Complete protein

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A complete protein or whole protein is a food source of protein that contains an adequate proportion of each of the nine essential amino acids necessary in the human diet.[1][2][3][4][5]

Amino acid profile[edit]

The following table lists the optimal profile of the nine essential amino acids in the human diet, which comprises complete protein, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine's Food and Nutrition Board. The foodstuffs listed for comparison show the essential amino acid content per unit of the total protein of the food, 100g of spinach, for example, only contains 2.9g of protein (6% Daily Value), and of that protein 1.36% is tryptophan.[2][6](note that the examples have not been corrected for digestibility)

Essential amino acid mg/g of protein percentage of total protein raw, whole chicken egg[7] quinoa[8] raw spinach[9]
Tryptophan 7 0.7% 1.33% 1% 1.36%
Threonine 27 2.7% 4.42% 3.2% 4.27%
Isoleucine 25 2.5% 5.34% 4.2% 5.14%
Leucine 55 5.5% 8.65% 7.3% 7.8%
Lysine 51 5.1% 7.27% 6.1% 6.08%
Methionine+Cystine 25 2.5% 5.18% 2.7%+1.3% 1.85%+1.22%
Phenylalanine+Tyrosine 47 4.7% 9.39% 4.3%+3.6% 4.51%+3.78%
Valine 32 3.2% 6.83% 5% 5.63%
Histidine 18 1.8% 2.45% 3.1% 2.24%
Total 287 28.7% 50.86% 41.8% 43.88%

Total adult daily intake[edit]

The second column in the following table shows the amino acid requirements of adults as recommended by the World Health Organization[10] calculated for a 62 kg (137 lb) adult. Recommended Daily Intake is based on 2,000 kilocalories (8,400 kJ) per day,[11] which could be appropriate for a 70 kg (150 lb) adult.

Essential amino acid Required mg/day for a 62 kg (137 lb) adult
Tryptophan 248
Threonine 930
Isoleucine 1240
Leucine 2418
Lysine 1860
Methionine+Cystine 930
Phenylalanine+Tyrosine 1550
Valine 1612
Histidine 620
Total 11,408 milligrams (11.408 g)
Total Protein 46 to 56 grams (46,000 to 56,000 mg)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Protein in diet". Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia. U.S. National Library of Medicine and National Institute of Health. September 2, 2003. Retrieved 2006-10-28.
  2. ^ a b "Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids". Food and Nutrition Board of Institute of Medicine, National Academies Press. 2005. p. 691.
  3. ^ "All About the Protein Foods Group". US Department of Agriculture. 3 November 2017. Retrieved 20 May 2018.
  4. ^ Mariotti, François; Gardner, Christopher D. (Nov 2019). "Dietary Protein and Amino Acids in Vegetarian Diets—A Review". Nutrients. 11 (11): 2661. doi:10.3390/nu11112661. PMC 6893534. PMID 31690027.
  5. ^ Young, VR; Pellett, PL (May 1994). "Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 59 (5 Suppl): 1203S–1212S. doi:10.1093/ajcn/59.5.1203S. PMID 8172124.
  6. ^ "Protein quality". Conde Nast, Nutritiondata.com. 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  7. ^ "Egg, whole, raw, fresh, nutrition facts per 100 grams". Conde Nast, Nutritiondata.com. 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  8. ^ "Quinoa, cooked, nutrition facts per 100 grams". Conde Nast, Nutritiondata.com. 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  9. ^ "Spinach, raw, nutrition facts per 100 grams". Conde Nast, Nutritiondata.com. 2018. Retrieved 13 April 2020.
  10. ^ World Health Organization, Protein and Amino Acid Requirements in Human Nutrition http://whqlibdoc.who.int/trs/WHO_TRS_935_eng.pdf, p. 245
  11. ^ "Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide". U.S. Food & Drug Administration. US FDA. Retrieved 14 January 2017.