In mathematics, the complex conjugate of a complex number is the number with equal real part and imaginary part equal in magnitude but opposite in sign. For example, the complex conjugate of 3 + 4i is 3 − 4i.
Complex conjugates are important for finding roots of polynomials. According to the complex conjugate root theorem, if a complex number is a root to a polynomial in one variable with real coefficients (such as the quadratic equation or the cubic equation), so is its conjugate.
The complex conjugate of a complex number is written as or . The first notation avoids confusion with the notation for the conjugate transpose of a matrix, which can be thought of as a generalization of the complex conjugate. The second is preferred in physics, where dagger is used for the conjugate transpose, while the bar-notation is more common in pure mathematics. If a complex number is represented as a 2×2 matrix, the notations are identical. In some texts, the complex conjugate of a previous known number is abbreviated as "c.c.". For example, writing means
The following properties apply for all complex numbers z and w, unless stated otherwise, and can be proven by writing z and w in the form a + ib.
A significant property of the complex conjugate is that a complex number is equal to its complex conjugate if its imaginary part is zero, that is, if the complex number is real. For any two complex numbers w,z:
- if w is nonzero
- if and only if z is real
- for any integer n
- , involution (i.e., the conjugate of the conjugate of a complex number z is z)
- if z is non-zero
The latter formula is the method of choice to compute the inverse of a complex number if it is given in rectangular coordinates.
- if z is non-zero
In general, if is a holomorphic function whose restriction to the real numbers is real-valued, and is defined, then
The map from to is a homeomorphism (where the topology on is taken to be the standard topology) and antilinear, if one considers as a complex vector space over itself. Even though it appears to be a well-behaved function, it is not holomorphic; it reverses orientation whereas holomorphic functions locally preserve orientation. It is bijective and compatible with the arithmetical operations, and hence is a field automorphism. As it keeps the real numbers fixed, it is an element of the Galois group of the field extension . This Galois group has only two elements: and the identity on . Thus the only two field automorphisms of that leave the real numbers fixed are the identity map and complex conjugation.
Use as a variable
Once a complex number or is given, its conjugate is sufficient to reproduce the parts of the z-variable:
Thus the pair of variables and also serve up the plane as do x,y and and . Furthermore, the variable is useful in specifying lines in the plane:
is a line through the origin and perpendicular to since the real part of is zero only when the cosine of the angle between and is zero. Similarly, for a fixed complex unit u = exp(b i), the equation:
determines the line through in the direction of u.
These uses of the conjugate of z as a variable are illustrated in Frank Morley's book Inversive Geometry (1933), written with his son Frank Vigor Morley.
Taking the conjugate transpose (or adjoint) of complex matrices generalizes complex conjugation. Even more general is the concept of adjoint operator for operators on (possibly infinite-dimensional) complex Hilbert spaces. All this is subsumed by the *-operations of C*-algebras.
Note that all these generalizations are multiplicative only if the factors are reversed:
Since the multiplication of planar real algebras is commutative, this reversal is not needed there.
- , where and is the identity map on ,
- for all , , and
- for all , ,
is called a complex conjugation, or a real structure. As the involution is antilinear, it cannot be the identity map on . Of course, is a -linear transformation of , if one notes that every complex space V has a real form obtained by taking the same vectors as in the original space and restricting the scalars to be real. The above properties actually define a real structure on the complex vector space . One example of this notion is the conjugate transpose operation of complex matrices defined above. It should be remarked that on generic complex vector spaces there is no canonical notion of complex conjugation.
- Budinich, P. and Trautman, A. The Spinorial Chessboard. Spinger-Verlag, 1988. ISBN 0-387-19078-3. (antilinear maps are discussed in section 3.3).