In mathematics, comparison theorems are theorems whose statement involves comparisons between various mathematical objects of the same type, and often occur in fields such as calculus, differential equations and Riemannian geometry.
In the theory of differential equations, comparison theorems assert particular properties of solutions of a differential equation (or of a system thereof), provided that an auxiliary equation/inequality (or a system thereof) possesses a certain property.
- Chaplygin inequality
- Grönwall's inequality, and its various generalizations, provides a comparison principle for the solutions of first-order ordinary differential equations.
- Sturm comparison theorem
- Aronson and Weinberger used a comparison theorem to characterize solutions to Fisher's equation, a reaction--diffusion equation.
- Hille-Wintner comparison theorem
- Rauch comparison theorem relates the sectional curvature of a Riemannian manifold to the rate at which its geodesics spread apart.
- Toponogov's theorem
- Myers's theorem
- Hessian comparison theorem
- Laplacian comparison theorem
- Morse–Schoenberg comparison theorem
- Berger comparison theorem, Rauch–Berger comparison theorem
- Berger–Kazdan comparison theorem
- Warner comparison theorem for lengths of N-Jacobi fields (N being a submanifold of a complete Riemannian manifold)
- Bishop–Gromov inequality, conditional on a lower bound for the Ricci curvatures
- Lichnerowicz comparison theorem
- Eigenvalue comparison theorem
- See also: Comparison triangle
- Limit comparison theorem, about convergence of series
- Comparison theorem for integrals, about convergence of integrals
- Zeeman's comparison theorem, a technical tool from the theory of spectral sequences
- "Comparison theorem - Encyclopedia of Mathematics". www.encyclopediaofmath.org. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
- See also: Lyapunov comparison principle
- "Differential inequality - Encyclopedia of Mathematics". www.encyclopediaofmath.org. Retrieved 2019-12-13.
- Jeff Cheeger and David Gregory Ebin: Comparison theorems in Riemannian Geometry, North Holland 1975.
- M. Berger, "An Extension of Rauch's Metric Comparison Theorem and some Applications", Illinois J. Math., vol. 6 (1962) 700–712
- Weisstein, Eric W. "Berger-Kazdan Comparison Theorem". MathWorld.
- F.W. Warner, "Extensions of the Rauch Comparison Theorem to Submanifolds" (Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., vol. 122, 1966, pp. 341–356
- R.L. Bishop & R. Crittenden, Geometry of manifolds