Comparison of orbital launch systems

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This is a comparison of orbital launch systems. The following exposes the full list of conventional orbital launch systems. For the short simple list of conventional launcher families, see: Comparison of orbital launchers families. For the list of predominantly solid-fuelled orbital launch systems, see: Comparison of solid-fuelled orbital launch systems.

Spacecraft propulsion[note 1] is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites. A conventional solid rocket or a conventional solid-fuel rocket is a rocket with a motor that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).[note 2] Orbital launch systems are rockets and other systems capable of placing payloads into or beyond Earth orbit. All current spacecraft use conventional chemical rockets (bipropellant or solid-fuel) for launch, though some[note 3] have used air-breathing engines on their first stage.[note 4]

Current and upcoming rockets[edit]

Orbits legend:

Launch system status legend
  Under development
  Operational
Vehicle Origin Manufacturer Mass to … (kg) Launches
(+ suborbital)
Date of flight
LEO GTO Other First[a] Latest
Angara 1.2  Russia Khrunichev 3,500[1] 0 (+1)[2] 2014
Angara A5  Russia Khrunichev 24,000[1] 7,500 with KVTK
5,400 with Briz-M [1]
1 2014 2014
Antares 230  United States Orbital ATK 8,000[3] 3,600 to SSO 3[4] 2016 2018
Ariane 5 ECA  Europe EADS Astrium 21,000[5] 11,115[6][7] 66[8] 2002 2018
Ariane 5 ES  Europe EADS Astrium 21,000[5] 8,000[8] 7[8] 2008 2017[b]
Ariane 6 A62  Europe ArianeGroup 10,350[9]:45 5,000[9]:33 6,450 to SSO
3,000 to HEO
3,000 to TLI [9]:40–49
0 2020
Ariane 6 A64  Europe ArianeGroup 21,650[9]:46 11,500+ [9]:33 14,900 to SSO
5,000 to GEO
8,400 to HEO
8,500 to TLI [9]:40–49
0 2020
Arion 2  Spain PLD Space 150[10] 0 2021
Atlas V 401  United States ULA 9,050[11] 4,950 6,670 to SSO 38[11] 2002 2018
Atlas V 411  United States ULA 9,050[11] 6,075 8,495 to SSO 5[11] 2006 2018
Atlas V 421  United States ULA 9,050[11] 7,000 9,050 to SSO 7[11] 2007 2017
Atlas V 431  United States ULA 9,050[11] 7,800 9,050 to SSO 3[11] 2005 2016
Atlas V 501  United States ULA 8,250[11] 3,970 5,945 to SSO
1,500 to GEO
6[11] 2010 2015
Atlas V 511  United States ULA 10,950[11] 5,370 7,820 to SSO
1,750 to GEO
0[11]
Atlas V 521  United States ULA 13,300[11] 6,485 9,585 to SSO
2,760 to GEO
2[11] 2003 2004
Atlas V 531  United States ULA 15,300[11] 7,425 11,160 to SSO
3,250 to GEO
3[11] 2010 2013
Atlas V 541  United States ULA 17,100[11] 8,240 12,435 to SSO
3,730 to GEO
6[11] 2011 2018
Atlas V 551  United States ULA 18,500[11] 8,700 13,550 to SSO
3,960 to GEO
8[11] 2006 2018
Atlas V 552  United States ULA 20,520[12] 0 2020[13]
Atlas V N22[14]
(for Starliner)
 United States ULA 13,000[15] 0 2018[16]
BFR  United States SpaceX 150,000[17] 150,000 to TMI[17][c] 0 2022[17]
Bloostar  Spain Zero 2 Infinity 140[18] 75 to SSO[18] 0 2019[19]
