Comrades Marathon

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Comrades Marathon
Comrades Marathon logo.JPG
The Comrades Marathon logo
DateMay/June
LocationDurban/Pietermaritzburg, South Africa
Event typeRoad
DistanceUltramarathon (90 km)
Established1921
Course records
  • Down:
  • Up:
    •  Men: 5:24:49 (2008)
        Leonid Shvetsov
    •  Women: 6:09:23 (2006)
        Elena Nurgalieva
Official siteThe Comrades Marathon

The Comrades Marathon is an ultramarathon of approximately 89 km (approx. 55 miles)[1] which is run annually in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa between the cities of Durban and Pietermaritzburg. It is the world's largest and oldest ultramarathon race.[2] The direction of the race alternates each year between the "up" run (87 km) starting from Durban and the "down" run (now 90.184 km) starting from Pietermaritzburg.

The field is capped at 20,000 runners (25,000 for 2019), and entrants hail from more than 60 countries.[3] In all but three runnings since 1988, over 10,000 runners have reached the finish within the allowed 11 or 12 hours.[4] With increased participation since the 1980s, the average finish times for both sexes, and the average age of finishers have increased substantially.[5]

Runners over the age of 20 qualify when they are able to complete an officially recognised marathon (42.2 km) in under five hours (4h50 for 2019).[6] During the event an athlete must also reach five cut-off points in specified times to complete the race.[1] The spirit of the Comrades Marathon is said to be embodied by attributes of camaraderie, selflessness, dedication, perseverance, and ubuntu.[7]

Contents

Course[edit]

The race is run on the roads of KwaZulu-Natal Province, marked by "The Big Five" set of hills. On the up run they appear in the following order: Cowies Hill, Field's Hill, Botha's Hill, Inchanga, and Polly Shortts.

Rules[edit]

Athletes currently have 12 hours to complete the course, extended from 11 hours in 2003. The original Comrades cut-off time from 1921 to 1927 was also 12 hours, reduced to 11 hours in 1928. There are a number of cut-off points along the routes which runners must reach by a prescribed time or be forced to retire from the race. A runner who has successfully completed nine marathons wears a yellow number, while those who have completed ten races wear a green number, permanently allocated to the runner for all future races.

Medals are awarded to all runners completing the course in under 12 hours. Medals are currently awarded as follows:

  • Gold medal: the first 10 men and women.
  • Wally Hayward medal (silver-centred circled by gold ring): 11th position to sub 6hrs 00min.
  • Isavel Roche-Kelly medal (silver-centred circled by gold ring): women only, 11th position to sub 7hrs 30min.
  • Silver medal: 6hrs 00min to sub 7hrs 30min.
  • Bill Rowan medal (bronze-centred circled by silver ring): 7hrs 30min to sub 9hrs 00min.
  • Robert Mtshali medal (titanium): 9hr 00min to sub 10hrs 00min.
  • Bronze medal: 9hrs 00min to sub 11hrs 00min.
  • Vic Clapham medal (copper): 11hrs 00min to sub 12hrs 00min.

- Prior to 2000, only gold, silver and bronze medals were awarded.

- The Bill Rowan medal was introduced in 2000 and named after the winner of the first Comrades Marathon in 1921. The time limit for this medal was inspired by Rowan's winning time in 1921 of 8hrs 59min.

- A new copper medal, the Vic Clapham medal (named after the race founder), was added in 2003. This medal coincided with the increase in the time allocation for completing the event from sub 11hrs to sub 12hrs.

- The Wally Hayward medal, named after five-time winner Wally Hayward, was added in 2007 for runners finishing in under 6hrs, but outside the gold medals.

- In 2005 the back-to-back medal was created and henceforth was awarded to novice runners who complete an 'up or down run' in succession. In terms of the implementation thereof, back-to-back medals were automatically awarded to 2005 Comrades Marathon finishers who had completed their first Comrades Marathon in 2004. As with any new innovation, the award was never intended to be retrospective, owing to administrative restrictions. However, in response to popular demand, the back-to-back medal is available for purchase to runners who have previously fulfilled the criteria of completing both an 'up' and a 'down' Comrades Marathon.

- For 2019 the Isavel Roche-Kelly medal (the same design as the Wally Hayward medal) is being introduced for women finishing ouside the gold medals, but under 7hrs 30min, effectively eliminating the silver medal for women. Twenty-year old Isavel Roche-Kelly was named the UCT Sportsperson of the Year for 1980. An unknown on the athletics scene, Roche-Kelly set the roads alight that year when she became the first woman to break the 7½-hour barrier and win the Comrades Marathon in 7:18:00; well under the silver-medal cut-off of 7:30:00, and in the process shattering the women's record by more than an hour. Earlier that year she also became only the third women in Africa to complete a marathon in under three hours. She went on to win the 1981 Comrades up run in a time of 6:44:35 the following year. Sadly she passed away in a cycling accident in her native Northern Ireland at the age of only 24, just 3 years later.

- Also in 2019, the titanium Robert Mtshali medal is being introduced for a time between 9hrs 00min and sub 10hrs 00min. Robert Mtshali was the first unofficial black runner in the 1935 Comrades Marathon, finishing his race in a time of 9 hours and 30 minutes. His efforts were not officially recorded as government and race rules of the time stipulated that, in order to compete in the Comrades Marathon, you had to be a white male. Friday, the 24th of May 1935, saw Mtshali participating in the 15th Comrades Marathon, a down run, joining the 48 official entrants on the starting line. He ran unofficially, but was warmly welcomed into the Durban finish venue on the then Old Fort Road track grounds (now KE Masinga Road) by the crowds of supporters and spectators. The maverick runner clocked his time of 9:30 and was awarded a special presentation by Councilor V.L. Shearer. He was one of only 35 finishers.

History[edit]

Bust of Vic Clapham, founder of the Comrades

The Comrades was run for the first time on 24 May 1921 (Empire Day), and with the exception of a break during World War II, has been run every year since. The 2010 event was the 85th race. To date, over 300,000 runners have completed the race.[4]

The race was the idea of World War I veteran Vic Clapham, to commemorate the South African soldiers killed during the war. Clapham, who had endured a 2,700-kilometre route march through sweltering German East Africa, wanted the memorial to be a unique test of the physical endurance of the entrants. The constitution of the race states that one of its primary aims is to "celebrate mankind's spirit over adversity".

From 1962 to 1994 the race was run on Republic Day, 31 May. After this public holiday was scrapped in 1995 by the post-apartheid South African government, the race date was changed to Youth Day on 16 June. In 2007, the race organisers (controversially) bowed to political pressure from the ANC Youth League, who felt that the race diverted attention from the significance of Youth Day, and changed the race date to Sunday 17 June for 2007 and 15 June for 2008. In 2009 and 2010 the date was changed (to 24 May and 30 May respectively) to accommodate football's Confederations Cup (2009) and World Cup (2010) in South Africa.

