Comparison of virtual private network services

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This article is a comparison of virtual private network services.

In computer magazines, VPN services are typically judged on connection speeds; privacy protection, including privacy at signup and grade of encryption; server count and locations, interface usability, and cost.[1][2][3][4] In order to determine the degree of privacy and anonymity, various computer magazines, such as PC World and PC Magazine, also take the provider's own guarantees and its reputation among news items into consideration.[1][2]

Definitions[edit]

The following definitions clarify the meaning of the column headers in the comparison tables below.

Anonymous payment method
Whether the service offers at least one payment method that does not require personal information. Even if a service accepts a cryptocurrency like bitcoin, it might still require that the customer hands over personally identifiable information (PII) like their full name and address.
Bandwidth
Whether the users' bandwidth is logged while using the service, according to the service's privacy policy.
Diskless
Whether the service's server hardware is connected to hard drives, according to the service provider. If the servers are diskless, the service provider should be unable to log any usage data.
First-party DNS servers
Whether the service provides its own domain name system (DNS) servers.
Logging
Whether the service stores information about their users' connection or activity on the network, according to the service's privacy policy or terms of service. If logging isn't mentioned in those sections but denied somewhere else on the website, the particular table cell will be marked as "No" in yellow and include an explanatory note.
Privacy Impact Score
An indicator of a website's usage of potentially privacy intrusive technologies such as third-party or permanent cookies, CANVAS trackers etc.[5] The score can be in the range from 0 to 100, where 0 is minimal privacy impact (best) and 100 is the biggest privacy impact (worst) relative to other web sites.[5] The score has also a simplified letter and colour presentation from A to F where A is "No cookies" and F is "Score above three standard deviations from the average".[5] The metric is developed by WebCookies.org.[5]
Obfuscation
Whether the service provides a method of obfuscating the VPN traffic so that it's not as easily detected and blocked by national governments or corporations.[6][7]
Offers WireGuard
Whether the service provider offers the WireGuard tunneling protocol.
SSL rating
The service's website's overall SSL server rating according to Qualys SSL Labs' SSL Server Test tool.
Supports Obfsproxy
Whether the service has an implementation of the Tor subproject Obfsproxy.[6][7]

Privacy[edit]

PC Magazine recommends that users consider choosing a provider based in a country with no data retention laws, since that makes it easier for the service to keep a promise of no logging.[8] PC Magazine and TechRadar also suggest that users read the provider's logging policy before signing up for the service,[8][3] since some providers collect information about their customers' VPN usage.[9][10] PC World recommends that users avoid free services as a rule of thumb, and asserts that free services either sell their users' browsing data in aggregated form to researchers and marketers, or only offer a minimal amount of data transfer per month.[9]

Notes
  1. ^ As claimed by provider unless otherwise noted.
  2. ^ a b AceVPN's privacy policy "applies solely to information collected at [the] Acevpn.com web site [sic], and through Acevpn.com merchant provider PayPal Inc."[11] Even though it is stated in an FAQ section on their website that neither traffic nor bandwidth is logged on their VPN service,[12] the former is contradicted by the terms of service in which it is written that "SMTP traffic is logged and disabled on all our servers."[13]
  3. ^ Registration is required in order to access the service,[17] but real e-mail address is optional.[18]
  4. ^ It is not stated in Avast's privacy policy whether traffic is logged. In another section on Avast's website, however, it is stated that traffic is not logged.[19]
  5. ^ a b c There is no mention of Avira's VPN logging policy in their privacy policy. However, it is stated in an FAQ section that neither traffic nor IP addresses are logged on their VPN service.[21] It is also stated that bandwidth is logged.[21] When visiting Avira's website, the visitor's IP address is logged by both Google Analytics and the CrazyEgg tool.[22]
  6. ^ Hotspot Shield claims to collect "anonymous, aggregate data about which websites you visit and which apps you use."[37]
  7. ^ We DO NOT keep any record of your browsing activities, connection logs, records of the VPN IPs assigned to you, your original IPs, your connection time, the history of your browsing, the sites you visited, your outgoing traffic, the content or data you accessed, or the DNS queries generated by you."[64] However, in 2017, PureVPN provided connection logs including IP addresses to the FBI for use in a criminal investigation.[65]
  8. ^ Name and e-mail is required for every payment method.[66]
  9. ^ VPN.ht only touches upon logging of traffic in their privacy policy.[79] However, in another section of the website, it is stated that bandwidth is not logged.[80]
  10. ^ VPNBook does not disclose in which jurisdiction it operates.
  11. ^ a b VPNBook is free and therefore doesn't require payment. However, it accepts donations in bitcoin and through Paypal.

