuel
58
Raptor[37]  USA SpaceX BFR 1st, 2nd CH4 / LOX 356[38]
330 (SL)
1,700,000 (SL) 250[38] 3.8
Raptor Vacuum[37]  USA SpaceX BFR 2nd, 1st on Mars CH4 / LOX 375[38] 1,900,000[38] 250[38] 3.8
RD-0120
11Д122
 Soviet Union KBKhA Energia 1st LH2 / LOX 455[39] 1,962,000 3,450 57.80 219
RD-0124
14Д23
 Russia KBKhA Soyuz-2.1b
Soyuz-2-1v
Angara
2nd, 3rd RP-1 / LOX 359[40] 294,300 520 57.7 160
RD-107A
14Д22
 Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
1st RP-1 / LOX 320.2[41]
263.3 (SL)
1,019,892
839,449 (SL)
1,090 78.53 61.2
RD-108A
14Д21
 Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-FG
Soyuz-2
2nd RP-1 / LOX 320.6[41]
257.7 (SL)
921,825
792,377 (SL)
1,075 75.16 55.5
RD-117
11Д511
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 1st RP-1 / LOX 316[42]
253 (SL)
978,000
778,648 (SL)
1,100 72.18 54.2
RD-118
11Д512
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Soyuz-U 2nd RP-1 / LOX 314[42]
257 (SL)
1,000,278
818,855 (SL)
1,100 75.91 59.7
RD-171M[h]11Д520  Russia NPO Energomash Zenit-2M
Zenit-3SL
Zenit-3SLB
Zenit-3SLBF
1st RP-1 / LOX 337.2[43]
309.5 (SL)
7,904,160
7,256,921 (SL)
9,300 79.57 250
RD-170[h]11Д521  Soviet Union NPO Energomash Energia 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.2
309.5 (SL)
7,904,160
7,256,921 (SL)
9,300 79.57 250
RD-180  Russia NPO Energomash Atlas V
Atlas III
1st RP-1 / LOX 338.4[44]
311.9 (SL)
4,152,136
3,826,555 (SL)
5,480 71.2 261.7 2.72
RD-181  Russia NPO Energomash Antares 200 1st RP-1 / LOX 339.2[45]
311.9 (SL)
2,085,000
1,922,000 (SL)
2,200 89 262.6
RD-191  Russia NPO Energomash Angara 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.5[46]
311.2 (SL)
2,084,894
1,922,103 (SL)
2,200 89.09 262.6
RD-193  Russia NPO Energomash Soyuz-2-1v 1st RP-1 / LOX 337.5[47]
311.2
2,084,894
1,922,103 (SL)
1,900 103.15
RD-264
11Д119
 Soviet Union NPO Energomash Dnepr 1st N2O4 / UDMH 318[48]
293 (SL)
4,521,000 3,600 128.15 206
RD-275M
14Д14М
 Russia NPO Energomash Proton-M 1st N2O4 / UDMH 315.8[49]
288 (SL)
1,831,882
1,671,053 (SL)
1,070 159.25 165.2
RD-56 (KVD-1)
11Д56У
 Russia KBKhM GSLV Mk I Upper LH2 / LOX 462[50] 69,626 282 25.17 55.9
RL-10A-4-2[51]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Atlas IIIB
Atlas V
Upper LH2 / LOX 451 99,100 167 60.5 39
RL-10B-2[52]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Delta III
Delta IV
SLS
Upper LH2 / LOX 462 109,890 277 40.5 44
RL-10C-1[53]  USA Aerojet Rocketdyne Delta III
Delta IV
SLS,
Vulcan
Upper LH2 / LOX 470 110,000 277 40.5 44
RS-25 (SSME)[i]  USA Rocketdyne Space Shuttle
SLS
1st LH2 / LOX 452.3 2,279,000
1,860,000 (SL)[54]
3,526 53.79 206.4
RS-68A[j]  USA Rocketdyne Delta IV
Delta IV Heavy
1st LH2 / LOX 414[55] 3,560,000
3,137,000 (SL)
6,747 53.80 196[unreliable source?]