1920s[edit]

Forty-eight runners entered the first race in 1921, but only thirty-four elected to start. The course at the time was tarred only for the final few kilometres into Durban. A time limit of 12 hours was set and Bill Rowan became the inaugural winner, clocking 08:59 to win by 41 minutes ahead of Harry Phillips. Of the 34 starters, only 16 completed the race.

Arthur Newton entered and won the race for the first time in 1922. He went on to win the race five times and emerge as the dominant Comrades runner of the 1920s. When he completed the down run in 06:56 in 1923, there were only a handful of spectators on hand to witness the finish because so few thought it possible that the race could be run so quickly. The first woman to run the race was Frances Hayward in 1923,[8] but her entry was refused, so she was an unofficial entrant.[4] She completed the event in 11:35[4] and although she was not awarded a Comrades medal, the other runners and spectators presented her with a silver tea service and a rose bowl. In 1924 the Comrades had its fewest starters ever, just 24. Four years later, in 1928, the time limit for the race was reduced by an hour to 11 hours.

1930s[edit]

In the 1930s, Hardy Ballington emerged as the dominant runner, recording four victories in 1933, 1934, 1936 and 1938. The winner of the 1930 race, Wally Hayward, became one of the greatest legends of the Comrades Marathon, winning a further four times in the fifties, and becoming the oldest man to complete the race in 1989. In 1932 Geraldine Watson, an unofficial entrant, became the first woman to complete both the up run and the down run.

1940s[edit]

After Ballington's domination of the 1930s, Comrades was stopped during the war years from 1941 to 1945. In 1948 a Comrades tradition was born when race official Max Trimborn, instead of firing the customary starter's gun, gave a loud imitation of a cock's crow. That tradition continues to the present day with Trimborn's recorded voice played over loudspeakers at the starting line.

1950s[edit]

In the 1950s, a full twenty years after he won the race for the first time, Wally Hayward recorded his second victory and followed that up with wins in 1951, 1953 and 1954. He represented South Africa at the 1952 Olympic Games in Helsinki, where he finished tenth in the marathon. Hayward retired from the Comrades after establishing new records for both the up and down runs and equaling the five wins of Newton and Ballington. In 1958, the race was won for the first time by Jackie Mekler, who went on to win the race five times, finishing second twice and third twice.

1960s[edit]

In the 1960s, Comrades grew considerably, from 104 starters in 1960 to 703 starters in 1969. Due to the bigger fields, cut-off points were introduced at Drummond and Cato Ridge. Mekler became the first man to break the six-hour barrier in 1960, finishing in 5:56:32. The 1961 winner was George Claassen, a school principal and father of well-known Wynand Claassen, Springbok rugby captain during 1981-83. Claassen junior also finished the Comrades ten times in later years.

In 1962, the race attracted foreign entries for the first time as the Road Runners Club of England sent over four of the best long-distance runners in Britain. English runner John Smith won the race, an up run, in under six hours, missing out on the course record by 33 seconds. Watching the stragglers come in hours later, Smith commented to former winner Bill Cochrane that the other people completing the race were getting as much applause as he had received. "You are now witnessing the spirit of the Comrades," replied Cochrane.

In 1965, English runner Bernard Gomersall broke Mekler's down run record with a time of 5:51:09.

In 1967, Manie Kuhn and Tommy Malone were involved in the closest finish in the history of the race. Malone appeared to be on his way to a comfortable win and was handed the traditional message from the Mayor of Pietermaritzburg to the Mayor of Durban at Tollgate with a lead of two minutes over Kuhn. He entered the stadium in the lead with only 80 metres left to go. Suddenly Kuhn appeared only 15 metres behind and closed in quickly. Malone put in a burst for the line, but with only 15 metres left he fell to the ground with cramps. He attempted to get up again, but with the line within reach Kuhn flew past to grab victory. The mayoral message was forgotten as both runners embraced.[9]

1970s[edit]

The Comrades had over 1,000 starters for the first time in 1971, with over 3,000 in 1979. The race was widely broadcast on both radio and television. The race was opened to all athletes for the first time in 1975, allowing blacks and women to take part officially. In 1975, the Golden Jubilee of the Comrades, Vincent Rakabele finished 20th to become the first black runner to officially win a medal. Elizabeth Cavanaugh became the first women's winner in a shade over 10 hours.

1976 saw the emergence of Alan Robb, who won the first of his four Comrades titles. Robb repeated his win in 1977, 1978 and 1980, including breaking the tape in Durban in 1978 in a record 5:29:14, almost 20 minutes and four kilometres ahead of runner-up Dave Wright.

1980s[edit]

During the 1980s the Comrades began with a field of 4,207 in 1980 and topped 5,000 for the first time in 1983.

In 1981, University of the Witwatersrand student Bruce Fordyce won the first of his eventual nine Comrades titles. An outspoken critic of apartheid, Fordyce and a number of other athletes initially decided to boycott the 1981 event when organisers announced that they would associate it with the 20th anniversary of the Republic of South Africa. Fordyce ultimately competed wearing a black armband to signal his protest. He repeated his victories in 1982, 1983, 1984, 1985, 1986 (a record 5:24:07 down run), 1987, 1988 (a record 5:27:42 for the up run), and 1990.

In 1989, Sam Tshabalala became the first black winner of the Comrades.

Schoolteacher Frith van der Merwe won the woman's race in 1988 in a time of 6:32:56. In 1989, Van der Merwe ran 5:54:43, obliterating the women's record and finishing fifteenth overall.[10]

In the same year Wally Hayward entered the race at the age of 79 and finished in 9:44:15. He repeated the feat in the 1989 Comrades, where he completed the race with only two minutes to spare and at the age of 80 became the oldest man to complete the Comrades.

1990s[edit]

Comrades Marathon House, the CMA's headquarters in Pietermaritzburg where race statistics and memorabilia are kept[11]

During the 1990s the size of the starting fields was in the region of 12,000 to 14,000 runners. In 1995 prize money was introduced, attracting more foreign competitors. The traditional race day of May 31, formerly Republic Day, was changed to June 16, the anniversary of the Soweto uprising.

In 1992 Charl Mattheus, crossed the finish line first, but was later disqualified after testing positive for a banned substance. He claimed it was contained in medicine he had taken for a sore throat, but Jetman Msutu was elevated to the winner, thus becoming the second black winner of the Comrades. In a sad twist for Mattheus, not long after the 1992 race, the substance for which he was banned was removed from the IAAF's banned substance list since all evidence pointed to it having no performance enhancing properties. Mattheus also suffered much negativity in the public eye but later managed to redeem his clean image with an emphatic faultless win in the 1997 down run beating a strong local and international field.

2000s[edit]

The 75th anniversary of the Comrades Marathon in 2000 was the largest ever staged, with a massive field of 23,961. An extra hour was allowed to allow runners dome recovery time for bronze medal finishers to celebrate the milestone. In 2010, on its 85th anniversary, the race gained a place in the Guinness World Records as the ultramarathon with most runners. 14,343 athletes, the largest field since the turn of the millennium, finished in the allowed 12 hours.[12][13]

Russian identical twin sisters Olesya and Elena Nurgalieva won a combined ten Comrades titles from 2003–2013, while three-time champion Stephen Muzhingi became the first non-South African winner from Africa in 2009. Stephen Muzhingi also became the first athlete to win three races in a row (2009, 2010 and 2011) since Bruce Fordyce won three in a row in the eighties (1981, 1982 and 1983).[14] Russian runner Leonid Shvetsov set both down and up course records in 2007 and 2008, respectively.

