Coney Island Cyclone

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Coney Island Cyclone
Cyclone Roller Coaster (Coney Island, New York) 001.jpg
Coney Island Cyclone (2013)
Coney Island
Coordinates40°34′30″N 73°58′44″W / 40.57500°N 73.97889°W / 40.57500; -73.97889
StatusOperating
Opening dateJune 26, 1927
Cost$175,000
ReplacedGiant Racer
General statistics
DesignerVernon Keenan
Track layoutCompact Twister
Lift/launch systemChain-lift
Height85 ft (26 m)
Length2,640 ft (800 m)
Speed60 mph (97 km/h)
Inversions0
Duration2:30
Max vertical angle58.1°
Capacity1440 riders per hour
G-force3.75
Height restriction54 in (137 cm)
Coney Island Cyclone at RCDB
Pictures of Coney Island Cyclone at RCDB
Cyclone Roller Coaster
Coney Island Cyclone is located in New York City
Coney Island Cyclone
Coney Island Cyclone is located in New York
Coney Island Cyclone
Coney Island Cyclone is located in the United States
Coney Island Cyclone
LocationBrooklyn, New York
Coordinates40°34′30″N 73°58′44″W / 40.57500°N 73.97889°W / 40.57500; -73.97889Coordinates: 40°34′30″N 73°58′44″W / 40.57500°N 73.97889°W / 40.57500; -73.97889
Built1927
ArchitectKeenan, Vernon; Baker, Harry C.
NRHP reference #91000907[1]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPJune 25, 1991
Designated NYCLJune 12, 1988[2]

The Coney Island Cyclone (better known as simply the Cyclone) is a historic wooden roller coaster at Luna Park in Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York City. Designed by Vernon Keenan, it opened to the public on June 26, 1927. It is located on a standalone plot of land at the intersection of Surf Avenue and West 10th Street. The Cyclone reaches a maximum speed of 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) and has a total track length of 2,640 feet (800 m) with a maximum height of 85 feet (26 m).

The Cyclone operated for more than four decades before it started to deteriorate. By the early 1970s, the city planned to scrap the ride. However, on June 18, 1975, Dewey and Jerome Albert, owners of Astroland, entered into an agreement with New York City to operate the ride. The roller coaster was refurbished in the 1974 off-season and reopened on July 3, 1975. Astroland Park continued to invest millions over the years in the upkeep of the Cyclone. After Astroland closed in 2008, Carol Hill Albert, president of Cyclone Coasters, continued to operate it under a lease agreement with the city. In 2011, Luna Park took over operation of the Cyclone.

The coaster was declared a New York City designated landmark on July 12, 1988, and was placed on the National Register of Historic Places on June 26, 1991.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

"1927 the cyclone takes its first ride" on New York Aquarium

Between about 1880 and World War II, Coney Island was the largest amusement area in the United States, attracting several million visitors per year. At its height, it contained three competing major amusement parks—Luna Park, Dreamland, and Steeplechase Park—as well as many independent amusements.[3]:147–150[4]:11[2]:3 Prior to the Cyclone's construction, the site was occupied by the Giant Racer from 1911 to 1926.[5][6]

The success of 1925's Thunderbolt coaster and 1926's Tornado led Irving and Jack Rosenthal to buy land at the intersection of Surf Avenue and West 10th Street for a coaster of their own. With a $100,000 investment, they hired leading coaster designer Vernon Keenan to design a new coaster. Harry C. Baker supervised the construction, which was done by area companies including National Bridge Company (which supplied the steel) and Cross, Austin, & Ireland (which supplied the lumber). Its final cost was reported to be around $146,000 to $175,000. When it opened on June 26, 1927, a ride cost 25 cents (equivalent to $3.61 in 2018[7]) as opposed to the present-day ticket price of $10.[8][2]:5

