Compulsory dance

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Compulsory dances, now called pattern dance in ice dancing, are a part of ice dancing and artistic roller skating in which all the couples or solo dancers perform the same standardized steps and holds to music of a specified tempo and genre. One or more compulsory dances were usually skated as the first phase of ice dancing competitions. The 2009-10 season was the final season in which the segment was competed in ISU junior and senior level competition.[1] In June 2010, the International Skating Union replaced the name "compulsory dance" with "pattern dance" for ice dancing,[2] and merged it into the short dance beginning in the 2010–2011 figure skating season. Compulsory dances are still skated in international roller skating competitions, however as in ice skating, a new section called the Style Dance [3] was introduced from the 2015/16 season alongside the standard compulsory dances and freedance categories. The style dance is very similar in structure to the short dance on ice.

Compulsory dances are also popular as a form of recreational or social dance among skaters, especially on ice. An example is the Recreational Ice Dance League (RIDL) in Great Britain.

The patterns for most dances either cover one-half or one full circuit of the rink. The International Skating Union (ISU) and the Fédération Internationale de Roller Sports (FIRS) publish the step diagrams and descriptions of the dances that are competed internationally, and also provides a set of standard music recordings for each dance with uniform tempo and introductory phrasing for use in competition.

Ice dancing[edit]

Tessa Virtue and Scott Moir performing the golden watz.
Jana Khokhlova and Sergei Novitski on a backward outside edge as they perform the Yankee Polka.
Meryl Davis and Charlie White perform the Argentine Tango.
Anna Cappellini and Luca Lanotte perform the Finnstep.
Oksana Klimova and Sasha Palomäki perform the Westminster Waltz.
Oksana Domnina and Maxim Shabalin on a forward inside edge as they perform the Tango Romantica


The dances that have been performed in junior and senior international competition include:

Name First performed Creators Other notes
Fourteenstep[4] 1889 Franz Scholler Also known as Ten Step or Scholler March.
European Waltz[5] before 1900 unknown
American Waltz[6] unknown unknown
Kilian 1909 Karl Schreiter
Tango[7] 1932 Paul Krechkow, Trudy Harris
Foxtrot[8] 1933 Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats
Argentine Tango[9] 1934[10] Reginald J. Wilkie, Daphne B. Wallis
Blues[11] 1934 Robert Dench, Lesley Turner
Rocker Foxtrot[12] 1934 Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats
Viennese Waltz[13] 1934[14] Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats
Paso Doble 1938 Reginald B. Wilkie, Daphne B. Wallis
Quickstep 1938 Reginald J. Wilkie, Daphne B. Wallis
Rhumba 1938 Walter Gregory
Westminster Waltz 1938 Eric van der Weyden, Eva Keats
Silver Samba 1963 Courtney J. L. Jones, Peri V. Horne
Starlight Waltz[15] 1963 Courtney J. L. Jones, Peri V. Horne
Yankee Polka[16] 1969 James Sladky, Judy Schwomeyer, Ronald Ludington
Ravensburger Waltz 1973 Angelika Buck, Erich Buck, Betty Callaway
Tango Romantica 1974 Lyudmila Pakhomova / Aleksandr Gorshkov, Elena Tchaikovskaia
Austrian Waltz 1979 Susi Handschmann, Peter Handschmann
Golden Waltz[17] 1987[18] Natalia Dubova, Marina Klimova / Sergei Ponomarenko
Cha Cha Congelado 1989 Bernard Ford, Kelly Johnson, Laurie Palmer, Steven Belanger
Finnstep[19] 1995[20] Susanna Rahkamo / Petri Kokko, Martin Skotnicky. Kati Winkler / René Lohse helped adapt to CD.
Midnight Blues 2001 Roy Bradshaw, Sue Bradshaw, Mark Bradshaw, Julie MacDonald

The American Waltz, European Waltz, Fourteenstep, and Kilian (a march) date back to the early days of figure skating. Several of the compulsory dances were first performed by dancers in the United Kingdom in the 1930s. Others were adapted from original dances performed after that segment was added to dance competitions in the 1960s. For example, the Golden Waltz, considered the most complex and challenging of the compulsory dances, was adapted from the original set pattern performed by Marina Klimova and Sergei Ponomarenko in the 1987 season.