South African supremacy over the men´s race was restored when Ludwick Mamabolo won the down run in 2012. His win was followed up by three successive South African triumphs in the following years. Among the women, the Nurgalieva twins hold on the race was finally broken in 2014 when Ellie Greenwood, GBR, won the downrun after a spectacular finish, taking the lead just 2 km before the end. In 2015 Caroline Wostmann became the first South African woman to win Comrades in 17 years. In 2017, American Camille Herron, led from start-to-finish to become only the 3rd American and first in 20 years to win Comrades.[15]

Health issues[edit]

As with every ultramarathon, there are potentially lethal health risks involved in extreme physical events. In the history of the Comrades, there have been 7 deaths up to the 2007 event.[16] In a survey among a sample of 2005 participants, 25% reported cramps, 18% nausea, 8% vomiting, 13% dizziness, 3% diarrhoea, 23% pain, excluding the expected sore legs, and 14% reported fatigue of such a nature that they believed themselves to be incapable of continuing the race.[5] Among silver medalists there was a higher incidence of cramps (42.9%), nausea (21.4%) and diarrhoea (7.1%), though a lower incidence of pain and fatigue than the average runner.

Cheating in the race[edit]

In 1993, Herman Matthee, a runner from Bellville athletics club, finished in 7th place and was one of the top ten gold medal winners, but he was later stripped of his gold medal and disqualified when video evidence and eye witness testimony indicated that he entered the race at Kloof and completed less than 30 km of the 89 km down run.[17][18] As his surname resembled that of top runner Charl Mattheus, he was often mistaken by the public as being the same person, unfairly tainting the image of the 1992 disqualified champion. Consequently, in a Comrades first, 11th-place finisher Simon Williamson was months later promoted to tenth place and awarded the last gold medal by the then South African president FW de Klerk. Williamson had passed another runner, Ephraim Sekothlong, in the last 100 metres to claim 11th spot and, unknowingly, a gold medal.

In 1999, the Motsoeneng brothers from Bethlehem, Free State, who strongly resembled one another, performed an act of cheating during another down run.[19][20] By exchanging places with his brother at toilet stops and aided by car lifts at various stages, Sergio Motsoeneng finished ninth, which came as a surprise to Nick Bester and other athletes behind him, who could not recall being overtaken. They were exposed when television footage revealed them to be wearing watches on different arms,[21] and a time pad reading that confirmed that one of the brothers was still trailing Bester at Botha's Hill. The brothers performed well in later years,[22] though Sergio tested positive for a banned substance after finishing third in 2010.[23]

Use of banned substances is claimed to be endemic among top Comrades athletes,[24] but only a small number have been disqualified. Runners who have tested positive include Sergio Motsoeneng, Rasta Mohloli, Viktor Zhdanov,[25] Lephetesang Adoro and Ludwick Mamabolo.[26] Mamabolo was found not guilty due to “technical irregularities”.[27] Erythropoietin (EPO), norandrosterone (a metabolite or precursor of nandrolone), methylhexaneamine and testosterone have been mentioned in connection with Comrades athletes.

In 2014, an analysis of negative splits by runner and statistician Mark Dowdeswell, suggested that a number of runners in the middle to back half of the field may be taking shortcuts.[28][29][30][31][32]

Records and Statistics[edit]

Elena Nurgalieva leading at the 65 kilometres (40 mi) mark in the 2012 Comrades

10 Fastest times (up & down runs)[edit]

Year: Athlete: Time: Nation: Position that year

Up - Men
  1. 2008 Russia Leonid Shvetsov 5.24.39 1st
  2. 2000 Belarus Vladimir Kotov 5.25.33 1st
  3. 1998 Russia Dmitri Grishin 5.26.25 1st
  4. 2000 Russia Alexi Volgin 5.27.08 2nd
  5. 1988 South Africa Bruce Fordyce 5.27.42 1st
  6. 1996 Russia Dmitri Grishin 5.29.33 1st
  7. 1983 South Africa Bruce Fordyce 5.30.12 1st
  8. 1996 South AfricaNick Bester 5.30.48 2nd
  9. 2002 Belarus Vladimir Kotov 5.30.59 1st
  10. 2004 Belarus Vladimir Kotov 5.31.22 1st
Up - Women
  1. 2006 Russia Elena Nurgalieva 6.09.24 1st
  2. 2004 Russia Elena Nurgalieva 6.11.15 1st
  3. 2015 South Africa Caroline Wöstmann 6.12.22 1st
  4. 2006 Russia Marina Zhalybina 6.12.58 2nd
  5. 1996 United States Ann Trason 6.13.23 1st
  6. 2004 Russia Marina Zhalybina 6.14.13 2nd
  7. 2002 Germany Maria Bak 6.14.21 1st
  8. 2008 Russia Elena Nurgalieva 6.14.37 1st
  9. 2008 Russia Olesya Nurgalieva 6.15.52 2nd
  10. 2008 Russia Tatyana Zhirkova 6.17.45 3rd
Down - Men
  1. 2016 David Gatebe South Africa 5.18.19 1st
  2. 2007 Leonid Shvetsov Russia 5.20.41 1st
  3. 2009 Stephen Muzhingi Zimbabwe 5.23.27 1st
  4. 2016 Ludwick Mamabolo South Africa 5.24.05 2nd
  5. 1986 Bruce Fordyce South Africa 5.24.07 1st
  6. 2001 Andrew Kelehe South Africa 5.25.52 1st
  7. 1986 Bob de la Motte South Africa 5.26.12 2nd
  8. 2001 Leonid Shvetsov Russia 5.26.29 2nd
  9. 2018 Bongmusa Mthembu South Africa 5.26.34 1st
  10. 2016 Bongmusa Mthembu South Africa 5.26.39 3rd
Down - Women
  1. 1989 Frith van der Merwe South Africa 5.54.43 1st
  2. 1997 Ann Trason United States 5.58.25 1st
  3. 2005 Tatyana Zhirkova Russia 5.58.51 1st
  4. 1997 Maria Bak Germany 6.00.28 2nd
  5. 2012 Elena Nurgalieva Russia 6.07.12 1st
  6. 2003 Elena Nurgalieva Russia 6.07.47 1st
  7. 1991 Frith van der Merwe South Africa 6.08.19 1st
  8. 2012 Eleanor Greenwood United Kingdom 6.08.24 2nd
  9. 2007 Olesya Nurgalieva Russia 6.10.03 1st
  10. 2018 Ann Ashworth South Africa 6.10.04 1st

Multiple winners[edit]