Rutherford  New Zealand Rocket Lab Electron 1st, 2nd RP-1 / LOX 327 22,000
16,890 (SL)
S200  India SDSC GSLV Mk III Booster HTPB 274.5[56] 5,150,000[57][58][59] 207,000
with fuel[56]
SCE-200  India LPSC GSLV Mk III
ULV
Upper / Main RP-1 / LOX 335
299 (SL)
2,030,000
1,820,000 (SL)
2,700 180
SLS Solid Rocket Booster[k]  USA Orbital ATK SLS Booster PBAN 267 16,000,000 730,000
with fuel
SLV-1  India Godrej & Boyce PSLV Booster HTPB 253[60] 502,600 10,800
with fuel
43
Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster[l]  USA Thiokol Space Shuttle
Ares I
Booster PBAN / APCP 268 14,000,000
12,500,000 (SL)
590,000
with fuel
SPT-100  Russia OKB Fakel LS-1300 satellites Hall thruster Xenon 1,500 @1.35 kW 0.083 @1.35 kW 3.5
SRB-A  Japan IHI Aerospace
JAXA
H-IIA Booster HTPB 280[61] 2,250,000 76,400 with fuel 118
SRB-A3  Japan IHI Aerospace
JAXA
H-IIB
Epsilon
Booster BP-207J[62] 283.6[62] 2,305,000
2,150,000 (SL)
76,600
with fuel
111
UA1207  USA United Technologies Titan IV Booster PBAN 272[63]
245 (SL)
7,116,000
6,410,400 (SL)
319,330
with fuel
VASIMR  USA Ad Astra Rocket Company Electro-magnetic thruster Argon 5,000 @200 kW 5.7 @200 kW
Vikas (rocket engine)  India LPSC Second / Main / Booster N2O4 / UDMH 262 680,500–804,500 V
600,500–756,500 (SL)
53.0–58.5
Viking 2  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 1st N2O4 / UDMH 690,000
611,200 (SL)
776 90.67
Viking 2B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
1st N2O4 / UH 25 643,000 (SL) 776 84.5
Viking 4  Europe Snecma Ariane 1 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 713,000 826 88
Viking 4B  Europe Snecma Ariane 2
Ariane 3
Ariane 4
2nd N2O4 / UH 25 800,000 826 98.76
Viking 5C  Europe Snecma Ariane 4 1st N2O4 / UH 25 758,000
678,000 (SL)
826 93.57
Viking 6  Europe Snecma Ariane 4 Booster N2O4 / UH 25 750,000 826 92.59
Vinci  Europe Snecma Ariane 6 Upper LH2 / LOX 467[64] 180,000 280 65.60 61
Vulcain
HM-60
 Europe Snecma Ariane 5 1st LH2 / LOX 439[65]
326 (SL)[66]
1,113,000[65]
773,200 (SL)[66]
1,300[66] 84.38 109[65]
Vulcain 2  Europe Snecma Ariane 5 1st LH2 / LOX 429[67]
318 (SL)[68]
1,359,000[67]
939,500 (SL)[68]
1,800[66] 77.04 117.3[67]
Waxwing  United Kingdom Bristol Aerojet Black Arrow Upper Solid 278[69]
245 (SL)
29,400
25,900 (SL)
87 34.48
XIPS-25  USA Boeing Boeing 702 satellites Ion thruster Xenon 3,500 @4.5 kW 0.165 @4.5 kW
YF-100  China AALPT Boosters, 1st RP-1 / LOX 335[70]
300 (SL)
1,340,000
1,200,000 (SL)
180
YF-115  China AALPT 2nd RP-1 / LOX 341.5 176,500
YF-21B  China AALPT Boosters, 1st N2O4 / UDMH 260.66 (SL)[71] 2,961,600 (SL)[71]
YF-21C  China AALPT 1st N2O4 / UDMH 260.7 (SL)[71] 2,961,600 (SL)[71]
YF-25  China AALPT Boosters N2O4 / UDMH 260.66 (SL)[71] 740,400 (SL)[71]
YF-22B  China AALPT 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[71] 738,400
YF-22C  China AALPT 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[71] 742,040
YF-22D  China AALPT 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[71] 741,400
YF-22E  China AALPT 2nd N2O4 / UDMH 298.0[71] 741,400
YF-40  China AALPT 3rd N2O4 / UDMH 303 103,000
YF-50D  China AALPT Upper N2O4 / UDMH 315.5 6,500
YF-73  China AALPT Long March 3 3rd LH2 / LOX 420.0 44,150
YF-75  China AALPT 3rd LH2 / LOX 438.0[71] 167,170
YF-75D  China AALPT Long March 5 2nd LH2 / LOX 442.0 86,260
YF-77  China AALPT Long March 5 1st LH2 / LOX 430

310.2 (SL)

700,000

510,000 (SL)

2,700 102
Rodong-1  North Korea Korean Committee of Space Technology Paektusan/Unha[72][73] 1st UDMH/AK27 95/120 280,000/1,200,000

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Default for vacuum, SL for sea level
  2. ^ Computed as
  3. ^ First ever ion engine used as a main engine on an operational commercial satellite (PAS-5)
