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Condominium (international law)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) in international law is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.

Although a condominium has always been recognized as a theoretical possibility, condominia have been rare in practice. A major problem, and the reason so few have existed, is the difficulty of ensuring co-operation between the sovereign powers; once the understanding fails, the status is likely to become untenable.

The word is recorded in English since 1718, from Modern Latin, apparently coined in Germany c. 1700 from Latin con- 'together' + dominium 'right of ownership' (compare domain). A condominium of three sovereign powers is sometimes called a tripartite condominium or tridominium.

Current condominia




Under French law, Andorra was once considered to be a French–Spanish condominium, although it is more commonly classed as a co-principality, since it is itself a sovereign state, not a possession of one or more foreign powers. However, the position of head of state is shared ex officio by two foreigners, one of whom is the President of France, currently Emmanuel Macron, and the other the Bishop of Urgell in Spain, currently Joan Enric Vives i Sicília.[13]

Former condominia

Flags of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956)

Proposed condominia


See also



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  3. ^ Gómez Cruz, Ricardo Alonso (October 2004). Elementos Jurídicos para la Construcción de una Propuesta Tendente a la Recuperación Material y la Soberanía de la Isla Conejo en el Golfo de Fonseca (Legal Elements for the Construction of a Proposal to the Material Recovery and Sovereignty of Isla Conejo in the Gulf of Fonseca) (PDF) (Thesis). Universidad de El Salvador, Ciudad Universitaria, San Salvador, El Salvador. p. 33, 36, 46, 49 and 50. Archived (PDF) from the original on 11 March 2016. Retrieved 4 July 2013.
  4. ^ Case Concerning Land, Island, and Maritime Frontier Dispute (El Salvador/Honduras, Nicaragua Intervening) (International Court of Justice 1992), Text, archived from the original.
  5. ^ Huezo Urquilla, Luis Salvador (July 1993). La controversia fronteriza terrestre, insular y maritima entre El Salvador y Honduras, y Nicaragua como país interviniente (Thesis). Universidad Dr. José Matías Delgado, San Salvador, El Salvador. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2013.
  6. ^ "UNHCR Web Archive". Archived from the original on 29 February 2024. Retrieved 29 February 2024.
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  8. ^ a b Smith, Barry. "Fiat Objects" (PDF). Department of Philosophy, Center for Cognitive Science and NCGIA, SUNY at Buffalo (NY). pp. 24–25. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2020. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  9. ^ Jacobs, Frank (12 January 2012). "The World's Most Exclusive Condominium". Archived from the original on 18 December 2019. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  10. ^ "DEFRLUBEDELU.PDF (Archived map of condominium boundaries)" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 16 March 2024. Retrieved 2 June 2013.
  11. ^ "Caswell MC3D Marine Seismic Survey Environment Plan: Public Summary" (PDF). National Offshore Petroleum Safety and Environmental Management Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
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  16. ^ Stephen R. Graubard, (ed.).Exit from Communism. Transaction Publishers, 1993. Pp. 153–154. "After the Axis attack on Yugoslavia in 1941, Mussolini and Hitler installed the Ustašas in power in Zagreb, making them the nucleus of a dependent regime of the newly created Independent State of Croatia, an Italo-German condominium predicated on the abolition of Yugoslavia." [1] Archived 7 September 2023 at the Wayback Machine
  17. ^ Günay Göksu Özdoğan, Kemâli Saybaşılı. Balkans: a mirror of the new international order. Marmara Üniversitesi. Dept. of International Relations, 1995. Pp. 143. "Croatia (with Bosnia-Hercegovina) formally became a new Axis ally – the Independent State of Croatia (NDH). This was in fact, Italo-German condominium, [...]".
  18. ^ John R. Lampe (ed.), Mark Mazower (ed.). Ideologies and National Identities: The Case of Twentieth-Century Southeastern Europe. Central European University Press, 2003. Pp. 103. "[...] the Independent State of Croatia (hereafter NDH, Nezavisna Drzava Hrvatska), in reality an Italo-German condominium[...]"
  19. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 October 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  20. ^ The UAE: Internal Boundaries and the Boundary with Oman. Vol. 6. pp. 477–478. ISBN 1-85207-575-9.
  21. ^ "Ajman/Muscat condominium". Archived from the original on 30 December 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2017. I don't know when the Hadf zone agreement was terminated, but it certainly was.
  22. ^ "Bulgaria". Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 4 March 2007.
  23. ^ Bromley, J S (editor) 1970, The New Cambridge Modern History Volume 6: The Rise of Great Britain and Russia, 1688-1715/25 Archived 21 June 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521075244 (p. 428)
  24. ^ Namibia Yearbook Archived 7 September 2023 at the Wayback Machine, Issue 3, pages 18
  25. ^ The Complacent Country Archived 10 June 2020 at the Wayback Machine Kevin Rudd. 4 February 2019
  26. ^ CIA – The World Factbook – Gibraltar Archived 12 June 2021 at the Wayback Machine US Central Intelligence Agency
  27. ^ BBC News | Europe | Country profiles | Regions and territories: Gibraltar Archived 4 January 2021 at the Wayback Machine BBC News
  28. ^ The treaty was ratified by the Parliament of Canada, the Folketing (Parliament of Denmark), the Inatsisartut (Parliament of Greenland) and the Legislative Assembly of Nunavut.
  29. ^ How Mrs Thatcher lost Hong Kong, The Independent, Robert Cottrell, 30 August 1992
  30. ^ SDLP backs British-Irish rule if Northern Ireland devolution fails Archived 23 March 2017 at the Wayback Machine, The Guardian, 11 January 2017
  31. ^ Hayball, Harry Jack (2015). Serbia and the Serbian rebellion in Croatia (1990-1991) (Thesis (Ph.D.)). Goldsmiths College. p. 188. Archived from the original on 29 January 2023. Retrieved 14 September 2019.
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  33. ^ Željko Trkanjec (12 December 2020). "Mate Granić: Milošević je pregovarao pijući viski. A evo tko je od Tuđmana tražio uklanjanje Bobana i 'naredio' da nikako ne zauzimamo Banju Luku". Slobodna Dalmacija. Archived from the original on 27 October 2023. Retrieved 28 October 2023.