'+' denotes winner of both an up and a down run

Men's Champion Wins Club Women's Champion Wins Club
South Africa Bruce Fordyce + 9 Wits AC, Rand AC Russia Elena Nurgalieva + 8
South Africa/United Kingdom Arthur Newton + 5 South Africa Maureen Holland + 4
South Africa Hardy Ballington + 5 South Africa Lettie van Zyl + 3 Germiston Callies Harriers
South Africa Wally Hayward + 5 Germiston Callies Harriers New Zealand/South Africa Helen Lucre + 3 Hillcrest Villagers AC
South Africa Jackie Mekler + 5 Germiston Callies Harriers South Africa Frith van der Merwe + 3 Benoni Northerns AC
South Africa Alan Robb + 4 Germiston Callies Harriers Germany Maria Bak + 3 Germany
South Africa Dave Bagshaw + 3 Savages AC South Africa Lindsay Weight + 2 UCT AC
Zimbabwe Stephen Muzhingi + 3 South Africa Isavel Roche-Kelly + 2 UCT AC
Belarus/South Africa Vladimir Kotov 3 South Africa Elizabeth Cavanagh 2 Estcourt AC
South Africa Bongmusa Mthembu + 3 Russia Olesya Nurgalieva 2
South Africa Johnny Coleman 2 United States Ann Trason + 2 USA
South Africa Bill Cochrane + 2
South Africa Gerald Walsh + 2 Durban AC
South Africa Trevor Allen + 2 Durban AC
South Africa Derek Preiss 2 Westville AC
Russia Dmitri Grishine 2
Russia Leonid Shvetsov + 2

Most gold medals[edit]

Gold medals were first awarded in 1931, and to the first 6 male finishers. In 1972, this was extended to the first 10 male finishers, as it is today. In 1983 a gold medal was awarded to the female winner for the first time. In 1988, this was extended to the first 3 female finishers, then to the first 5 female finishers from 1995, and from 1998 onward to the first 10 female finishers, on par with the male race.

The following runners won 7 or more gold medals, gold medal span in brackets:

Men[edit]

 12 medals[edit]
  • South Africa Alan Robb (1974-1991)
 11 medals[edit]
  • South Africa Bruce Fordyce (1979-1990)
 10 medals[edit]
  • South Africa Trevor Allen (1950-1961)
  • South Africa Jackie Mekler (1952-1969)[33]
  • South Africa Shaun Meiklejohn (1989-1999)
  • South Africa Andrew Kelehe (1997-2006)
  • South Africa Fusi Nhlapo (2000-2012)
 9 medals[edit]
  • South Africa Hoseah Tjale (1980-1990)
  • South Africa Nick Bester (1988-1997)
  • Zimbabwe Stephen Muzhingi (2007-2015)
 8 medals[edit]
  • South Africa Allen Boyce (1936-1956)
  • South Africa Gordon Baker (1967-1974)
 7 medals[edit]
  • South Africa Hardy Ballington (1932-1947) [34]
  • South Africa Gerald Walsh (1952-1960)
  • South Africa Charl Mattheus (1988-1998)
  • Russia Oleg Kharitonov (2002-2008)
  • South Africa/Belarus Vladimir Kotov (2000-2008)
  • South Africa Mncedisi Mkhize (2006-2016)
  • South Africa Claude Moshiywa (2005-2016)
  • South Africa Ludwick Mamobolo (2010-2017)
  • South Africa Bongmusa Mthembu (2009-2018)

Women[edit]

 13 medals[edit]
  • Elena Nurgalieva (2003-2015)  Russia
 12 medals[edit]
  • Marina Zhalybina (1999-2013)  Russia
 11 medals[edit]
 10 medals[edit]
 9 medals[edit]
  • Valentina Shatyayeva (1994-2002)  Russia
 8 medals[edit]
 7 medals[edit]

Most top 10 finishes by women[edit]

The following women have finished in the top 10 of the women's race on 7 or more occasions in the race history. Given the top 10 women only received gold medals from 1998, the gold medals list doesn't fully reflect the history of the women's race as female contenders in the 1980s and early 90s were competing for fewer gold medals.

 13 top ten[edit]

  • Elena Nurgalieva (2003-2015)  Russia

 12 top ten[edit]

  • Marina Zhalybina (1999-2013)  Russia

 11 top ten[edit]

 10 top ten[edit]

 9 top ten[edit]

 8 top ten[edit]

 7 top ten[edit]

International Gold Medalists[edit]

The following non-African international runners have won 2 or more gold medals:

Men[edit]

 7 medals[edit]
 6 medals[edit]
  • Russia Alexi Volgin (1995 - 2001)
 5 medals[edit]
  • Poland Jaroslaw Janicki (1997 - 2008)
  • Russia Grigory Murzin (1999 - 2008)
  • Russia Leonid Schvetsov (2001 - 2012)
 4 medals[edit]
  • Russia Dmitri Grishin (1996 - 2001)
 3 medals[edit]
  • New Zealand Dave Levick (1971-1975)
  • Spain Jorge Aubeso (2002 - 2004)
  • Sweden Jonas Buud (2011 - 2014)
 2 medals[edit]
  • United Kingdom Mick Orton (1972 - 1973)
  • New Zealand John McBrearty (1973 - 1975)
  • Germany Charly Doll (1993 - 1994)
  • Switzerland Peter Camenzind (1994 - 1997)
  • Russia Konstantin Santalov (1997 - 1999)
  • Russia Mikhail Kokorev (1996 - 2000)
  • Russia Anatoliy Korepanov (1999 - 2000)
  • Australia Don Wallace (2000 - 2002)
  • United Kingdom/England Steve Way (2017 - 2018)

Women[edit]

 13 medals[edit]
  • Russia Elena Nurgalieva (2003-2015)
 12 medals[edit]
  • Russia Marina Zhalybina (1999-2013)
 11 medals[edit]
  • Germany Maria Bak (1995-2008)
 10 medals[edit]
  • Russia Olesya Nurgalieva (2003-2015)
 9 medals[edit]
  • Russia Valentina Shatyayeva (1994-2002)
 6 medals[edit]
  • Russia Marina Myshlyanova (2005 - 2010)
  • Russia Tatiana Zhirkova (2003 - 2009)
 5 medals[edit]
  • Russia Elvira Kolpakova (2000 - 2005)
 4 medals[edit]
 3 medals[edit]
  • United Kingdom/Scotland Joasia Zakrzewski (2012 - 2015)
  • United States Devon Yanko (2012 - 2018)
  • United States Sarah Bard (2016 - 2018)
 2 medals[edit]
  • United States Ann Trason (1996 - 1997)
  • Germany Birgit Lennartz (1999 - 2000)
  • Brazil Maria Venancio (1999 - 2001)
  • Russia Alena Vinitskaya (2003 - 2007)
  • United States Kami Semick (2010 - 2011)
  • United Kingdom/Switzerland Lizzy Hawker (2010 - 2011)
  • Hungary Simona Staicu (2003 - 2015)
  • Russia Natalia Volgina (2002 - 2012)
  • Russia Alexandra Morozova (2017 - 2018)

Most Wally Hayward Medals[edit]

The following have won 3 or more Wally Hayward medals (for running sub-6 hours but outside the top 10) since the medal was first awarded in 2009, medal span in brackets.

