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The word complexor was coined by Marcial Losada (Losada & Heaphy, 2004), derived from the words "complex order," to refer to chaotic attractors that are strange and thus have fractal structure (in contrast to fixed point or limit cycle attractors).

Losada claimed that these trajectories reflect the creativity and innovation that characterize high performance teams, while in contrast, low performance teams have trajectories in phase space that approach the limiting dynamics of point attractors (Losada & Heaphy, 2004). The modeling behind this claim has been strongly criticised for flawed methodology and as an invalid application of Lorenz equations by Brown et al.[1][2] and by Andrés Navas.[3]


  • Losada, M. and Heaphy, E. (2004). The role of positivity and connectivity in the performance of business teams: A nonlinear dynamics model. American Behavioral Scientist, 47 (6), pp. 740–765.[1]
  • Losada, M. (1999). The complex dynamics of high performance teams. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 30 (9-10), 179-192.
  1. ^ "Ratio for a good life exposed as 'nonsense'". Science News. 2013-08-12. Retrieved 2013-08-15.
  2. ^ Brown, N. J. L., Sokal, A. D., & Friedman, H. L. (2013). The Complex Dynamics of Wishful Thinking: The Critical Positivity Ratio. American Psychologist. Electronic publication ahead of print.
  3. ^ Navas, A. (2011). Un cas d'inconscience (?). Images des Mathématiques