  4. ^ Most powerful single-chamber liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed
  5. ^ Tested but never flown
  6. ^ Most efficient inert gas ion thruster ever built
  7. ^ First ever ion engine used as a main engine on an operational science spacecraft (Deep Space 1)
  8. ^ a b Most powerful multi-chamber rocket engine in the world
  9. ^ Inactive since last Shuttle flight STS-135 in 2011
  10. ^ Most powerful hydrogen-fueled engine in the world
  11. ^ Largest, most powerful solid-fuel rocket motor ever built
  12. ^ Largest solid-fuel rocket motor ever flown, and the first to be used for primary propulsion on human spaceflight missions

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Aestus Rocket Engine". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 2015-04-20. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  2. ^ "Aestus Rocket Engine". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 2015-05-28. Retrieved 29 January 2014. 
  3. ^ "Atlas V Solid Rocket Motor". Aerojet Rocketdyne. Retrieved 2015-06-02. 
  4. ^ http://www.rocket.com/ar1-booster-engine
  5. ^ Ferster, Warren (2014-09-17). "ULA To Invest in Blue Origin Engine as RD-180 Replacement". Space News. Retrieved 2014-09-19. 
  6. ^ "BE-4". Blue Origin. Archived from the original on 17 September 2014. Retrieved 17 September 2014. 
  7. ^ Berger, Eric (2016-03-09). "Behind the curtain: Ars goes inside Blue Origin's secretive rocket factory". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2016-03-09. 
  8. ^ "GSLV Launch Vehicle Information". Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  9. ^ Alternate Propulsion Subsystem Concepts NAS8-39210 DCN 1-1-PP-02147
  10. ^ "Gamma 2". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  11. ^ "Gamma 8". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 22 May 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  12. ^ TMRO (2016-09-11), Generation Orbit - 9.28, retrieved 2017-05-20 
  13. ^ "Home". Ursa Major Technologies. Retrieved 2017-05-20. 
  14. ^ Wade, Mark. "HM7-A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 10 June 2017. 
  15. ^ a b c d "HM-7 and HM-7B Rocket Engine - Thrust Chamber". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 2015-03-18. Retrieved 1 November 2015. 
  16. ^ a b Wade, Mark. "HM7-B". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 10 June 2017. 
  17. ^ Wade, Mark. "J-2". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  18. ^ "J-2X Engine". Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Archived from the original on 2012-01-03. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  19. ^ "LE-5". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  20. ^ "LE-5A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  21. ^ "LE-5B". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  22. ^ "LE-7". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  23. ^ a b "LE-7A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 8 November 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Updates: December 2007". SpaceX. Archived from the original on 2008-08-08. 
  25. ^ a b c "Falcon 9 Space Launch Report". SpaceLaunchReport. Retrieved 2015-11-01. 
  26. ^ a b c d "Merlin section of Falcon 9 page". SpaceX. Archived from the original on 2013-07-15. Retrieved 2012-10-16. 
  27. ^ a b c d "Is SpaceX's Merlin 1D's thrust-to-weight ratio of 150+ believable? - Quora". www.quora.com. Retrieved 2015-12-11. 
  28. ^ a b c "Merlin 1D". SpaceX. Archived from the original on 6 September 2015. Retrieved 26 February 2016. 
  29. ^ a b "SpaceX Falcon 9 Product Page". Archived from the original on 2014-08-05. Retrieved 2015-11-01. 
  30. ^ a b c d e f g h Avio. "LM10 - Mira Motor". Retrieved 12 May 2018. 