4 medals[edit]

3 medals[edit]

  • South Africa Peter Muthubi (2009 - 2016)
  • South Africa Harmans Mokgadi (2012 - 2016)
  • South Africa Thabo Nkuna (2014 - 2017)
  • South Africa Prodigal Khumalo (2010 - 2018)
  • South Africa Charles Dibate Tjiane (2012 - 2018)

Oldest finisher[edit]

  • Wally Hayward - 1989, 80 years. In 1954, winning Comrades for the fifth time, Hayward also was the oldest runner on the day, at the age of 45.[35]

Permanent Green Numbers[edit]

When a runner completes their 10th Comrades (or achieves either 5 gold medals or 3 wins) they achieve their green number and keep their race number for life, the race number effectively being 'retired' only for use by that athlete. The race number may subsequently only be inherited by family members.

The following are holders (either earned or inherited) of race numbers 1 to 10:

  1. Clive Crawley - 42 medals (1957 - 2000) (1 gold, 22 silver, 19 bronze)
  2. Wally Hayward - 7 medals (1930 - 1989) (4 gold, 1 silver, 2 bronze) / Steven Bure - 3 medals (2015 - 2017) (2 Bill Rowan, 1 Bronze)
  3. Allen Bodill - 10 medals (1947 - 1968) (10 silver) / Myles Bodill - 2 medals (1989 - 1994) (2 bronze)
  4. Nick Raubenheimber - 22 medals (1953 - 1975) (6 golds, 13 silver, 3 bronze) / Graham Raubenheimer - 11 medals (1980 - 1995) (4 silver, 6 bronze) / Blake Raubenheimer - 10 medals (2005 - 2017) (1 Bill Rowan, 9 bronze)
  5. Allan Ferguson - 36 medals (1948 - 1995) (3 gold, 12 silver, 21 bronze)
  6. John Woods - 11 medals (1952 - 1979) (1 gold, 8 silver, 2 bronze)
  7. Malcolm Hean - 14 medals (1962 - 1976) (9 silver, 5 bronze)
  8. unknown/not allocated
  9. Jackie Mekler - 12 medals (1952 - 1985) (10 gold, 1 silver, 1 bronze)
  10. Fred Morrison - 11 medals (1938 - 1966) (2 gold, 9 silver)

Most medals - Green number records[edit]

Male Quadruple Green numbers[edit]

No female runner has yet achieved a quadruple green number

Medal holder Medals Medal span Medal categories Clubs
South Africa Barry Holland 46 1973 - 2018 22 silver, 6 Bill Rowan, 18 bronze Savages AC, Jeppe Quondam AC, Dolphin Coast Striders
South Africa Louis Massyn 46 1973 - 2018 10 silver, 30 bronze, 6 Vic Clapham Goudveld Multisport
South Africa Dave Rogers 45[36] 1961 - 2013 3 gold, 26 silver, 13 bronze, 3 Vic Clapham Durban AC, Westville AC
South Africa Clive Crawley 42[37] 1957 - 2000 1 gold, 22 silver, 19 bronze Savages AC
South Africa Dave Lowe 42 1974 - 2015 3 silver, 3 Bill Rowan, 35 bronze, 1 Vic Clapham Savages AC, Westville AC
South Africa Alan Robb 42 1974 - 2015 12 gold, 16 silver, 9 Bill Rowan, 5 bronze Germiston Callies Harriers, Rocky Road Runners
South Africa Vic Boston 42 1977 - 2018 17 silver, 11 Bill Rowan, 13 bronze, 1 Vic Clapham Rocky Road Runners
South Africa David Williams 41[38]
South Africa Tommy Neitski 41
South Africa Zwelitsha Gono 41[39]
South Africa Wietsche van der Westhuizen 41
South Africa Mike Cowling 41[40]

Female Triple Green Numbers[edit]

Medal holder Medals Medal span Medal categories Clubs
South Africa Tilda Tearle 30 1984 - 2017 3 gold, 7 silver, 1 bill rowan, 13 bronze, 6 vic Clapham Savages AC
South Africa Patricia Fisher 30 1987 - 2018 19 bronze, 11 vic Clapham Stella AC

International double Green numbers[edit]

  • Scotland John Sneddon, 26 medals (1993-2018)
  • Germany Klaus Neumann, 25 medals (1993-2018)
  • New Zealand Bruce Matthews, 20 medals (1967-2001)

Most consecutive medals[edit]

Medal holder Medals Achieved in
South Africa Barry Holland 46 2018[41]
South Africa Louis Massyn 46 2018[42]
South Africa Dave Lowe 42 2015[43]
South Africa Alan Robb 42 2015[44]
South Africa Vic Boston 42 2018[45]
South Africa Tommy Neitski 41 2017[46]
South Africa Wietsche van der Westhuizen 41 2018[47]
South Africa Kenny Craig 40 1998[48]
South Africa Riel Hugo 40 2008[49]
South Africa Shaun Wood 40 2017[50]

Winners and waypoints[edit]