In addition to the international dances, there are also several simpler dances that are taught to beginning skaters. For example, in the United States, the first dance learned by most skaters is the Dutch Waltz, which features only forward skating in a side-by-side hold, skated to music with a very slow waltz tempo.

By season[edit]

Each season, the ISU published a number of compulsory dances to be competed that season on both the international senior level and junior level. Which compulsory dance was competed depended on the event, and some events, such as the Grand Prix of Figure Skating Final, had no compulsory dance segment in the competition.

Although the ISU published assigned dances for the 2010-11 season, these were not used in competition, as the compulsory and original dances were merged into a single segment, the short dance, starting in 2010-11. The International Skating Union adopted the name "pattern dance" in 2010 and in 2011 U.S. Figure Skating also switched to the new name.[21]

Season Senior-level[22] Junior-level[22]
2005–2006 Yankee Polka
Ravensburger Waltz
Tango Romantica
Paso Doble
Austrian Waltz
Westminster Waltz
Quickstep
2006–2007 Westminster Waltz
Golden Waltz
Rhumba
Starlight Waltz
Silver Samba
Midnight Blues
2007–2008 Austrian Waltz
Yankee Polka
Argentine Tango
Viennese Waltz
Cha Cha Congelado
Blues
2008–2009 Viennese Waltz
Finnstep
Paso Doble
Starlight Waltz
Paso Doble
2009–2010 Golden Waltz
Tango Romantica
Westminster Waltz
Argentine Tango[23]
2010–2011 Ravensburger Waltz
Finnstep
Quickstep
Blues [24]

Artistic roller skating[edit]

The dances that are performed in junior and senior international competition include[25] [26]

  • 14 Step Plus
  • Argentine Tango
  • Blues
  • Castel March
  • Flirtation Waltz
  • Fourteen Step
  • Fourteen Step Plus
  • Golden Samba
  • Harris Tango
  • Iceland Tango
  • Italian Foxtrot
  • Kilian
  • Midnight Blues
  • Paso Doble
  • Quickstep
  • Rocker Foxtrot
  • Starlight Waltz
  • Tango Delancha
  • Tango Delanco
  • Terenzi Waltz
  • Westminster Waltz
  • Viennese Waltz

Artistic roller skating in the United States and the United Kingdom also has competitive divisions of team and solo dance for all ages and skill levels that compete at the local, regional, and national levels. At competitions, skaters perform between two and six dances set to organ music for a maximum of 3 minutes per dance. Skaters are judged on a number of things that include technique, pattern placement, timing and overall performance.

Starting from the 2015/16 season the Style Dance was introduced and is regarded similarly to the short dance in Ice Dance. Dances marked with an asterix* in the table below are the required dance from the style dance in the given season.

By season[edit]

Season Senior Junior Senior Solo Junior Solo
2005-2006 Starlight Waltz
Iceland Tango
Blues
Harris Tango
2006-2007 Paso Doble
Westminster Waltz
Rocker Foxtrot
Flirtation Waltz
Blues
Harris Tango
2007-2008 [27] Viennese Waltz
Quickstep
Fourteen Step
Imperial Tango
Italian Foxtrot
Starlight Waltz
Rocker Foxtrot
Flirtation Waltz
2008-2009 Italian Foxtrot
Argentine Tango
Blues
Harris Tango
Quickstep
Argentine Tango
14 Step Plus
Imperial Tango
2009-2010 Castel March
Starlight Waltz
Rocker Foxtrot
Flirtation Waltz
Paso Doble
Argentine Tango
Harris Tango
Blues
2010-2011 Paso Doble
Westminster Waltz
Fourteen Step
Imperial Tango
Italian Foxtrot
Iceland Tango
Flirtation Waltz
Rocker Foxtrot
2011-2012 [28] Viennese Waltz
Tango Delanco
Blues
Harris Tango
Quickstep
Starlight Waltz
14 Step Plus
Imperial Tango
2012-2013 [29] Starlight Waltz
Argentine Tango
Flirtation Waltz
Harris Tango
Viennese Waltz
Italian Foxtrot
Blues
Rocker Foxtrot
2013-2014 [30] Castel March
Italian Foxtrot
14 Step
Imperial Tango
Paso Doble
Iceland Tango
Flirtation Waltz
Harris Tango
2014-2015 [31] Iceland Tango
Quickstep
Rocker Foxtrot
Harris Tango
Westminster Waltz
Tango Delancha
14 Step Plus
Blues
2015-2016 [32] Quickstep*
Starlight Waltz
Rocker Foxtrot*
Flirtation Waltz
Starlight Waltz*
Quickstep
Flirtation Waltz*
Rocker Foxtrot
2016-2017 [33] Tango Delanco*
Midnight Blues
Harris Tango*
Blues
Midnight Blues*
Argentine Tango
Blues*
Terenzi Waltz