Chetak  India Bellatrix 150 to SSO[20] 0
Cyclone-4M  Ukraine Yuzhnoye
Yuzhmash
5,000[21] 1,000[22] 3,350 to SSO[21] 0 2020
Delta II 7420  United States ULA 3,185[23] 1,966 to SSO 13[23] 1998 2010[b]
Delta IV M+(4,2)  United States ULA 13,140[24] 6,390 10,250 to polar 14[25] 2002 2016[d]
Delta IV M+(5,4)  United States ULA 14,140[24] 7,300 11,600 to polar 7[25] 2009[26] 2017[b]
Delta IV Heavy  United States ULA 28,790[24] 14,220 23,560 to polar 9[25] 2004 2016
DNLV  Malaysia Independence-X Aerospace 200[27] 0 2023
Electron  United States
 New Zealand
Rocket Lab 225[28] 150 to SSO[28] 1 (+1) 2017 2018
Epsilon  Japan IHI[29] 1,500[30] 590 to SSO 3 2013 2018
Eris  Australia
 Singapore
Gilmour Space Technologies 380[31] 0 2020
Falcon 9 Full Thrust
(expended)
 United States SpaceX 22,800[32][e] 8,300 4,020 to TMI 7[34] 2017 2018
Falcon 9 Full Thrust
(partially reusable)
 United States SpaceX 13,680–15,960[35][e] 5,500 29[36] 2015 2018
Falcon Heavy  United States SpaceX 63,800[32] (expended)
~30,000[37]~57,000[38]
(partially reusable)
26,700[32] (expended)
8,000[32]
(reusable)
16,800 to TMI (expended)
3,500 to Pluto (expended)
1 2018 2018
Firefly Alpha  United States Firefly Aerospace 1,000 600 0 2019
Garuda  India Bellatrix 1,010 to SSO[39] 0
GOLauncher 2  United States Generation Orbit 40[40] 0
GSLV Mk II  India ISRO 5,000[41] 2,500 6[42] 2010 2018
GSLV Mk III  India ISRO 10,000[43] 4,000 1[43] (+1)[44] 2014[f] 2017
H-IIA 202  Japan Mitsubishi 10,000[45] 4,100 3,300 to SSO[46] 25[45] 2001 2018
H-IIA 204  Japan Mitsubishi 6,000[45] 4[45] 2006 2017
H-IIB  Japan Mitsubishi 16,500[47] 8,000 6[47] 2009 2016
H3  Japan Mitsubishi 16,500 6,500[48] 4,000 to SSO 0 2020[48]
Helios  United States Aphelion Orbitals 14 to SSO[49] 0
Intrepid-1  United States Rocket Crafters 1,000[50] 376 to SSO
250 to polar[51]
0 2019[52]
Jaguar  United States Exos Aerospace 100 (partially reusable)[53] 0
Kuaizhou 1/1A  China ExPace 400[54] 3[54] 2013 2017
Kuaizhou 11  China ExPace 1,500[55] 1,000 to SSO[56] 0 2018[55]
Kuaizhou 21  China ExPace 20,000[57] 0 2025[56]
KSLV-2  South Korea KARI 1,500 at 600–800 km[58] 0 2021[58]
LauncherOne  United States Virgin Orbit 300 500 0 2018
Long March 2C  China CALT 3,850 1,250 with CTS2 2,100 to SSO with CTS1 51[59] 1982 2018
Long March 2D  China SAST 4,000 1,150 to SSO 40[59] 1992 2018
Long March 2F  China CALT 8,600 13[59] 1999 2016
Long March 3A  China CALT 6,000[60] 2,600 5,000 to SSO 26[61] 1994 2018
Long March 3B/E  China CALT 11,500[60] 5,500 6,900 to SSO 34[61] 2007 2018
Long March 3C  China CALT 9,100[60] 3,800 15[61] 2008 2016
Long March 4B  China SAST 4,200[62] 1,500 2,800 to SSO 29[62] 1999 2017
Long March 4C  China SAST 4,200[62] 1,500 2,800 to SSO 25[62] 2006 2018
Long March 5  China CALT 25,000[63] 14,000 15,000 to SSO[64]
8,200 to TLI[65]
5,000 to TMI[65]
1 (+1)[66] 2016 2017
Long March 6  China SAST 1,080 to SSO[67] 2[68] 2015 2017