Past Comrades winners
Year u/d Time (Men) Men's Champion Club Time (Women) Women's Champion Club
2018 d 5:26:34 South Africa Bongmusa Mthembu3 Arthur Ford AC 6:10:03 South Africa Ann Ashworth Massmart AC CG
2017 u 5:35:34 South Africa Bongmusa Mthembu2 Arthur Ford AC 6:27:35 United States Camille Herron Nedbank RC International
2016 d 5:18:19 South Africa David Gatebe TomTom AC 6:25:55 South Africa Charne Bosman Nedbank RC CG
2015 u 5:38:36 South Africa Gift Kelehe Samancor Chrome MC 6:12:22 South Africa Caroline Wöstmann Nedbank RC
2014 d 5:28:29 South Africa Bongmusa Mthembu Nedbank RC KZN 6:18:12 United Kingdom Eleanor Greenwood Nedbank International
2013 u 5:32:09 South Africa Claude Moshiywa Nedbank RC GN 6:27:09 Russia Elena Nurgalieva8 Maxed Elite International
2012 d 5:31:03 South Africa Ludwick Mamabolo Maxed Elite KZN 6:07:12 Russia Elena Nurgalieva7 Maxed Elite International
2011 u 5:32:45 Zimbabwe Stephen Muzhingi3 Formula 1 Bluff Meats AC 6:24:11 Russia Elena Nurgalieva6 Maxed Elite International
2010 d 5:29:01 Zimbabwe Stephen Muzhingi2 Formula 1 Bluff Meats AC 6:13:03 Russia Elena Nurgalieva5 Maxed Elite International
2009 d 5:23:27 Zimbabwe Stephen Muzhingi Formula 1 Bluff Meats AC 6:12:08 Russia Olesya Nurgalieva2 Maxed Elite International
2008 u 5:24:49 Russia Leonid Shvetsov2 Harmony International 6:14:38 Russia Elena Nurgalieva4 Maxed Elite International
2007 d 5:20:49 Russia Leonid Shvetsov Harmony International 6:10:11 Russia Olesya Nurgalieva Harmony International
2006 u 5:35:19 Russia Oleg Kharitonov Harmony International 6:09:24 Russia Elena Nurgalieva3 Russia
2005 d 5:27:10 South Africa Sipho Ngomane Harmony AC MPL 5:58:50 Russia Tatyana Zhirkova Russia
2004 u 5:31:22 Belarus Vladimir Kotov3 Maxed Elite PE 6:11:15 Russia Elena Nurgalieva2 Premier AC
2003 d 5:28:52 South Africa Fusi Nhlapo Liberty Nike AC CG 6:07:46 Russia Elena Nurgalieva Russia
2002 u 5:30:59 Belarus Vladimir Kotov2 Maxed Elite International 6:14:21 Germany Maria Bak3 Germany
2001 d 5:25:51 South Africa Andrew Kelehe Rentmeester Fattis & Monis GN 6:13:53 Russia Elvira Kolpakova Russia
2000 u 5:25:33 Belarus Vladimir Kotov Maxed Elite International 6:15:35 Germany Maria Bak2 Germany
1999 d 5:30:10 Poland Jaroslaw Janicki Maxed Elite International 6:31:03 Germany Birgit Lennartz Germany
1998 u 5:26:25 Russia Dmitri Grishine2 Rentmeester Fattis & Monis WP 6:38:57 South Africa Rae Bisschoff Rocky Road Runners
1997 d 5:28:37 South Africa Charl Mattheus Rentmeester Fattis & Monis WP 5:58:24 United States Ann Trason2 USA
1996 u 5:29:33 Russia Dmitri Grishine Rentmeester Fattis & Monis WP 6:13:23 United States Ann Trason USA
1995 d 5:34:02 South Africa Shaun Meiklejohn Maxed Elite KZN 6:22:57 Germany Maria Bak Germany
1994 u 5:38:39 United States Alberto Salazar USA 6:41:23 Russia Valentina Lyakhova Comrades International
1993 d 5:39:41 Germany Charly Doll Germany 6:55:07 South Africa Tilda Tearle Savages AC
1992 u 5:46:11 South Africa Jetman Msutu[note 1] unknown 6:51:05 South Africa Frances van Blerk unknown
1991 d 5:40:53 South Africa Nick Bester unknown 6:08:19 South Africa Frith van der Merwe3 Benoni Northerns AC
1990 u 5:40:25 South Africa Bruce Fordyce9 Rand AC 7:02:00 South Africa Naidene Harrison Ladysmith AC
1989 d 5:35:51 South Africa Samuel Tshabalala unknown 5:54:43 South Africa Frith van der Merwe2 Benoni Northerns AC
1988 u 5:27:42 South Africa Bruce Fordyce8 Rand AC 6:32:56 South Africa Frith van der Merwe Benoni Northerns AC
1987 u 5:37:01 South Africa Bruce Fordyce7 Rand AC 6:48:42 New Zealand/South Africa Helen Lucre3 Hillcrest Villagers AC
1986 d 5:24:07 South Africa Bruce Fordyce6 Rand AC 6:55:01 New Zealand/South Africa Helen Lucre2 Hillcrest Villagers AC
1985 u 5:37:01 South Africa Bruce Fordyce5 University of Witwatersrand 6:53:24 New Zealand/South Africa Helen Lucre Hillcrest Villagers AC
1984 d 5:27:18 South Africa Bruce Fordyce4 University of Witwatersrand 6:46:35 South Africa Lindsay Weight2 University of Cape Town AC
1983 u 5:30:12 South Africa Bruce Fordyce3 University of Witwatersrand 7:12:56 South Africa Lindsay Weight University of Cape Town AC
1982 d 5:34:22 South Africa Bruce Fordyce2 University of Witwatersrand 7:04:59 South Africa Cheryl Winn Pirates Road Running
1981 u 5:37:28 South Africa Bruce Fordyce University of Witwatersrand 6:44:35 South Africa Isavel Roche-Kelly2 University of Cape Town AC
1980 d 5:38:25 South Africa Alan Robb4 Germiston Callies Harriers 7:18: South Africa Isavel Roche-Kelly University of Cape Town AC
1979 u 5:45:02 South Africa Piet Vorster Collegians Harriers 8:22:41 South Africa Jan Mallen unknown
1978 d 5:29:14 South Africa Alan Robb3 Germiston Callies Harriers 8:25: South Africa Lettie van Zyl3 Germiston Callies Harriers
1977 u 5:47:00 South Africa Alan Robb2 Germiston Callies Harriers 8:58: South Africa Lettie van Zyl2 Germiston Callies Harriers
1976 d 5:40:53 South Africa Alan Robb Germiston Callies Harriers 9:05: South Africa Lettie van Zyl Germiston Callies Harriers
1975 u 5:53:00 South Africa Derek Preiss2 Westville AC 10:08: South Africa Elizabeth Cavanagh2 Estcourt AC
1974 u 6:02:49 South Africa Derek Preiss Westville AC 10:40: South Africa Alet Kleynhans Johannesburg Harriers AC
1973 d 5:39:09 South Africa Dave Levick University of Cape Town AC 8:40: South Africa Maureen Holland4 unknown
1972 u 5:48:57 United Kingdom Mick Orton unknown 9:26: South Africa Maureen Holland3 unknown
1971 d 5:47:06 South Africa Dave Bagshaw3 Savages AC 8:37: South Africa Maureen Holland2 unknown
1970 u 5:51:27 South Africa Dave Bagshaw2 Savages AC 10:50: South Africa Elizabeth Cavanagh Estcourt AC
1969 d 5:45:35 South Africa Dave Bagshaw Savages AC
1968 u 6:01:11 South Africa Jack Mekler5 Germiston Callies Harriers
1967 d 5:54:10 South Africa Manie Kuhn Savages AC
1966 u 6:14:07 South Africa Tommy Malone unknown 9:30:00 South Africa Maureen Holland unknown
1965 d 5:51:09 United Kingdom Bernard Gomersall unknown 10:07: South Africa Mavis Hutchinson Germiston Callies Harriers
1964 u 6:09:54 South Africa Jack Mekler4 Germiston Callies Harriers
1963 d 5:51:20 South Africa Jack Mekler3 Germiston Callies Harriers
1962 u 5:57:05 United Kingdom John Smith unknown
1961 d 6:07:07 South Africa George Claassen Germiston Callies Harriers
1960 u 5:56:32 South Africa Jack Mekler2 Germiston Callies Harriers
1959 d 6:28:11 South Africa Trevor Allen2 Durban AC
1958 u 6:26:26 South Africa Jack Mekler Germiston Callies Harriers
1957 d 6:13:55 South Africa Mercer Davies Germiston Callies Harriers
1956 u 6:33:35 South Africa Gerald Walsh2 Durban AC
1955 d 6:06:32 South Africa Gerald Walsh Durban AC
1954 u 6:12:55 South Africa Wally Hayward5 Germiston Callies Harriers
1953 d 5:52:30 South Africa Wally Hayward4 Germiston Callies Harriers
1952 u 7:00:02 South Africa Trevor Allen Durban AC
1951 d 6:14:08 South Africa Wally Hayward3 Germiston Callies Harriers
1950 u 6:46:25 South Africa Wally Hayward2 Germiston Callies Harriers
1949 d 6:23:21 South Africa Reg Allison unknown
1948 u 7:13:52 South Africa William Savage2 Durban AC
1947 d 6:41:05 South AfricaHardy Ballington5 unknown
1946 u 7:02:40 South Africa Bill Cochrane2 unknown
1941-45 Race not held due to World War II
1940 u 6:39:23 South Africa Allen Boyce Durban AC
1939 d 6:22:05 South Africa Johnny Coleman2 unknown
1938 u 6:32:26 South Africa Hardy Ballington4 unknown
1937 d 6:23:11 South Africa Johnny Coleman unknown
1936 u 6:46:14 South Africa Hardy Ballington3 unknown
1935 d 6:30:05 South Africa Bill Cochrane unknown
1934 u 7:09:03 South Africa Hardy Ballington2 unknown
1933 d 6:50:37 South Africa Hardy Ballington unknown 9:31:25 South Africa Geraldine Watson3 unknown
1932 u 7:41:58 South Africa William Savage Germiston Callies Harriers 11:56:00 South Africa Geraldine Watson2 unknown
1931 d 7:16:30 South Africa Phil Masterton-Smith Natal Carbineers AC 11 hrs + South Africa Geraldine Watson unknown
1930 u 7:27:26 South Africa Wally Hayward Germiston Callies Harriers
1929 d 7:52:00 South Africa Darrell Dale unknown
1928 u 7:49:07 South Africa Frank Sutton unknown
1927 d 6:40:56 South Africa Arthur Newton5 unknown
1926 u 6:57:46 South Africa Harry Phillips unknown
1925 d 6:24:45 South Africa Arthur Newton4 unknown
1924 u 6:58:22 South Africa Arthur Newton3 unknown
1923 d 6:56:00 South Africa Arthur Newton2 unknown 11:35:00 South Africa Frances Hayward unknown
1922 u 8:40:00 South Africa Arthur Newton unknown
1921 d 8:59:00 South Africa Bill Rowan unknown
Map all coordinates using: OpenStreetMap 
Download coordinates as: KML · GPX
Comrades waypoints
Landmark Location
Pietermaritzburg City Hall (d) 29°36′07″S 30°22′46″E / 29.60194°S 30.37944°E / -29.60194; 30.37944 (Pietermaritzburg City Hall)
Harry Gwala Stadium (u) 29°37′03″S 30°23′08″E / 29.61750°S 30.38556°E / -29.61750; 30.38556 (Harry Gwala stadium)
Polly Shortts 29°39′34″S 30°26′11″E / 29.65944°S 30.43639°E / -29.65944; 30.43639 (Polly Shortts)
Highest point (2,850 ft or 870 m.a.s.l.) 29°42′50″S 30°29′43″E / 29.71389°S 30.49528°E / -29.71389; 30.49528 (Highest point)
Camperdown 29°43′41″S 30°32′27″E / 29.72806°S 30.54083°E / -29.72806; 30.54083 (Camperdown)
Inchanga 29°44′38″S 30°40′40″E / 29.74389°S 30.67778°E / -29.74389; 30.67778 (Inchanga)
Halfway mark, Drummond 29°44′58″S 30°42′08″E / 29.74944°S 30.70222°E / -29.74944; 30.70222 (Halfway mark, Drummond)
Botha's Hill 29°45′05″S 30°44′23″E / 29.75139°S 30.73972°E / -29.75139; 30.73972 (Botha's Hill)
Hillcrest 29°46′48″S 30°45′49″E / 29.78000°S 30.76361°E / -29.78000; 30.76361 (Hillcrest)
Field's Hill 29°47′38″S 30°50′57″E / 29.79389°S 30.84917°E / -29.79389; 30.84917 (Field's Hill)
Cowies Hill 29°49′40″S 30°53′33″E / 29.82778°S 30.89250°E / -29.82778; 30.89250 (Cowies Hill)
Kingsmead Cricket Ground (d) 29°51′00″S 31°01′40″E / 29.85000°S 31.02778°E / -29.85000; 31.02778 (Kingsmead Cricket Ground)
Durban City Hall (u) 29°51′29″S 31°01′32″E / 29.85806°S 31.02556°E / -29.85806; 31.02556 (Durban City Hall)
Moses Mabhida Stadium, Durban (d) 29°49′40″S 31°01′50″E / 29.82778°S 31.03056°E / -29.82778; 31.03056 (Moses Mabhida Stadium, Durban)
  1. ^ The 1992 race was won by Charl Mattheus, who was later disqualified, testing positive for a banned stimulant found in cough syrup. Shortly thereafter the particular stimulant was removed from the list of banned substances, but Mattheus was never reinstated as winner.