References[edit]

  1. ^ "ISU Congress News". ice-dance.com. 
  2. ^ "Communication No. 1621". International Skating Union. June 24, 2010. Retrieved July 19, 2011. 
  3. ^ FIRS. FIRS http://www.rollersports.org/discipline/artistic/news/item/1194-novara-2016-the-debut-of-the-style-dance.  Missing or empty |title= (help)
  4. ^ "1. Fourteenstep" (PDF). International Skating Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  5. ^ "4. European Waltz" (PDF). International Skating Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  6. ^ "5. American Waltz" (PDF). International Skating Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  7. ^ "21. Tango" (PDF). International Skating Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  8. ^ "2. Foxtrot" (PDF). International Skating Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  9. ^ "22. Argentine Tango" (PDF). ice-dance.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. 
  10. ^ "Argentine Tango". ice-dance.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-28. 
  11. ^ "24. Blues" (PDF). International Skating Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  12. ^ "3. Rocker Foxtrot" (PDF). International Skating Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  13. ^ "7. Viennese Waltz" (PDF). ice-dance.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. 
  14. ^ "Viennese Waltz". ice-dance.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-28. 
  15. ^ "9. Starlight Waltz" (PDF). International Skating Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  16. ^ "13. Yankee Polka" (PDF). International Skating Union. Archived (PDF) from the original on 12 November 2012. 
  17. ^ "11. Golden Waltz" (PDF). ice-dance.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. 
  18. ^ "Golden Waltz". ice-dance.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-28. 
  19. ^ "15. Finnstep" (PDF). ice-dance.com. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2016-03-04. 
  20. ^ "Finnstep". ice-dance.com. Archived from the original on 2012-10-28. 
  21. ^ p.32, 2011-12 Tests Book", U.S. Figure Skating http://www.usfsa.org/Content/201112TestsBook.pdf (accessed July 19, 2011).
  22. ^ a b "Compulsory & Original Dance History". ice-dance.com. 
  23. ^ "International Skating Union Communication No. 1496" (PDF). International Skating Union. 2 May 2008. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  24. ^ "ISU Communication No. 1567 ICE DANCE" (PDF). International Skating Union. 8 May 2009. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  25. ^ "Artistic Roller Skating Special Regulations & Sports Rules : 2009 Edition" (PDF). Federation International de Roller Skating. Retrieved 8 February 2010. 
  26. ^ Brooks, Margaret. "CEPA Artistic Roller Skating Rule Book 2017 Modifications" (PDF). CBHP. CERS Artistic. Retrieved 2016-12-14. 
  27. ^ http://www.kotalkanje.com/s_files/cepa/cepa_reg_2008_a.pdf
  28. ^ https://flaviao.com/site/galeria/REGULAMENTOS-2012/CEPA-BOOK-2012-Ver1.pdf
  29. ^ https://flaviao.com/site/galeria/REGULAMENTOS-2012/CIPA-2013-DANCES-jun-sen.pdf
  30. ^ http://fppa.com.br/wp-content/uploads/CIPA-COMPULSORY-DANCES-2014-2015.pdf
  31. ^ http://www.skatingidea.org/regolamento-cipa-2015-danze-2016/?lang=en
  32. ^ http://www.rollersports.org/component/phocadownload/category/11-regulation?download=1088:firs-artistic-rule-book-2016
  33. ^ https://www.cbhp.com.br/site/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Modification-to-CEPA_BOOK_for-2017_BIS.pdf

External links[edit]