Long March 7  China CALT 13,500[69] 5,500 to SSO 2 2016[70] 2017
Long March 8  China CALT 7,600[71] 2,500 4,500 to SSO 0 2020[72]
Long March 9[73]  China CALT 140,000[74][75] 66,000 50,000[75] to TLI
37,000 to TMI
0 2028[74]
Long March 11  China CALT 700[76] 350 to SSO 4[77] 2015[78] 2018
Minotaur I  United States Orbital 580[79] 10[80] 2000 2013
Minotaur IV  United States Orbital 1,735[81] 4 (+2)[82] 2010 2017
Minotaur V  United States Orbital 640 447 to TLI 1[82] 2013 2013
Minotaur-C (Taurus)[83]  United States Orbital 1,450[84] 1,050 to SSO 10[85] 1994 2017
MSLV  Taiwan NCSIST 200[86] 0
Naga-L  China CALT 1,590 from Indonesia[87] 820 to SSO from China[87] 0
Neptune N series  United States Interorbital Systems 50 to polar [88] 0
New Glenn  United States Blue Origin 45,000[89] 13,000 0 2020[90]
New Line 1  China LinkSpace 200 to SSO[91] 0 2020[91]
OmegA  United States Northrop Grumman 10,100[92] 7,800 to GEO[92] 0 2021[92]
Orbital 500R  United Kingdom Orbital Access 500 to SSO [93] 0
Pegasus  United States Orbital 443[94] 43[95] 1990 2016
Prometheus-1  United Kingdom SpaceLS 100 (partially reusable) [96] 0
Proton-M / M+  Russia
 Soviet Union
Khrunichev 23,000 (M+)[97]
21,600 (M)[98]
6,920 (M+)
6,150 (M)
103[99][100][101] 2001 2018
Proton Light  Russia Khrunichev 3,600[102] 1,450 to GSO 0 2019[103]
Proton Medium  Russia Khrunichev 5,000[102] 3,300 to GSO 0 2018[103]
PSLV-G  India ISRO 3,200[104] 1,050 1,600 to SSO 12[105] 1993 2016
PSLV-CA  India ISRO 2,800[104] 1,100 to SSO 11[105] 2007 2015
PSLV-XL  India ISRO 3,800[104] 1,300 1,750 to SSO
1,350 to TMI
20[105] 2008 2018
Rokot  Russia Khrunichev 1,950[106] 1,200 to SSO 31[106] 1990 2018
Safir  Iran Iranian Space Agency 50[107] 4[108][109] 2008 2015
Shavit  Israel IAI 300[110] 10[111] 1988 2016
Simorgh  Iran Iranian Space Agency 100–350[112] 1 (+1)[113] 2016 2017
Space Launch System Block 1  United States NASA / Boeing (core)
Orbital ATK (SRBs)
95,000[114] 28,000 to escape 0 2020[115]
SLS Block 1B  United States NASA / Boeing
Orbital ATK
105,000[116] 39,100 to TLI
31,700 to TMI
0 2023[117]
SLS Block 2
with EUS
 United States NASA / Boeing
Orbital ATK
130,000[116] 50,000 to TLI
45,000 to TMI
0 2029[118]
Soyuz-FG  Russia TsSKB-Progress 6,900[119] 64[120][121] 2001 2018[d]
Soyuz-2.1a  Russia TsSKB-Progress 7,020 from Baikonur[122] 28 (+1) [123][124][121] 2004[g] 2018
Soyuz-2.1b  Russia TsSKB-Progress 8,200 from Baikonur[122] 2,400[125] 26[126][121] 2006 2018
Soyuz ST-A  Russia
 Europe
TsSKB-Progress
Arianespace
7,800 from Kourou[127] 2,810 with Fregat[128] 5[121] 2011 2017
Soyuz ST-B  Russia
 Europe
TsSKB-Progress
Arianespace
9,000 from Kourou[129] 3,250 with Fregat[128] 4,400 to SSO[130] 13[121] 2011 2018
Soyuz-2-1v  Russia TsSKB-Progress 2,800[131] 1,400 to SSO 4[131] 2013 2018
Soyuz-5  Russia TsSKB-Progress
RSC Energia
18,000[132] 2,500 to GEO 0 2022[132]
Soyuz-5 super heavy derivative  Russia TsSKB-Progress
RSC Energia
88,000[133]
(hexa-core Energia-6K)