First South African[edit]

A plaque in honour of Robert Mtshali, a finisher in 1935, though non-white athletes only competed officially since 1975.

As the race has grown in profile globally, and since the end of sporting isolation, international runners have come to dominate the race for periods of time. As a result, the first South African home each year is also now awarded a separate prize.

The following have had the distinction of being the first male and female South African across the finish line (overall finishing position in brackets), in years where the winner was an international runner:

Men[edit]

  • 2011 Fanie Matshipa, Samcor Marathon Club PE, (2nd)
  • 2010 Ludwick Mamabolo, Maxed Elite CGA, (2nd)
  • 2009 Charles Tjiane, Maxed Elite CGA, (3rd)
  • 2008 Harmans Mokgadi, Nedbank Running Club GN, (6th)
  • 2007 Mncedisi Mkhize, Maxed Elite CGA, (3rd)
  • 2006 Brian Zondi, Harmony AC CG, (2nd)
  • 2004 Willie Mtolo, Harmony AC CG, (4th)
  • 2002 Willie Mtolo, Harmony AC CG, (2nd)
  • 2000 Donovan Wright, Maxed Elite PE, (4th)
  • 1999 Andrew Kelehe, Rentmeester Fattis & Monis WP, (2nd)
  • 1998 Charl Mattheus, Rentmeester Fattis & Monis WP, (2nd)
  • 1996 Nick Bester, Tuks Road Runners Club, (2nd)
  • 1994 Nick Bester, Tuks Road Runners Club, (2nd)
  • 1993 Theo Rafiri, none, (2nd)
  • 1972 Dave Bagshaw, Savages AC (2nd)
  • 1965 Jackie Mekler, Germiston Callies Harriers, (2nd)
  • 1962 Jackie Mekler, Germiston Callies Harriers, (2nd)

Women[edit]

