# Computational complexity of mathematical operations

The following tables list the computational complexity of various algorithms for common mathematical operations.

Here, complexity refers to the time complexity of performing computations on a multitape Turing machine.[1] See big O notation for an explanation of the notation used.

Note: Due to the variety of multiplication algorithms, ${\displaystyle M(n)}$ below stands in for the complexity of the chosen multiplication algorithm.

## Arithmetic functions

This table lists the complexity of mathematical operations on integers.

Operation Input Output Algorithm Complexity
Addition Two ${\displaystyle n}$-digit numbers One ${\displaystyle n+1}$-digit number Schoolbook addition with carry ${\displaystyle \Theta (n)}$
Subtraction Two ${\displaystyle n}$-digit numbers One ${\displaystyle n+1}$-digit number Schoolbook subtraction with borrow ${\displaystyle \Theta (n)}$
Multiplication Two ${\displaystyle n}$-digit numbers
One ${\displaystyle 2n}$-digit number Schoolbook long multiplication ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2}\right)}}}$
Karatsuba algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{1.585}\right)}}}$
3-way Toom–Cook multiplication ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{1.465}\right)}}}$
${\displaystyle k}$-way Toom–Cook multiplication ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{\frac {\log(2k-1)}{\log k}}\right)}}}$
Mixed-level Toom–Cook (Knuth 4.3.3-T)[2] ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n\,2^{\sqrt {2\log n}}\,\log n\right)}}}$
Schönhage–Strassen algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n\log n\log \log n\right)}}}$
Harvey-Hoeven algorithm[3][4] ${\displaystyle O(n\log n)}$
Division Two ${\displaystyle n}$-digit numbers One ${\displaystyle n}$-digit number Schoolbook long division ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2}\right)}}}$
Burnikel–Ziegler Divide-and-Conquer Division[5] ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$
Newton–Raphson division ${\displaystyle O(M(n))}$
Square root One ${\displaystyle n}$-digit number One ${\displaystyle n}$-digit number Newton's method ${\displaystyle O(M(n))}$
Modular exponentiation Two ${\displaystyle n}$-digit integers and a ${\displaystyle k}$-bit exponent One ${\displaystyle n}$-digit integer Repeated multiplication and reduction ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M(n)\,2^{k}\right)}}}$
Exponentiation by squaring ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\,k)}$
Exponentiation with Montgomery reduction ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\,k)}$

On stronger computational models, specifically a pointer machine and consequently also a unit-cost random-access machine it is possible to multiply two n-bit numbers in time O(n).[6]

## Algebraic functions

Here we consider operations over polynomials and n denotes their degree; for the coefficients we use a unit-cost model, ignoring the number of bits in a number. In practice this means that we assume them to be machine integers.

Operation Input Output Algorithm Complexity
Polynomial evaluation One polynomial of degree ${\displaystyle n}$ with integer coefficients One number Direct evaluation ${\displaystyle \Theta (n)}$
Horner's method ${\displaystyle \Theta (n)}$
Polynomial gcd (over ${\displaystyle \mathbb {Z} [x]}$ or ${\displaystyle F[x]}$) Two polynomials of degree ${\displaystyle n}$ with integer coefficients One polynomial of degree at most ${\displaystyle n}$ Euclidean algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2}\right)}}}$
Fast Euclidean algorithm (Lehmer)[citation needed] ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$

## Special functions

Many of the methods in this section are given in Borwein & Borwein.[7]

### Elementary functions

The elementary functions are constructed by composing arithmetic operations, the exponential function (${\displaystyle \exp }$), the natural logarithm (${\displaystyle \log }$), trigonometric functions (${\displaystyle \sin ,\cos }$), and their inverses. The complexity of an elementary function is equivalent to that of its inverse, since all elementary functions are analytic and hence invertible by means of Newton's method. In particular, if either ${\displaystyle \exp }$ or ${\displaystyle \log }$ in the complex domain can be computed with some complexity, then that complexity is attainable for all other elementary functions.

Below, the size ${\displaystyle n}$ refers to the number of digits of precision at which the function is to be evaluated.