115,000[133]
(with further upgrades)

20,000 to TLI[134] 0 2028[134]


SS-520  Japan IHI Aerospace 4[135] 2 2017[136] 2018[137]
Tronador II  Argentina CONAE 200 0 2020
Unha  North Korea KCST 100[138] 4[139] 2009 2016
ULV  India ISRO 15,000[140] 6,000 0 2021[141]
Vector-R  United States Vector Space Systems 64[142] 0 (+2) 2018[142]
Vector-H  United States Vector Space Systems 105[143] 0 2019
Vega  Europe ESA / ASI 1,500 at 700 km[144]
  • 1,430 to polar[145]
  • 1,330 to SSO
11[146] 2012 2017
Vega C  Europe ESA / ASI 2,200 at 700 km[147] 0 2019[147]
Vega E  Europe ESA / ASI 3,000 at 700 km[148] 0 2024[149]
Vulcan 561
with ACES
 United States ULA 40,000+[150] 17,230[150] 7,300 to GSO[151] 0 2020[152]
Vulcan Heavy  United States ULA 22,600[153] 0
Zenit-3F  Ukraine Yuzhnoye 1,740 to GEO[154] 4[155] 2011 2017
Zenit-3SL  Ukraine Yuzhmash[h]
RSC Energia
7,000[155] 6,160 36[155] 1999 2014
Zenit-3SLB / 3M  Ukraine Yuzhmash[i]
RSC Energia
3,750[155] 6[155] 2008 2013
(TBA)  United Kingdom B2Space 150[156] 0
(TBA)  United States CloudIX 22[157] 0
(TBA)  United Kingdom Orbex 220[158] 165 to polar[159] 0
  1. ^ Effective year for active rockets, planned year for rockets in development
  2. ^ a b c Last flight planned for 2018
  3. ^ With in-orbit refueling
  4. ^ a b Last flight planned for 2019
  5. ^ a b PAF structural limit: 10,886 kg[33]
  6. ^ Suborbital test flight in 2014 (designated LVM3) without the CUS (cryogenic upper stage); first orbital flight in 2017
  7. ^ Suborbital test flight in 2004, first orbital launch in 2006 with Fregat upper stage
  8. ^ Operated by Sea Launch
  9. ^ Operated by Land Launch

Retired rockets[edit]