  31. ^ a b "LauncherOne Service Guide" (PDF). 
  32. ^ "NK-33". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 30 January 2014. Retrieved 30 January 2014. 
  33. ^ Sovey, J. S.; Rawlin, V. K. & Patterson, M. J. (May–June 2001). "Ion Propulsion Development Projects in U. S.: Space Electric Rocket Test 1 to Deep Space 1." Journal of Propulsion and Power. 17 (3): 517–526. 
  34. ^ "Hughes' Ion Engine Serving as Primary Propulsion to NASA's Deep Space 1". www.boeing.com. 24 December 2011. Archived from the original on 7 March 2005. 
  35. ^ a b "P230". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 31 December 2011. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  36. ^ "PSLV-1". Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  37. ^ a b "Spacex Raptor". NASA SpaceFlight. 7 March 2014. Retrieved 2 July 2015. 
  38. ^ a b c d e Musk, Elon (29 September 2017). "Making Life Multiplanetary". youtube.com. SpaceX. Retrieved 29 September 2017. 
  39. ^ "RD0120". KBKhA. 
  40. ^ "RD-0124 Engine". KBKha. Retrieved 7 January 2016. 
  41. ^ a b "RD-107A and RD-108A". NPO Energomash. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  42. ^ a b "RD-117". Liquid Propellant Rocket Engines. Archived from the original on 26 August 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012. 
  43. ^ "RD-171M". NPO Energomash. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  44. ^ "RD-180". NPO Energomash. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  45. ^ http://spaceflight101.com/spacerockets/antares-200-series/
  46. ^ "RD-191". NPO Energomash. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  47. ^ "Универсальный ракетный двигатель РД-193. Мнение инженера-разработчика". Журнал «Новости космонавтики». 
  48. ^ Wade, Mark. "RD-264". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 10 June 2017. 
  49. ^ "RD-253 and RD-275M". NPO Energomash. Retrieved 30 June 2015. 
  50. ^ "KVD1 Rocket Engine" Двигатель КВД1 (in Russian). КБХМ им. A.M. Исаева. 
  51. ^ "RL-10A-4-2". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 10 June 2017. 
  52. ^ "RL-10B-2". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 23 December 2011. 
  53. ^ "RL-10C-1". Retrieved 29 May 2018. 
  54. ^ Aerojet Rocketdyne, RS-25 Engine (accessed July 22, 2014)
  55. ^ "RS-68A - Delta IV Heavy". Spaceflight101.com. Retrieved 2 November 2015. 
  56. ^ a b "LVM3". Retrieved 21 December 2014. 
  57. ^ ISRO Press Release: S200 First Static Test (S-200-ST-01)
  58. ^ "Isro successfully tests world's 3rd largest solid booster". dna. Retrieved 4 October 2014. 
  59. ^ "India to test world's third largest solid rocket booster". Science and Technology Section. The Hindu News Paper. 2009-12-07. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  60. ^ "SLV-1". Archived from the original on 5 August 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014. 
  61. ^ "SRB-A". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  62. ^ a b "SRB-A3". Spaceflight101. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  63. ^ "UA1207". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 27 December 2015. 
  64. ^ "Vinci". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 10 June 2017. 
  65. ^ a b c "Vulcain Astrium". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 2012-02-25. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  66. ^ a b c d "Vulcain". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  67. ^ a b c "Vulcain Astrium". Airbus Defence and Space. Archived from the original on 2012-03-27. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  68. ^ a b "Vulcain 2". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 27 December 2011. 
  69. ^ "Black Arrow-3". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 26 April 2013. 
  70. ^ "Chinese YF-100 (Russian RD-120) to Power CZ-5". SPACEPAC, The Space Public Affairs Committee. Retrieved 2015-07-02. 
  71. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "2.2 LM-3A Launch Vehicle". LM-3A Series Launch Vehicle User's Manual. Issue 2011 (PDF). CASC. 2011. pp. 2–4. Retrieved 2016-01-16. 
  72. ^ http://www.b14643.de/Spacerockets_1/Rest_World/Paektusan-1/Description/Frame.htm
  73. ^ http://www.b14643.de/Spacerockets_1/Rest_World/Paektusan-1/Description/Frame.htm