Algorithm Applicability Complexity
Taylor series; repeated argument reduction (e.g. ${\displaystyle \exp(2x)=[\exp(x)]^{2}}$) and direct summation ${\displaystyle \exp ,\log ,\sin ,\cos ,\arctan }$ ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M(n)n^{1/2}\right)}}}$
Taylor series; FFT-based acceleration ${\displaystyle \exp ,\log ,\sin ,\cos ,\arctan }$ ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M(n)n^{1/3}(\log n)^{2}\right)}}}$
Taylor series; binary splitting + bit-burst algorithm[8] ${\displaystyle \exp ,\log ,\sin ,\cos ,\arctan }$ ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M(n)(\log n)^{2}\right)}}}$
Arithmetic–geometric mean iteration[9] ${\displaystyle \exp ,\log ,\sin ,\cos ,\arctan }$ ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$

It is not known whether ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$ is the optimal complexity for elementary functions. The best known lower bound is the trivial bound ${\displaystyle \Omega }$${\displaystyle (M(n))}$.

### Non-elementary functions

Function Input Algorithm Complexity
Gamma function ${\displaystyle n}$-digit number Series approximation of the incomplete gamma function ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M(n)n^{1/2}(\log n)^{2}\right)}}}$
Fixed rational number Hypergeometric series ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M(n)(\log n)^{2}\right)}}}$
${\displaystyle m/24}$, for ${\displaystyle m}$ integer. Arithmetic-geometric mean iteration ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$
Hypergeometric function ${\displaystyle {}_{p}\!F_{q}}$ ${\displaystyle n}$-digit number (As described in Borwein & Borwein) ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M(n)n^{1/2}(\log n)^{2}\right)}}}$
Fixed rational number Hypergeometric series ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M(n)(\log n)^{2}\right)}}}$

### Mathematical constants

This table gives the complexity of computing approximations to the given constants to ${\displaystyle n}$ correct digits.

Constant Algorithm Complexity
Golden ratio, ${\displaystyle \phi }$ Newton's method ${\displaystyle O(M(n))}$
Square root of 2, ${\displaystyle {\sqrt {2}}}$ Newton's method ${\displaystyle O(M(n))}$
Euler's number, ${\displaystyle e}$ Binary splitting of the Taylor series for the exponential function ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$
Newton inversion of the natural logarithm ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$
Pi, ${\displaystyle \pi }$ Binary splitting of the arctan series in Machin's formula ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M(n)(\log n)^{2}\right)}}}$[10]
Gauss–Legendre algorithm ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$[10]
Euler's constant, ${\displaystyle \gamma }$ Sweeney's method (approximation in terms of the exponential integral) ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M(n)(\log n)^{2}\right)}}}$

## Number theory

Algorithms for number theoretical calculations are studied in computational number theory.

Operation Input Output Algorithm Complexity
Greatest common divisor Two ${\displaystyle n}$-digit integers One integer with at most ${\displaystyle n}$ digits Euclidean algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2}\right)}}}$
Binary GCD algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2}\right)}}}$
Left/right k-ary binary GCD algorithm[11] ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left({\frac {n^{2}}{\log n}}\right)}}}$
Stehlé–Zimmermann algorithm[12] ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$
Schönhage controlled Euclidean descent algorithm[13] ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$
Jacobi symbol Two ${\displaystyle n}$-digit integers ${\displaystyle 0}$, ${\displaystyle -1}$ or ${\displaystyle 1}$ Schönhage controlled Euclidean descent algorithm[14] ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$
Stehlé–Zimmermann algorithm[15] ${\displaystyle O(M(n)\log n)}$
Factorial A positive integer less than ${\displaystyle m}$ One ${\displaystyle O(m\log m)}$-digit integer Bottom-up multiplication ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(M\left(m^{2}\right)\log m\right)}}}$
Binary splitting ${\displaystyle O(M(m\log m)\log m)}$
Exponentiation of the prime factors of ${\displaystyle m}$ ${\displaystyle O(M(m\log m)\log \log m)}$,[16]
${\displaystyle O(M(m\log m))}$[1]
Primality test A ${\displaystyle n}$-digit integer True or false AKS primality test ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{6+o(1)}\right)}}}$[17][18]
${\displaystyle O(n^{3})}$, assuming Agrawal's conjecture
Elliptic curve primality proving ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{4+\varepsilon }\right)}}}$ heuristically[19]
Baillie–PSW primality test ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2+\varepsilon }\right)}}}$[20][21]
Miller–Rabin primality test ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(kn^{2+\varepsilon }\right)}}}$[22]
Solovay–Strassen primality test ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(kn^{2+\varepsilon }\right)}}}$[22]
Integer factorization A ${\displaystyle b}$-bit input integer A set of factors General number field sieve ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left((1+\varepsilon )^{b}\right)}}}$[nb 1]
Shor's algorithm ${\displaystyle O(M(b)b)}$, on a quantum computer

## Matrix algebra

The following complexity figures assume that arithmetic with individual elements has complexity O(1), as is the case with fixed-precision floating-point arithmetic or operations on a finite field.