Vehicle Origin Manufacturer Mass to … (kg) Launches
(+ suborbital)
Date of flight
LEO GTO Other First Last
Antares 110  United States Orbital 5,100[160] 2[161] 2013 2013
Antares 120  United States Orbital 4,600[162] 1,500 to SSO[162] 2[161] 2014 2014
Antares 130  United States Orbital 5,100[162] 1 (failed to orbit) 2014 2014
Ariane 1  Europe Aérospatiale 1,400 1,830[163] 11[163] 1979 1986
Ariane 2  Europe Aérospatiale 2,270[163] 6[163] 1986 1989
Ariane 3  Europe Aérospatiale 2,650[163] 11[163] 1984 1989
Ariane 4 40  Europe Aérospatiale 4,600[163] 2,105 2,740 to SSO 7[163] 1990 1999
Ariane 4 42L  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[163] 3,480 4,500 to SSO 13[163] 1993 2002
Ariane 4 42P  Europe Aérospatiale 6,000[163] 2,930 3,400 to SSO 15[163] 1990 2002
Ariane 4 44L  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[163] 4,720 6,000 to SSO 40[163] 1989 2003
Ariane 4 44LP  Europe Aérospatiale 7,000[163] 4,220 5,000 to SSO 26[163] 1988 2001
Ariane 4 44P  Europe Aérospatiale 6,500[163] 3,465 4,100 to SSO 15[163] 1991 2001
Ariane 5 G  Europe EADS Astrium 18,000[8] 6,900[8] 16[8] 1996 2003
Ariane 5 G+  Europe EADS Astrium 7,100[8] 3[8] 2004 2004
Ariane 5 GS  Europe EADS Astrium 16,000[164] 6,600[8] 6[8] 2005 2009[165]
ASLV  India ISRO[166] 150[167] 4[167] 1987 1994
Athena I  United States Lockheed Martin 795[168] 515 4[169] 1995 2001
Athena II  United States Lockheed Martin 1,800[170] 3[171] 1998 1999[172]
Atlas-Centaur  United States Lockheed 1,134[173] 2,222[174] 148 1962 1983
Atlas G  United States Lockheed 5,900[175] 2,222 1,179 to HCO[175] 7[175] 1984 1989
Atlas H/MSD  United States Lockheed 3,630[176] 5 1983 1987
Atlas I  United States Lockheed Martin 5,900[175] 2,340[175] 11[175] 1990 1997
Atlas II  United States Lockheed Martin 6,780[175] 2,810 2,000 to HCO[175] 10[175] 1991 1998
Atlas IIA  United States Lockheed Martin 7,316[175] 3,180 2,160 to HCO[175] 23[175] 1992 2002
Atlas IIAS  United States Lockheed Martin 8,618[175] 3,833 2,680 to HCO[175] 30[175] 1993 2004
Atlas IIIA  United States Lockheed Martin 8,686[175] 4,060 2,970 to HCO[175] 2[175] 2000 2004
Atlas IIIB/DEC  United States Lockheed Martin 10,759[175] 4,609[175] 1[175] 2002 2002
Atlas IIIB/SEC  United States Lockheed Martin 10,218[177] 4,193[175] 3[175] 2003 2005
Black Arrow  United Kingdom RAE 73[178] 2 (+2) 1969[note 5] 1971
Titan IIICommercial Titan III  United States Martin Marietta 13,100[179] 4 1990 1992
Delta 0300  United States McDonnell Douglas 340[180] 747 to SSO[181] 3[23] 1972 1973[182]
Delta 0900  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,300[183] 818 to SSO[23] 2[23] 1972 1972
Delta 1410  United States McDonnell Douglas 340[184] 1[23] 1975 1975
Delta 1604  United States McDonnell Douglas 390[185] 2[23] 1972 1973
Delta 1900  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,800[23] 1[23] 1973 1973
Delta 1910  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,066[186] 1[23] 1975 1975
Delta 1913  United States McDonnell Douglas 328[187] 1[23] 1973 1973
Delta 1914  United States McDonnell Douglas 680[188] 2[23] 1972 1973
Delta 2310  United States McDonnell Douglas 336[189] 3[23] 1974 1981
Delta 2313  United States McDonnell Douglas 243 to GEO[190] 3[23] 1974 1977
Delta 2910  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,887[23] 6[23] 1975 1978
Delta 2913  United States McDonnell Douglas 2,000[191] 700[191] 6[23] 1975 1976
Delta 2914  United States McDonnell Douglas 724[23] 30[23] 1974 1979
Delta 3910  United States McDonnell Douglas 2,494[23] 1,154 with PAM-D 10[23] 1980 1988
Delta 3913  United States McDonnell Douglas 816[192] 1[23] 1981 1981
Delta 3914  United States McDonnell Douglas 954[23] 13[23] 1975 1987