Technical features[edit]

Service Based in Logging[a] Anonymous payment method Accepts bitcoin PGP key available
Traffic DNS requests Timestamps Bandwidth IP address
AceVPN United States Some[b] No[b] No[14] Yes[15] No
AirVPN Italy No[16] No[16] No[16] No[16] No[16] Yes[c] Yes[17] Yes
Avast SecureLine Czech Republic No[d] Yes[20] Yes[20] Yes[20] No No No
Avira Phantom VPN Germany No[e] Yes[e] No[e] No No No
AzireVPN Sweden No[23] No[23] No[23] No[23] No[23] Yes[24] Yes[24] Yes[25]
blackVPN Hong Kong No[26] No[26] No[26] No[26] No[26] Email Yes[27] Yes[28]
ExpressVPN British Virgin Islands[29][30][31] No[32] No[32] Yes[33] Yes[34] No[32] Email[31][30][35] Yes[31][30][36] No
Hotspot Shield Elite United States Yes[f] Yes[38][39] No No No
IPredator Sweden No[40] Yes[40] Yes[40] Yes[40] Email[41] Yes[42] Yes[43]
IPVanish United States No[44] No[44] No[44] No[44] No[44] No[45] No No
IVPN Gibraltar No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] No[46] Email Yes[47] Yes[48]
Mullvad Sweden No[49] No[49] No[49] No[49] No[49] Yes[50] Yes[50] Yes[51]
NordVPN Panama No[52] No[52] No[52] No[52] No[52] Email[53] Yes Yes[54]
Private Internet Access United States No[55] No[55] No[55] No[55][56] No[55] Yes[57] Yes[58] Yes[59]
ProtonVPN Switzerland No[60] Yes[60] Email Yes No
PureVPN Hong Kong No[61] No[62] Yes[63] No[g] Email[h] Yes[67] No
SaferVPN Israel[68] No[69] No[69] Yes[69] Yes[69] No[69] Email[70] Yes[70] Yes[71]
TunnelBear Canada[72][73][74] No[75] No[75][76] No[77] Yes[74][77] No[75] Email[72] Yes[78][72][73] No
VPN.ht Hong Kong No[79] No[i] Email[81] Yes[82] No
VPNArea Bulgaria No[83] No[83] No[83] No[83] No[83] Email Yes[84] Yes[85]
VPNBook Unknown[j] No[86] Yes[86] Yes[86] N/A[k] N/A[k] No
Service Leak Protection Protocols Obfuscation / Censorship Avoidance Network Neutrality Server Data Encryption Handshake Encryption Data Authentication
First-party DNS servers IPv6 supported / blocked Offers OpenVPN Offers WireGuard Supports multihop Supports TCP port 443 Supports Obfsproxy Offers SOCKS Supports SSL tunnel Supports SSH tunnel Other proprietary protocols Blocks SMTP (authent.) Blocks P2P Dedicated or Virtual Diskless Default provided Strongest provided Weakest provided Strongest provided Weakest provided Strongest provided
AceVPN Yes[87] No No Yes Yes Yes[13] Some[a] AES-256 (GCM) AES-256 (GCM) RSA-4096 HMAC-SHA-256
AirVPN Yes[89] Yes. Pure IPv6 or IPv6 over IPv4[89] Yes[89] No Yes. OpenVPN+Tor and Tor+OpenVPN[89] Yes[89] No No Yes[89] Yes[89] No[89] No[89] Dedicated No AES-256 (GCM)[89] AES-256 (GCM)[89] RSA-4096 using Diffie-Hellman key exchange with 4096 bit DH keys[89] RSA-4096 using Diffie-Hellman key exchange with 4096 bit DH keys[89] HMAC-SHA-1 for backward compatibility with old OpenVPN clients[89] HMAC-SHA-384 or AEAD with AES-GCM[89]