In 1935, the Rosenthals took over management of Palisades Park. The Cyclone was put under the supervision of Christopher Feucht, a Coney Island veteran who had built a ride called Drop the Dip in 1907, and performed minor retracking work on it. The Cyclone continued to be extremely popular.[2]:6 Originally, a midget was hired to zap disembarking riders with an electric paddle, but this practice ceased in the 1950s.[9]

Area decline[edit]

By the 1960s, attendance at Coney Island had declined.[9] Crime increases, insufficient parking facilities, bad weather, and the post-World War II automotive boom were also cited as contributing factors in the visitor decrease.[10] In 1964, Coney Island's last remaining large theme park, Steeplechase Park, was closed and subsequently demolished.[11][12]:172[13] Afterward, the Cyclone was sold to the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (NYC Parks) in 1965.[9]

A new building for the New York Aquarium had been constructed to the west of the Cyclone in 1954.[14] In 1967, New York City decided that an extension to the New York Aquarium would be a better use of the Cyclone property. The city started procedures to claim the property by eminent domain. The then-owners, East Coaster Corporation, fought the city but lost. During this time, they did minimal long-term maintenance, and only enough to keep the ride operating safely. Their final lawsuit was for the compensation for the ride. At one point, East Coaster measured every beam, girder, and component of the ride to show that the cost of materials was higher than the city's proposed compensation.[15] The city bought the Cyclone for $1.2 million in 1969.[13]

The Cyclone was then operated under contract by East Coaster Corporation while the city worked with the New York Aquarium on plans to redevelop the site. There was a lack of long-term maintenance by the city, and the coaster soon received 101 safety violations.[15] In 1972, when the plans to expand the Aquarium were publicly announced, people launched a "Save the Cyclone" campaign to oppose the proposed demise of Coney Island's last wooden roller coaster.[16] This created a conflict between the Aquarium, who supported the Cyclone's demolition, and the Coney Island Chamber of Commerce, who opposed it.[17]

By 1974, city officials were doubting the decision to purchase the Cyclone and were instead considering leasing the coaster to a private operator.[18][19] The proposed demolition of the Cyclone were seen as potentially disastrous to the economy of Coney Island.[13] The city changed its plans to dismantle the coaster and, in April 1975, invited sealed bids to lease the operation of the ride.[15] The owners of the Astroland amusement park won the lease with a bid of $57,000 per year.[20] After Astroland spent $60,000 to refurbish the Cyclone, the coaster reopened on July 3, 1975.[15][2]:6–7

Preservation[edit]

The Cyclone in 2010

During the 1986 season, insurance disagreements forced the Cyclone to stay closed until July.[21] The Cyclone was declared a city landmark in 1988[2] and a National Historic Landmark in 1991.[22] Despite the closure of Astroland Park in 2008, the Cyclone remained in operation due to its status as a New York City landmark.[23][24]

In 2011, the adjacent Luna Park took over management of the Cyclone.[25][26] Luna Park then started a major refurbishment of the Cyclone during the off-season.[27] The refurbishment was done by Great Coasters International[28] and completed in 2016.[29][30]

Current use[edit]

The ride is located on a plot of land measuring 75 feet (23 m) along 834 Surf Avenue and 500 feet (150 m) along West 10th Street.[2]:12 Legally, the land is owned by NYC Parks.[13] The former concession stands, built into the structure of the roller coaster, were home to the Coney Island History Project,[31] which was moved to a space near the Wonder Wheel.[32] A souvenir stand selling Cyclone-based shirts, hats, and on-ride photos remains in the concession stands.[31]

Each ride in Luna Park charges a specific amount of credits for admission, with each credit costing $1.[33] As of July 2019, each ride on the Cyclone costs 10 credits (or $10), and free or reduced-price re-rides have been eliminated. Ride admission is also included in Luna Park's fixed-date and any-date passes.[34] Any free "bonus credits" accumulated via the purchase of ride credits cannot be used for admission to the Cyclone.[33]

The Cyclone is considered an "irreplacable" structure since timber-supported coasters cannot be built under modern New York City building codes.[35]

Ride experience[edit]

Seen from west

Layout[edit]