Delta 3920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,452[23] 1,284 with PAM-D 10[23] 1982 1989
Delta 3924  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,104[23] 4[23] 1982 1984
Delta 4925  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,400[193] 1,312[23] 2[23] 1989 1990
Delta 5920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,848[194] 1[23] 1989 1989
Delta II 6920  United States McDonnell Douglas 3,983[23] 3[23] 1990 1992
Delta II 6925  United States McDonnell Douglas 1,447[23] 14[23] 1989 1992
Delta II 7320  United States Boeing IDS / ULA 2,865[23] 1,651 to SSO 12[23] 1999 2015
Delta II 7326  United States Boeing IDS 934[23] 636 to TLI
629 to HCO
3[23] 1998 2001
Delta II 7425  United States Boeing IDS 1,100[23] 804 to HCO 4[23] 1998 2002
Delta II 7426  United States Boeing IDS 1,058[23] 734 to TLI
711 to HCO
1[23] 1999 1999
Delta II 7920  United States Boeing IDS / ULA 5,030[23] 3,123 to SSO 29[23] 1998 2017
Delta II 7925  United States Boeing IDS / ULA 1,819[23] 1,177 to TLI
1,265 to HCO
69[23] 1990 2009
Delta II-H 7920H  United States Boeing IDS / ULA 6,097[23] 3[23] 2003 2011
Delta II-H 7925H  United States Boeing IDS / ULA 2,171 1,508 to HCO[23] 3[23] 2003 2007
Delta III 8930  United States Boeing IDS 8,292[23] 3,810 3[23] 1998 2000
Delta IV M  United States Boeing IDS 9,440[24] 4,440 7,690 to polar 3[25] 2003 2006
Delta IV M+(5,2)  United States ULA 11,470[24] 5,490 9,600 to polar 3[25] 2012 2018
Diamant  France SEREB 107[195][196] 12 1965 1975
Dnepr  Ukraine Yuzhmash 3,700[197] 22[197] 1999 2015[198]
Energia[note 6]  Soviet Union NPO Energia 100,000[199] 20,000 to GEO[199]
32,000 to TLI[199]
1 (failed to orbit)[200] 1987 1987
Energia-Buran  Soviet Union NPO Energia (Launcher)
NPO Molniya (Orbiter)
30,000[199]
[note 7]
1 1988 1988
Falcon 1  United States SpaceX 470[201] 5[201] 2006 2009
Falcon 9 v1.0  United States SpaceX 10,450[202] 4,540[202] 5[203] 2010 2013
Falcon 9 v1.1  United States SpaceX 13,150[note 8][204] 4,850[204] 15[203] 2013 2016
GSLV Mk.I(a)  India ISRO 5,000[41] 1[205] 2001 2001
GSLV Mk.I(b)[41][206]  India ISRO 5,000[41] 2,500 4[205] 2003 2007
GSLV Mk.I(c)  India ISRO 5,000[41] 2,500 1[205] 2010 2010
H-I  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi 1,400[207] 9 1986 1992
H-II  Japan Mitsubishi 10,060[208] 5[209][note 9] 1994 1998
H-IIA 2022  Japan Mitsubishi 4,500[45] 3[45] 2005 2007
H-IIA 2024  Japan Mitsubishi 11,000[210] 5,000[45] 7[45] 2002 2008
H-II/SSB  Japan Mitsubishi 3,930[211] 1[209] 1995 1995
H-IIS  Japan Mitsubishi 4,000[211] 1[note 10][209] 1999 1999
J-I  Japan Nissan Motors[212] 1,000[213] 0 (+1) 1996 1996
Kaituozhe-1  China CALT 100[214] 2 2002 2003
Kosmos-3M  Soviet Union
 Russia
NPO Polyot 1,500[215] 442[216] 1967 2010
Lambda 4S  Japan Nissan Motors[212] 26[217] 5 1966 1970
Long March 1  China CALT 300[218] 2[219] 1970 1971
Long March 1D  China CALT 740[220] 0 (+3)[219] 1995[note 11] 2002
Long March 2A  China CALT 2,000[221] 4[59] 1974 1978
Long March 2E  China CALT 9,200[59] 7[59] 1990 1995
Long March 3  China CALT 5,000[61] 14[61] 1984 2000
Long March 3B  China CALT 11,200[60] 5,100 5,700 to SSO 12[61] 1996 2012
Long March 4A  China CALT 4,000 2[62] 1988 1990
M-V  Japan Nissan Motors[212] (1997–2000)
IHI Aerospace[29] (2000-2006)
1,850[217] 7 1997 2006
Molniya  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,800[222] 40[223] 1960 1967
Molniya-M  Soviet Union
 Russia
RSC Energia 2,400[224] 280[225] 1965 2010
Mu-3C  Japan Nissan Motors[212] 195[217] 4 1974 1979
Mu-3H  Japan Nissan Motors[212] 300[217] 3 1977 1978
Mu-3S  Japan Nissan Motors[212] 300[217] 4 1980 1984
Mu-3SII  Japan Nissan Motors[212] 770[217] 8 1985 1995