Avast SecureLine Yes Yes Yes No No No Some[90] Dedicated[91] No AES-256 AES-256
Avira Phantom VPN Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No No Dedicated No AES-256 AES-256
AzireVPN Yes[24] Yes[24] Yes[24] Beta[92] Yes; WireGuard and SOCKS5 Yes[93] Yes No No Dedicated[93] Yes[93] AES-256 (CBC or GCM)[24] AES-256 (CBC or GCM)[24] RSA-4096 using Diffie-Hellman key exchange[93] RSA-4096 using Diffie-Hellman key exchange[93] HMAC-SHA-512[93] HMAC-SHA-512[93]
blackVPN Yes No Yes[94] No No Yes[94] No Yes[94] Some[b] Some[95] Dedicated[96] AES-256[94] AES-256[94] RSA-4096[94] RSA-4096[94] SHA-512[94] SHA-512[94]
ExpressVPN Yes[29] Yes Yes[29][30][31] No No Yes[97] No[29][30][31] Both[98][99] No AES-256 CA-4096
Hotspot Shield Elite No No No No No AES-128[100] AES-128[100] TLS 1.2 ECDHE PFS[100] TLS 1.2 ECDHE PFS[100] HMAC[101] HMAC[101]
IPredator Yes[102] Yes[103] Yes[104] No No Yes[105] No No AES-256 (CBC)[106] AES-256 (CBC)[106] SHA-1[106] SHA-1[106]
IPVanish Yes[107] Yes[108] Yes[45] No No Yes[109] Yes[110] Yes[45] No No No No[45] No[45] Dedicated[111] No AES-256[112] AES-256[112] RSA-2048[112] RSA-2048[112] SHA-256[112] SHA-256[112]
IVPN Yes[113] No Yes No Yes; OpenVPN Yes Yes Yes[114] No[115] No[116] AES-256[113] AES-256[113] RSA-4096[113]
Mullvad Yes[117] Yes[117] Yes[117] Beta[118] Yes; WireGuard[119] and SOCKS5 Yes[117] No[120] Yes[121][117] Yes Yes[117] No[117] No[117] Dedicated[122] AES-256 (GCM)[117] AES-256[117] RSA-4096[117] RSA-4096[117] SHA-512[117] SHA-512[117]
NordVPN Yes[123] No[124] Yes[125] No Yes; OpenVPN[126] and SOCKS5 Yes[127] Yes[128] Yes No[129] Dedicated AES-256[130] AES-256 (CBC)[130] 2048-bit Diffie-Hellman[130] 2048-bit Diffie-Hellman[130]
Private Internet Access Yes[131] Yes[132] Yes[133] No No Yes[134] No Yes[135][136] Some[c] No[138] AES-128 (CBC)[139] AES-256[139] ECC-256k1[139] RSA-4096[139] SHA-1[139] SHA-256[139]
ProtonVPN Yes No Yes No Yes Some AES-256 AES-256
PureVPN Yes Yes Yes[140] No No Only through SSTP[141] No No No Some[142] Both[143][99] No AES-256
SaferVPN Yes[144] Yes[145][68] No[145] No Yes[146] No No Some[d] No AES-256[145] AES-256[145] 2048bit SSL/TLS[145] 2048bit SSL/TLS[145] SHA-256[145] SHA-256[145]
TunnelBear Yes[76] Yes[148][73] No No No Yes[149][74] Yes No[150] Yes[151][72][73] AES-128 (CBC)[e] AES-256 (CBC)[148] 1548 bit Diffie-Hellman group[f] 4096 bit Diffie-Hellman group[148] SHA-1[g] SHA-256[148]
VPN.ht Yes[152] Yes[153] No No No[154] AES-256
VPNArea Yes[155] Yes[155] Yes[155] No Yes; OpenVPN[155] Yes[155] No Yes[155] Yes[155] Yes[155] AES-256[155] AES-256[155] RSA-4096[155]
VPNBook Yes[156] No No Yes[157] Some[158] Dedicated[159] No