  • 2017 Charné Bosman, Nedbank Running Club GN, (2nd)
  • 2014 Caroline Wostmann, Nedbank Running Club GN, (6th)
  • 2013 Charné Bosman, Bonitas AC CG, (5th)
  • 2012 Kerry Koen, Bonitas AC CG, (4th)
  • 2011 Farwa Mentoor, Bonitas AC CG, (5th)
  • 2010 Farwa Mentoor, Bonitas AC CG, (5th)
  • 2009 Farwa Mentoor, Bonitas AC CG, (5th)
  • 2008 Riana van Niekerk, Maxed Elite CGA, (6th)
  • 2007 Farwa Mentoor, Harmony AC GN, (4th)
  • 2006 Farwa Mentoor, Harmony AC GN, (6th)
  • 2005 Farwa Mentoor, Harmony AC GN, (4th)
  • 2004 Farwa Mentoor, Harmony AC GN, (3rd)
  • 2003 Farwa Mentoor, Harmony AC GN, (8th)
  • 2002 Farwa Mentoor, Adidas AC, (4th)
  • 2001 Deborah Mattheus, Harmony AC GW, (2nd)
  • 2000 Grace de Oliveira, Maxed Elite KZN, (3rd)
  • 1999 Grace de Oliveira, Maxed Elite KZN, (2nd)
  • 1997 Charlotte Noble, none, (5th)
  • 1996 Jowaine Parrott, Tygervalley Bellville AC, (4th)
  • 1995 Helene Joubert, Agape AC GN, (2nd)
  • 1994 Sanet Beukes, Westville AC, (4th)

Medals and demographics[edit]

There is a lot of prestige associated with a Comrades Marathon Green Number. As a result, many athletes aim to complete at least 10 races, which is evident as a clear peak in the distribution of medal counts.[51] The introduction of the back-to-back medal (for running two years in succession) resulted in another peak for athletes with 2 medals.

Charts[edit]

Popular culture[edit]

The Long Run was a 2001 film set in 1999, in which a retired running coach trains a woman for the race.[52]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Comrades: Route cut-off times, 2012, archived from the original on June 24, 2012, retrieved June 24, 2012
  2. ^ "Longest Running Ultramarathons". ARRS. ARRS.
  3. ^ Cools, Delaine (6 November 2013). "2014 Comrades Marathon Entries Rising Fast". News. comrades.com. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  4. ^ a b c d "Comrades 90 km". Association of Road Racing Statisticians. Retrieved 2009-05-25.
  5. ^ a b Weight, Lindsay (2005). "How to run the Comrades". alsoranrunners.info. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  6. ^ Comrades: General rules and information, 2012, archived from the original on June 19, 2012, retrieved June 24, 2012
  7. ^ "2013 Cathsseta Spirit of Comrades Award". comrades.com. Retrieved 24 February 2014.
  8. ^ Aerni, John. "Why Comrades Is the Greatest". Running Times Magazine. Retrieved 2009-05-25.
  9. ^ "Historischer Comrades Marathon Zieleinlauf". film clip of the 1967 finish. youtube. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  10. ^ Cook, Jonathan (2005-06-15). "Frith the Comrades queen". News24. Retrieved 2009-05-09.
  11. ^ Comrades Marathon House, encounter south africa
  12. ^ "Comrades a record breaker". Sport24. 2010-10-19.
  13. ^ "Comrades marathon sets new Guinness world record". Gomulti. 2010-10-19. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31.
  14. ^ Jorberg, Randolf (2009-05-24). "Comrades Marathon 2009 results". Runner.co.za. Retrieved 2010-05-05.
  15. ^ "Camille Herron Becomes First American to Win Comrades Marathon in 20 Years". Runner's World. Retrieved 29 July 2017.
  16. ^ Marathon deaths 'potentially preventable' by Chris Bateman (fulltext pdf)
  17. ^ Man sê hy't Matthee halfpad afgelaai, Die Burger, 1993-6-7 Archived 2012-03-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ Herman Matthee wil weer hardloop, Die Burger, 1993-7-23 Archived 2012-03-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ 'Ek sak my kop in skaamte' Motsoeneng erken Comrades-kullery Armoede en geldnood sy redes, Beeld, 1999-07-22 Archived 2014-02-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  20. ^ Foto's atleet se doodsteek? `Te veel toevallighede en ongerymdhede', Beeld, 1999-07-22 Archived 2014-02-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  21. ^ The Motsoeneng brothers - Comrades (South Africa) - The Best, katywalkers.org, 2008 Archived 2013-10-13 at the Wayback Machine.
  22. ^ 2 broers het dié keer glad nie ‘aflos’ gehol nie, Beeld, 2009-05-27 Archived 2014-02-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  23. ^ Comrades-kuller van 1999 positief getoets vir middel, Beeld, 2010-07-16 Archived 2014-02-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  24. ^ Wettig gebruik van verbode middels, vra Comrades-ysterman, Beeld, 1999-07-09 Archived 2014-02-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  25. ^ Steroide-skok ná Comrades, Beeld, 1999-07-08 Archived 2014-02-21 at the Wayback Machine.
  26. ^ Lesotho runner faces doping charge, supersport.com, 2012-08-02
  27. ^ RRW Comrades Marathon Preview – All Eyes On Defending Champion Ludwick Mamabolo, letsrun.com, 2013-05-29
  28. ^ Comrades ‘cheats’ bust, iol.co.za, 2014-02-13
  29. ^ Cheats Exposed at the Comrades Marathon? – Run Talk SA Episode 32, talkfeed.co.za, 2014-02-04
  30. ^ ‘It’s a plot to get me’, iol.co.za, 2014-02-13
  31. ^ Comrades Marathon: Negative Splits and Cheating, Exegetic Analytics, 2014-05-06
  32. ^ Comrades Marathon Negative Splits: The Plot Thickens, Exegetic Analytics, 2014-05-10
  33. ^ http://results.ultimate.dk/comrades/resultshistory/front/index.php?profile=true&ProfileID=50017
  34. ^ http://results.ultimate.dk/comrades/resultshistory/front/index.php?profile=true&ProfileID=142
  35. ^ Wally Hayward & Bill Jamieson: Just Call Me Wally: The Memoirs of Wally Hayward. Penprint, 1999, ISBN 978-0-620-24241-7
  36. ^ Runner History: Dave Rogers
  37. ^ Runner History: Clive Crawley
  38. ^ Runner History: David Williams
  39. ^ Runner 6: Zwelitsha Gono
  40. ^ "Mike Cowling". Retrieved 12 June 2018.
  41. ^ Runner History: Barry Holland
  42. ^ Runner History: Louis Massyn
  43. ^ Runner History: Dave Lowe
  44. ^ Runner History: Alan Robb
  45. ^ "Runner History: Vic Boston".
  46. ^ Runner History: Tommy Neitski
  47. ^ http://results.ultimate.dk/comrades/resultshistory/front/index.php?profile=true&ProfileID=6182
  48. ^ Runner History: Kenny Craig
  49. ^ Runner History: Riel Hugo
  50. ^ http://results.ultimate.dk/comrades/resultshistory/front/index.php?profile=true&ProfileID=83808
  51. ^ The Green Number Effect
  52. ^ The Long Run at IMDb.

External links[edit]