Mu-4S  Japan Nissan Motors[212] 180[217] 4 1971 1972
N1  Soviet Union NPO Energia 95,000[note 12] [226][227][228] 4[229] (never reached orbit) 1969 1972
N-I  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi 1,200[230] 7 1975 1982
N-II  Japan
 United States
Mitsubishi 2,000[231] 8 1981 1987
Naro-1  South Korea
 Russia
KARI/Khrunichev 100[232] 3 2009 2013
Paektusan  North Korea KCST 700[233] 0 (+1) 1998 1998
Polyot  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,400 2 1963 1964
Proton-K  Soviet Union
 Russia
Khrunichev 19,760[234] 4,930[235] 311[236] 1965 2012
Saturn I  United States Chrysler (S-I)
Douglas (S-IV)
9,000[237] 10[238] 1961 1965[238]
Saturn IB  United States Chrysler (S-IB)
Douglas (S-IVB)
18,600[239] 9[240] 1966 1975
Saturn V  United States Boeing (S-IC)
North American (S-II)
Douglas (S-IVB)
140,000[241][242] 47,000 to TLI[243] 13[244][245] [note 13] 1967 1973
Scout  United States US Air Force/NASA 174[246] 125 1961 1994
Shtil'  Russia Makeyev 280–420[247] 2[248] 1998 2006
SLV  India ISRO 40[249] 4[249] 1979 1983[249]
Soyuz  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,450 31[250] 1966 1976
Soyuz-L  Soviet Union RSC Energia 5,500 3[251] 1970 1971
Soyuz-M  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,600 8[252] 1971 1976
Soyuz-U  Soviet Union
 Russia
TsSKB-Progress 6,650 from Baikonour[253]
6,150 from Plesetsk[253]
786[254][124][121] 1973 2017
Soyuz-U2  Soviet Union
 Russia
TsSKB-Progress 7,050 72[255] 1982 1995
Space Shuttle  United States ATK (SRBs)
Martin Marietta (External tank)
Rockwell (Orbiter)
24,400[note 7]
3,550 to escape with IUS[256] 135[258] 1981 2011
Sputnik 8K71PS  Soviet Union RSC Energia 500[259] 2 1957 1957
Sputnik 8A91  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,327 2 1958 1958
Start-1  Russia MITT 532 350 to SSO[260] 5[261] 1993 2006
Strela  Russia Khrunichev 1,400[262] 3[263] 2003 2014
Titan II GLV  United States Martin Marietta 3,600[264] 11 (+1) 1964 1966
Titan II(23)G  United States Martin Marietta 3,600[265] 13 1988 2003
Titan IIIA  United States Martin Marietta 3,100[266] 4 1964 1965
Titan IIIB  United States Martin Marietta 3,000[267] 70 1966 1987
Titan IIIC  United States Martin Marietta 13,100[268] 36 1965 1982
Titan IIID  United States Martin Marietta 12,300[269] 22 1971 1982
Titan IIIE  United States Martin Marietta 15,400[270] 7 1974 1977
Titan 34D  United States Martin Marietta 4,515[271] 15 1982 1989
Titan IVA  United States Martin Marietta 17,110[272] 4,944 with IUS
  • 14,090 to SSO[272]
  • 4,536 to GSO with Centaur
  • 3,550 to escape with IUS
22[273] 1989 1998
Titan IVB  United States Lockheed Martin 21,682[274] 5,761[274]
(9,000 with upper stage)
17[273] 1997 2005
Tsyklon-2A  Soviet Union Yuzhmash 3,350[275] 8[276] 1967 1969
Tsyklon-2  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhmash 2,820[277] 106[278] 1969 2006[278]
Tsyklon-3  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhmash 1,920[279] 122[280] 1977 2009[280]
Vanguard  United States Martin 9[281] 11 (+1) 1957 1959
VLS-1  Brazil AEB, IAE 380[282] 2[note 14] (never reached orbit) 1997 2003
Volna  Russia Makeyev 100[283] 1 (+5)[248] 1995[note 15] 2005[248]
Voskhod  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,000[284] 306 1963 1976
Vostok-L  Soviet Union RSC Energia 390 to TLI[285] 4 1960 1960
Vostok-K  Soviet Union RSC Energia 2,460[286] 16 1960 1964
Vostok-2  Soviet Union RSC Energia 4,730[286] 45 1962 1967
Vostok-2M  Soviet Union RSC Energia 1,300[287] 93 1964 1991
Soyuz/Vostok  Soviet Union RSC Energia 6,000[288] 2 1965 1966
Zenit-2  Soviet Union
 Ukraine
Yuzhnoye 13,740[289] 36[290] 1985 2004[291]
Zenit-2M / 2SLB  Ukraine Yuzhnoye 13,920[289] 2[290] 2007 2011