Notes

  1. ^ AceVPN blocks P2P on their US and UK servers.[88]
  2. ^ Allowed on ports 465 and 587.[94]
  3. ^ The support team may be willing to whitelist your email provider's SMTP server upon request.[137]
  4. ^ SaferVPN only allows P2P on their Netherlands server.[147]
  5. ^ Only on iOS 8 and earlier. All other supported devices and operating systems use AES-256 (CBC).[148]
  6. ^ iOS 9 and later use 2048 bit. iOS 8 and earlier use 1548 bit. All other supported devices and operating systems use 4096 bit.[148]
  7. ^ iOS 8 and earlier use SHA-1. All other supported devices and operating systems use SHA-256.[148]

Availability[edit]

Service No. of simultaneous connections No. of countries No. of servers Linux support (manual config.)
AceVPN 1 32[160] 43[160] Yes[161]
AirVPN 5[89] 20 235 Yes. Dedicated GNU/Linux software or manual config.
Avast SecureLine 5 34 54 No
Avira Phantom VPN Unlimited[162][163] 25[164] 36[164] No
AzireVPN 5 5 26 Yes
blackVPN 7 18 31 Yes[94]
ExpressVPN 3[29][30][165] 94[166] 2000 circa[167] Yes[29][31]
Hotspot Shield Elite 5[168] 21 No
IPredator 1[169] 1 Yes[170]
IPVanish 10[45] 60[45] 1000[45] Yes[171]
IVPN 5[113] 13 37 Yes[172]
Mullvad 5[173] 31[174] 180[174] Yes[175]
NordVPN 6 62[176] 4835[176] Yes[177]
Private Internet Access 5[178] 33[179] 3650[179] Yes[180]
ProtonVPN 5 14 100 approx. Yes
PureVPN 5[140] 140 circa[181] 2000 circa[181] Yes[182]
SaferVPN 5[183] 35 circa[184] 700 circa[184] Yes[185]
TunnelBear 5[74][186] 20[186] Yes
VPN.ht 3 25[153] 128[153] Yes
VPNArea 6 70[155] Yes
VPNBook Unlimited[158] 5[158] 7[158] No

Website[edit]

Example of a warrant canary
Library warrant canary relying on active removal designed by Jessamyn West.

The rating of the services' websites according to SSL server certificate and HTTP cookie test tools. Also listed is whether the websites maintain a warrant canary.

