Conus

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Conus
Temporal range: Eocene–Recent
Conus abbas 1.jpg
Apertural and abapertural views of shell of Conus abbas
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Mollusca
Class: Gastropoda
Clade: Caenogastropoda
Clade: Hypsogastropoda
Clade: Neogastropoda
Superfamily: Conoidea
Family: Conidae
Genus: Conus
Linnaeus, 1758[1]
Type species
Conus marmoreus (type species of Conus (Conus)
Linnaeus, 1758
Synonyms[1]

See List of Conus species

Fossil Conus pelagicus from the Pliocene of Cyprus

Conus is a genus of predatory sea snails, or cone snails, marine gastropod mollusks in the family Conidae.[1] Prior to 2009, cone snail species had all traditionally been grouped into the single genus Conus. However, Conus is now more precisely defined, and there are several other accepted genera of cone snails. For a list of the currently accepted genera, see Conidae.

For a list of the currently accepted species within the genus Conus, based on the information in the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) list, see: list of Conus species.

Species in the genus Conus sensu stricto can be found in the tropical and subtropical seas of the world, at depths ranging from the sublittoral to 1,000 m. They are very variable in some of their characters, such as the tuberculation of the spire and body whorl, striae, colors and the pattern of coloring. Many fossil species have been described; they are extensively distributed, and first appear in Cretaceous strata.

Description[edit]

The thick shell of species in the genus Conus sensu stricto, is obconic, with the whorls enrolled upon themselves. The spire is short, smooth or tuberculated. The narrow aperture is elongated with parallel margins parallel and is truncated at the base. The operculum is very small relative to the size of the shell. It is corneous, narrowly elongated, with an apical nucleus, and the impression of the muscular attachment varies from one-half to two-thirds of the inner surface. The outer lip shows a slight sutural sinus.[2]

List of synonyms and alternate representations[edit]

As this list shows, many genera that were formerly recognized within the family Conidae, have become subgenera of Conus, and they can also be represented by that subgeneric name as an "alternate representation".

  • Afonsoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Africonus Petuch, 1975
  • Afroconus Petuch, 1975(in his introduction of this subgenus Petuch uses "Afroconus" but in his subsequent use of this new subgenus he uses "Africonus")
  • Arubaconus Petuch, 2013
  • Asprella Schaufuss, 1869
  • Atlanticonus Petuch & Sargent, 2012
  • Attenuiconus Petuch, 2013
  • Austroconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Bermudaconus Petuch, 2013
  • Brasiliconus Petuch, 2013
  • Calamiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Calibanus da Motta, 1991
  • Cariboconus Petuch, 2003
  • Chelyconus Mörch, 1852
  • Cleobula Iredale, 1930
  • Conasprelloides Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Continuconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Conus (Afonsoconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Asprella) Schaufuss, 1869 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Atlanticonus) Petuch & Sargent, 2012 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Attenuiconus) Petuch, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Austroconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2009 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Bermudaconus) Petuch, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Brasiliconus) Petuch, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Calibanus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Chelyconus) Mörch, 1852 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Conus) Linnaeus, 1758 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Cylinder) Montfort, 1810 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Darioconus) Iredale, 1930 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Dauciconus) Cotton, 1945 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Dendroconus) Swainson, 1840 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Ductoconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Elisaconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Embrikena) Iredale, 1937 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Eremiconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2009 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Eugeniconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Floraconus) Iredale, 1930 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Fraterconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Gastridium) Modeer, 1793 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Harmoniconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Hermes) Montfort, 1810 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Kalloconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Kellyconus) Petuch, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Klemaeconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Lamniconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Lautoconus) Monterosato, 1923 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Leporiconus) Iredale, 1930 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Leptoconus) Swainson, 1840 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Lindaconus) Petuch, 2002 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Lithoconus) Mörch, 1852 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Lividoconus) Wils, 1970 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Monteiroconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Papyriconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Phasmoconus) Mörch, 1852 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Pionoconus) Mörch, 1852 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Plicaustraconus) Moolenbeek, 2008 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Pseudolilliconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2009 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Pseudonoduloconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2009 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Pseudopterygia) Tucker & Tenorio, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Puncticulis) Swainson, 1840 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Pyruconus) Olsson, 1967 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Quasiconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2009 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Rhizoconus) Mörch, 1852 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Rubroconus) Tucker & Tenorio, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Sandericonus) Petuch, 2013 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Sciteconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Splinoconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Spuriconus) Petuch, 2003
  • Conus (Stephanoconus) Mörch, 1852 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Strategoconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Tesselliconus) da Motta, 1991 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Textilia) Swainson, 1840 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Turriconus) Shikama & Habe, 1968 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Virgiconus) Cotton, 1945 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Conus (Virroconus) Iredale, 1930 · accepted, alternate representation
  • Cornutoconus Suzuki, 1972
  • Coronaxis Swainson, 1840
  • Cucullus Röding, 1798
  • Cylinder Montfort, 1810
  • Cylindrella Swainson, 1840 (Invalid: junior homonym of Cylindrella Pfeiffer, 1840 [Gastropoda, Urocoptidae] and placed on the Official Index by ICZN Opinion 1030; Asprella is a replacement name)
  • Cylindrus Batsch, 1789 (name to be rejected: ICZN petition pending)
  • Darioconus Iredale, 1930
  • Dauciconus Cotton, 1945
  • Dendroconus Swainson, 1840
  • Ductoconus da Motta, 1991
  • Dyraspis Iredale, 1949
  • Elisaconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Embrikena Iredale, 1937
  • Eremiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Erythroconus da Motta, 1991
  • Eugeniconus da Motta, 1991
  • Floraconus Iredale, 1930
  • Fraterconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Fulgiconus da Motta, 1991
  • Gastridium Modeer, 1793
  • Genuanoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Gladioconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Gradiconus da Motta, 1991
  • Graphiconus da Motta, 1991
  • Harmoniconus da Motta, 1991
  • Hermes Montfort, 1810
  • Heroconus da Motta, 1991
  • Isoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Kalloconus da Motta, 1991
  • Kellyconus Petuch, 2013
  • Ketyconus da Motta, 1991
  • Kioconus da Motta, 1991
  • Klemaeconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Kurodaconus Shikama & Habe, 1968
  • Lamniconus da Motta, 1991
  • Lautoconus Monterosato, 1923
  • Leporiconus Iredale, 1930
  • Leptoconus Swainson, 1840
  • Leptoconus (Phasmoconus) Mörch, 1852
  • Lindaconus Petuch, 2002
  • Lithoconus Mörch, 1852
  • Lividoconus Wils, 1970
  • Magelliconus da Motta, 1991
  • Miliariconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Mitraconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Monteiroconus da Motta, 1991
  • Nataliconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Nimboconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Nitidoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Ongoconus da Motta, 1991
  • Papyriconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Phasmoconus Mörch, 1852
  • Phasmoconus (Fulgiconus) da Motta, 1991
  • Pionoconus Mörch, 1852
  • Plicaustraconus Moolenbeek, 2008
  • Poremskiconus Petuch, 2013
  • Protoconus da Motta, 1991 (Invalid: junior homonym of Protoconus Yu, 1979 and Protoconus Stinchcomb, 1986; Tenorioconus is a replacement name)
  • Protostrioconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Pseudohermes Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Pseudolilliconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Pseudonoduloconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Pseudopterygia Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Puncticulis Swainson, 1840
  • Purpuriconus da Motta, 1991
  • Pyruconus Olsson, 1967
  • Quasiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Regiconus Iredale, 1930
  • Rhizoconus Mörch, 1852
  • Rhombiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Rhombus Montfort, 1810 (Invalid: junior homonym of Rhombus Walbaum, 1792 [Pisces])
  • Rolaniconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Rollus Montfort, 1810
  • Rubroconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Sandericonus Petuch, 2013
  • Sciteconus da Motta, 1991
  • Seminoleconus Petuch, 2003
  • Socioconus da Motta, 1991
  • Splinoconus da Motta, 1991
  • Spuriconus Petuch, 2003
  • Stellaconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Stephanoconus Mörch, 1852
  • Strategoconus da Motta, 1991
  • Strioconus Thiele, 1929
  • Sulciconus Bielz, 1869
  • Taranteconus Azuma, 1972
  • Tenorioconus Petuch & Drolshagen, 2011
  • Tesselliconus da Motta, 1991
  • Textilia Swainson, 1840
  • Thalassiconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2013
  • Theliconus Swainson, 1840 (objective synonym of Hermes)
  • Thoraconus da Motta, 1991
  • Trovaoconus Tucker & Tenorio, 2009
  • Tuckericonus Petuch, 2013
  • Tuliparia Swainson, 1840
  • Turriconus Shikama & Habe, 1968
  • Utriculus Schumacher, 1817
  • Varioconus da Motta, 1991
  • Virgiconus Cotton, 1945
  • Virroconus Iredale, 1930
  • Vituliconus da Motta, 1991

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Bouchet, P.; Gofas, S. (2015). Conus Linnaeus, 1758. In: MolluscaBase (2015). Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=137813 on 2015-11-12
  2. ^ G.W. Tryon (1884) Manual of Conchology, structural and systematic, with illustrations of the species, vol. VI; Philadelphia, Academy of Natural Sciences

Further reading[edit]

  • Kohn A. A. (1992). Chronological Taxonomy of Conus, 1758-1840. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington and London.