Launch systems by country[edit]

The following chart shows the number of launch systems developed in each country, and broken down by operational status. Rocket variants are not distinguished; i.e., the Atlas V series is only counted once for all its configurations 401–431, 501–551, 552, and N22.

10
20
30
40
ARG
AUS
BRZ
CHN
EUR
ESP
FRA
IND
IRN
ISR
JPN
NKR
NZL
RUS
SKR
UKR
UK
USA
  •   Operational
  •   In development
  •   Retired

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ There are many different methods. Each method has drawbacks and advantages, and spacecraft propulsion is an active area of research. However, most spacecraft today are propelled by forcing a gas from the back/rear of the vehicle at very high speed through a supersonic de Laval nozzle. This sort of engine is called a rocket engine.
  2. ^ The first medieval rockets were solid-fuel rockets powered by gunpowder; they were used by the Chinese, Indians, Mongols and Arabs, in warfare as early as the 13th century.
  3. ^ Such as the Pegasus rocket and SpaceShipOne.
  4. ^ Most satellites have simple reliable chemical thrusters (often monopropellant rockets) or resistojet rockets for orbital station-keeping and some use momentum wheels for attitude control. Soviet bloc satellites have used electric propulsion for decades, and newer Western geo-orbiting spacecraft are starting to use them for north-south stationkeeping and orbit raising. Interplanetary vehicles mostly use chemical rockets as well, although a few have used ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters (two different types of electric propulsion) to great success.
  5. ^ First suborbital test in 1969, first orbital launch attempt in 1970
  6. ^ Without Buran, and assuming payload providing orbital insertion
  7. ^ a b The US Space Shuttle Transportation System and the Soviet Energia-Buran system, consist of launch vehicle rockets and returnable spaceplane orbiter. Payload values listed here are for the mass of the payload in cargo bay of the spaceplanes, excluding the mass of the spaceplanes themselves.
  8. ^ The SpaceX website lists the F9 payload to LEO as 13,150kg. The payload to GTO is listed as 4,850kg. However, SpaceX has stated that these numbers include a 30% margin to accommodate re-usability.
  9. ^ Not including two launches made using the H-II/SSB and H-IIS configurations
  10. ^ Only launch failed to achieve orbit
  11. ^ Suborbital test flights in 1995, 1997 and 2002, no orbital launches attempted
  12. ^ The N1 rocket was initially designed for 75mt LEO capacity and launch attempts were made with this version, but there were studies to increase the payload capacity to 90—95 mt, if a liquid-hydrogen upper stage engine could be developed.
  13. ^ The Saturn V made 13 launches, 12 of which reached the correct orbits, and the other (Apollo 6) reached a different orbit than the one which had been planned; however, some mission objectives could still be completed; NASA, Saturn V News Reference, Appendix: Saturn V Flight History (1968). For more information, see the Saturn V article. The Saturn V launch record is usually quoted as having never failed, e.g. "The rocket was masterminded by Wernher Von Braun and did not fail in any of its flights", Alan Lawrie and Robert Godwin; Saturn, but the Apollo 6 launch should be considered a partial mission failure. The 13th launch of Saturn V was in special configuration (SA-513) with the Skylab.
  14. ^ A third rocket exploded before launch
  15. ^ First orbital launch attempt in 2005

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