Service SSL certificate Privacy Impact Score Warrant canary
Holder Issued to SSL rating
AceVPN Yes[187] Cloudflare[187] A[187] B[188] Yes[189]
AirVPN Yes[190] Self[190] A+[190] B[191] No
Avast SecureLine Yes[192] Self[192] A+[192] B[193] No
Avira Phantom VPN Yes[194] Self[194] A[194] E[195] No
AzireVPN Yes[196] Self[196] A[196] B[197] Yes[198][199]
blackVPN Yes[200][201] Cloudflare[200] A[200] B[202] No
ExpressVPN Yes[203][204] Self[204] A+[204] B[205] No
Hotspot Shield Elite Yes[206] Self[206] A-[206] F[207] No
IPredator Yes[208] Self[208] A+[208] A[209] Yes
IPVanish Yes[210] Self[210] A[210] B[211] No
IVPN Yes[212] Self[212] A+[212] B[213] Yes
Mullvad Yes[214] Self[214] A+[214] A[215] No
NordVPN Yes[216] Self[216] A+[216] B[217] Yes[218]
Private Internet Access Yes[219] Self[219] A[219] B[220] No
ProtonVPN Yes[221]| Self[221] A+[221] B[222] Yes[223]
PureVPN Yes[224] Self[224] A[224] B[225] No
SaferVPN Yes[71] Self[71] A[71] Yes Yes[146]
TunnelBear Yes[226] Self[226] A+[226] B[227] No
VPNArea Yes[228] Self[228] A[228] B[229] No
VPNBook Yes[230] Self[230] B[230] B[229] No
VPN.ht Yes[231] Yes[231] A+[231] B[232] Yes[233]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Paul, Ian (2018-01-02). "Best VPN services of 2018: Reviews and buying advice". How we tested. PC World. Archived from the original on 2018-01-04.
  2. ^ a b Eddy, Max (2018-01-15). "The Best VPN Services of 2018". PC Magazine. Archived from the original on 2018-01-17. It's important to keep a few things in mind when evaluating which VPN service is right for you: reputation, performance, type of encryption used, transparency, ease of use, support, and extra features.
  3. ^ a b Athow, Desire (2018-01-13). "The best VPN services for 2018". How to test a VPN. TechRadar. Archived from the original on 2018-01-18. We were looking for features, value, and clear and honest pricing. Free ways to learn more about a service - free plans, trial periods, refund periods - were important, and we also looked for companies which maintained your privacy when you signed up (no email address required, trials available without credit cards, Bitcoin available as a payment option).
  4. ^ Athow, Desire (2018-01-13). "The best VPN services for 2018". How to choose a VPN: Here are 6 tips. TechRadar. Archived from the original on 2018-01-18.
  5. ^ a b Tor (2012-02-16). "Obfsproxy: the next step in the censorship arms arce / Tor Blog". Tor Blog. Archived from the original on 2018-01-11.
  6. ^ a b OpenVPN. "TrafficObfuscation - OpenVPN Community". Wiki. Archived from the original on 2018-01-11.
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  9. ^ Krebs, Brian (2017-03-17). "Post-FCC Privacy Rules, Should You VPN?". Krebs on Security. Archived from the original on 2018-01-18.
  10. ^ "Privacy Policy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-29. This statement applies solely to information collected at Acevpn.com web site, and through Acevpn.com merchant provider PayPal Inc.
  11. ^ "Ace VPN Frequently Asked Questions - FAQ". Do you log?. Archived from the original on 2017-12-29. [...] no traffic logging, no bandwidth usage tracking.
  12. ^ a b "Terms Of Service". Archived from the original on 2018-01-03. SMTP traffic is logged & disabled on all our servers.
  13. ^ "Privacy Policy". Archived from the original on 2017-12-29. We collect personal information that is provided by site users. "Personal Information" includes your name, address, telephone number, credit or debit card information, e-mail address, date of birth, IP address and the last four digits of your credit card number. Personal Information is collected when you establish an account with us, place an order on the site, [...].
  14. ^ "Bitcoin Now Accepted - Acevpn.com". 2016-06-02. Archived from the original on 2018-01-03.
  15. ^ a b c d e AirVPN. "Privacy Notice and Terms". Archived from the original on 2018-06-12. Activity traffic and/or traffic content and/or IP addresses of the customers or users are not inspected, logged or stored into any mass storage device.
  16. ^ a b AirVPN. "Access Plans". Archived from the original on 2018-05-11.
  17. ^ AirVPN. "Registration Form". Archived from the original on 2018-05-11.
  18. ^ "Avast SecureLine / A VPN to protect your online activities". What is a VPN? / No logging. Archived from the original on 2018-01-02. Once you’re connected to our servers, we don’t track the apps you use, the websites you visit or the content you consume, period. If someone asks, we just can’t answer.
  19. ^ a b c "Avast Privacy Policy". Data collected by specific products. Archived from the original on 2017-12-29. When you use the Avast SecureLine virtual private network (VPN) service, the server may capture certain basic data such as the time and network location from which the VPN connection was made and the duration of the VPN connection. This information is routinely deleted within 30 days. In addition, the system may store data on the bandwidth transferred per session.
  20. ^ a b "What, if anything, do you track?". Archived from the original on 2017-12-31.
  21. ^ "Privacy policy". User Experience and Statistics. Archived from the original on 2017-12-31. Information about your use of our website the Cookie generates is usually transferred to a Google server in the USA and saved there. However, before this happens, Google shortens and anonymizes your IP address [...] if located within a member state of the European Union or in other contracting member states to the Agreement on the European Economic Area. The entire IP address is transferred to a Google server in the USA and saved there only in exceptional cases. [...] Information about your use of our website (including your IP address) that Cookies generate is transferred to a CrazyEgg server in the USA and stored there.
  22. ^ a b c d e "AzireVPN - Terms of Service". § Logging. Archived from the original on 2017-12-27.
  23. ^ a b c d e f g "AzireVPN - Home". Archived from the original on 2017-12-27.
  24. ^ "AzireVPN - PGP Key". Archived from the original on 2017-04-16.