Operation Input Output Algorithm Complexity
Matrix multiplication Two ${\displaystyle n\times n}$ matrices One ${\displaystyle n\times n}$ matrix Schoolbook matrix multiplication ${\displaystyle O(n^{3})}$
Strassen algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2.807}\right)}}}$
Coppersmith–Winograd algorithm (galactic algorithm) ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2.376}\right)}}}$
Optimized CW-like algorithms[23][24][25][26] (galactic algorithms) ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2.3728596}\right)}}}$
Matrix multiplication One ${\displaystyle n\times m}$ matrix, and
one ${\displaystyle m\times p}$ matrix
One ${\displaystyle n\times p}$ matrix Schoolbook matrix multiplication ${\displaystyle O(nmp)}$
Matrix multiplication One ${\displaystyle n\times \left\lceil n^{k}\right\rceil }$ matrix, and
one ${\displaystyle \left\lceil n^{k}\right\rceil \times n}$ matrix, for some ${\displaystyle k\geq 0}$
One ${\displaystyle n\times n}$ matrix Algorithms given in [27] ${\displaystyle O(n^{\omega (k)+\epsilon })}$, where upper bounds on ${\displaystyle \omega (k)}$ are given in [27]
Matrix inversion One ${\displaystyle n\times n}$ matrix One ${\displaystyle n\times n}$ matrix Gauss–Jordan elimination ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{3}\right)}}}$
Strassen algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2.807}\right)}}}$
Coppersmith–Winograd algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2.376}\right)}}}$
Optimized CW-like algorithms ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2.373}\right)}}}$
Singular value decomposition One ${\displaystyle m\times n}$ matrix One ${\displaystyle m\times m}$ matrix,
one ${\displaystyle m\times n}$ matrix, &
one ${\displaystyle n\times n}$ matrix
Bidiagonalization and QR algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(m^{2}n\right)}}}$
(${\displaystyle m\geq n}$)
One ${\displaystyle m\times n}$ matrix,
one ${\displaystyle n\times n}$ matrix, &
one ${\displaystyle n\times n}$ matrix
Bidiagonalization and QR algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(mn^{2}\right)}}}$
(${\displaystyle m\leq n}$)
QR decomposition One ${\displaystyle m\times n}$ matrix One ${\displaystyle m\times n}$ matrix, &
one ${\displaystyle n\times n}$ matrix
Algorithms in [28] ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(mn^{1+{\frac {1}{4-\omega }}}\right)}}}$
(${\displaystyle m\geq n}$)
Determinant One ${\displaystyle n\times n}$ matrix One number Laplace expansion ${\displaystyle O(n!)}$
Division-free algorithm[29] ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{4}\right)}}}$
LU decomposition ${\displaystyle O(n^{3})}$
Bareiss algorithm ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{3}\right)}}}$
Fast matrix multiplication[30] ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2.373}\right)}}}$
Back substitution Triangular matrix ${\displaystyle n}$ solutions Back substitution[31] ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(n^{2}\right)}}}$

In 2005, Henry Cohn, Robert Kleinberg, Balázs Szegedy, and Chris Umans showed that either of two different conjectures would imply that the exponent of matrix multiplication is 2.[32]

## Transforms

Algorithms for computing transforms of functions (particularly integral transforms) are widely used in all areas of mathematics, particularly analysis and signal processing.

Operation Input Output Algorithm Complexity
Discrete Fourier transform Finite data sequence of size ${\displaystyle n}$ Set of complex numbers Schoolbook ${\displaystyle O(n^{2})}$
Fast Fourier transform ${\displaystyle O(n\log n)}$

## Notes

1. ^ This form of sub-exponential time is valid for all ${\displaystyle \varepsilon >0}$. A more precise form of the complexity can be given as ${\displaystyle O{\mathord {\left(\exp {\sqrt[{3}]{{\frac {64}{9}}b(\log b)^{2}}}\right)}}.}$

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