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  27. ^ "Contact - blackVPN". Archived from the original on 2017-12-30.
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  31. ^ a b c ExpressVPN. "ExpressVPN Privacy Policy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04. We do not collect logs of your activity, including no logging of browsing history, traffic destination, data content, or DNS queries. We also never store connection logs, meaning no logs of your IP address, your outgoing VPN IP address, connection timestamp, or session duration.
  32. ^ ExpressVPN. "ExpressVPN Privacy Policy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04. We collect information about whether you have successfully established a VPN connection on a particular day (but not a specific time of the day).
  33. ^ ExpressVPN. "ExpressVPN Privacy Policy". Archived from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04. We may know, for example, that our customer John had connected to our New York VPN location on Tuesday and had transferred an aggregate of 823 MB of data across a 24-hour period.
  34. ^ ExpressVPN. "Buy VPN with Bitcoin, PayPal, Credit Card / ExpressVPN". 2. Enter your email address. Archived from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04.
  35. ^ ExpressVPN. "Buy VPN with Bitcoin, PayPal, Credit Card / ExpressVPN". 3. Select your preferred method of payment. Archived from the original on 2018-01-04. Retrieved 2018-01-04. Continue below to buy VPN with Bitcoin.
  36. ^ "AnchorFree Hotspot Shield Privacy Policy". When you launch Hotspot Shield. 2017-11-29. Archived from the original on 2017-12-28. When you use Hotspot Shield to access the internet, we collect only anonymous, aggregate data about which websites you visit and which apps you use.
  37. ^ "AnchorFree Hotspot Shield Privacy Policy". When you visit our websites. 2017-11-29. Archived from the original on 2017-12-28. Your IP address may be collected when you visit our websites.
  38. ^ "AnchorFree Hotspot Shield Privacy Policy". When you launch Hotspot Shield. 2017-11-29. Archived from the original on 2017-12-28. We collect your IP address [...]. We may also use your IP address to derive your approximate location [...]. Your true IP address is stored only for the duration of your VPN session and is cleared after your session is closed.
  39. ^ a b c d IPredator. "IPredator - FAQ". 2.3 What kind of logging do you do to keep your service running?. Archived from the original on 2018-04-05.
  40. ^ IPredator. "IPredator - FAQ". 2.2 What information does the user database actually contain?. Archived from the original on 2018-04-05. The user database only contains the information you entered during the sign-up process. This is your user name, password and your email address.
  41. ^ IPredator. "IPredator - Pricing". Archived from the original on 2018-04-05.
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  46. ^ IVPN. "IVPN Pricing". What payment types do you accept?. Archived from the original on 2018-03-26. We accept all major credit cards, Paypal, Bitcoin and cash. However paying with cash is only available when purchasing an annual subscription.
  47. ^ IVPN. "How do I send a secure PGP encrypted email to IVPN?". Archived from the original on 2018-03-26.
  48. ^ a b c d e "No-logging data policy - Guides / Mullvad". What we don't log. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. We log nothing whatsoever that can be connected to a numbered account's activity: no logging of traffic; DNS requests; connections, including when one is made, when it disconnects, for how long, or any kind of timestamp; IP addresses; user bandwidth [or] account activity except total simultaneous connections [...] and the payment information detailed in this post.
  49. ^ a b "No-logging data policy - Guides / Mullvad". How Mullvad handles payment information. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Mullvad accepts Bitcoin, cash, bank wire, credit card, PayPal, and Swish.
  50. ^ "Mullvad client - Settings - Guides / Mullvad". Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. You do have the option of sending an encrypted email to us using PGP. Mullvad's PGP key is found on our website.
  51. ^ a b c d e NordVPN (2017-10-28). "Terms of Service". Logging policy. Archived from the original on 2018-01-23.
  52. ^ NordVPN (2017-10-28). "Terms of Service". Privacy policy. Archived from the original on 2018-01-23.
  53. ^ "Do you have a PGP key so I could reach you anonymously?". support.nordvpn.com. Retrieved 2018-06-16.
  54. ^ a b c d e "Privacy Policy, VPN Network Services / Private Internet Access". 2016-08-11. Archived from the original on 2017-11-14. PrivateInternetAccess.com does not collect or log any traffic or use of its Virtual Private Network ("VPN") or Proxy.
  55. ^ "Do you impose any limitations on usage or bandwidth when using your service? / Private Internet Access". 2017-11-28. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. We do not impose any restrictions or limitations on usage and/or bandwidth consumption.
  56. ^ "We accept all kinds of payment methods... including all major gift cards!".
  57. ^ "What methods of payment do you accept for account purchases? / Private Internet Access". 2017-04-22. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26.
  58. ^ "Private Internet Access Management Team".
  59. ^ a b ProtonVPN (2018-04-16). "Privacy Policy". Archived from the original on 2018-05-14.
  60. ^ "PureVPN's Privacy Policy". 2016-01-15. Archived from the original on 2017-12-27. We do not monitor user activity [...]. We therefore have no record of your activities such as which software you used, which websites you visited, what content you downloaded, which apps you used, etc. after you connected to any of our servers.
  61. ^ "PureVPN's Privacy Policy". 2018-07-30. Archived from the original on 2018-07-30. We are unable to identify at what time you connected to the VPN, with which IP address and which VPN IP was assigned to you.
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