The train leaves the station heading northward, and immediately turns right at an almost 180-degree angle, which leads to a 85-foot (26 m) cable lift hill. It then moves over the first 58.1-degree drop, and as the train reaches the bottom of the drop it comes close to the track above, creating a headchopper-effect. The train then ascends into the first high-speed U-turn to the left, then descends again beneath the lift hill and rises onto the second 70-foot-tall U-turn to the right. The train descends parallel to the lift hill, enters a camelback hill, and rises onto a smaller banked U-turn to the right where it dives underneath the first high-speed curve. After that third U-turn, the train enters a second camelback hill with a fan turn, then a smaller airtime section, as it approaches a fourth U-turn to the right. Then the train hops several times more, paralleling the second drop, before entering a final rightward curve. The train drops slightly, ascends into a tunnel with a small leftward fan turn, and enters a brake run just before re-entering the station.[36][37]

Track[edit]

The track is 2,640 feet (800 m) long (including six fan turns and twelve drops). The ride's top speed is 60 miles per hour (97 km/h) and it takes about one minute and fifty seconds. The brown wooden track contains red wooden fencing alongside it, and is supported by a white structural framework, giving it a distinctive appearance.[36][37][38] The word "CYCLONE" is spelled in large red letters on the western side of the lift hill.[2]:6

Prior to 2000, the Cyclone's 58.1-degree initial drop was the third-steepest drop of any wooden coaster in the world. As of 2014, it is the ninth-steepest wooden coaster worldwide.[39]

Trains[edit]

The Cyclone has three trains with three cars per train; one train can run at a time. Riders are arranged two across in four rows for a total of 24 riders per train. The trains contain single position lap bars, which drop across the entire row, but do not contain headrests.[36][38][2]:6

Incidents[edit]

Deaths[edit]

On May 26, 1985, a 29-year-old man was killed while riding the Cyclone. He stood up and struck his head on a crossbeam.[40]

On August 23, 1988, a 26-year-old man was killed after falling from the Cyclone. The man was a maintenance worker and was the only passenger at the time, riding in the back seat of the train during his lunch break. Apparently, he eluded the safety bar and was seen standing up as the train began its descent down the first hill. He fell 30 feet and landed on a crossbeam of a lower section of track. He died instantly. The ride was closed following the incident, but was reopened a day later after safety inspectors concluded that the ride was safe.[41]

On July 31, 2007, a 53-year-old man suffered several crushed vertebrae in his neck while riding the Cyclone. He died four days later due to complications during surgery.[42][43]

Other incidents[edit]

On June 12, 2008, a woman rode the Cyclone, and later claimed that she had been seriously injured due to the ride. In 2015, the woman was awarded $1.5 million in damages despite being found partly at fault.[44]

Several evacuations have taken place on the Cyclone due to mechanical problems. On March 28, 2015, a mechanical failure caused a train to be stuck at the top of the lift hill. No one was injured.[45][46] A similar incident happened on June 13 of the same year, when a mechanical issue caused the ride to stop completely.[47]

Notable riders and rider records[edit]

One notable story concerns Emilio Franco, a mute coal miner with aphonia who visited Coney Island in 1948. One version has it that Franco had been mute since birth,[48] but according to a contemporary New York Times account, he had only been mute for five years.[49] Apparently, Franco screamed while going down the Cyclone's first drop and said "I feel sick" as his train returned to the station. He had fainted after realizing he had just spoken.[2]:6[9][49]

In 1975, Michael Boodley set a record for most consecutive trips on the Cyclone, riding it 1,001 times over a period of 45 hours.[50] On August 18–22, 1977, nineteen-year-old Richard Rodriguez broke this record, riding the Cyclone for 104 hours. He took short bathroom breaks in between rides, but ate hot dogs, M&Ms, and shakes during the ride itself. In 2007, Rodriguez broke his own record for the longest marathon on a roller coaster, with 405 hours 40 minutes at Blackpool Pleasure Beach in the United Kingdom.[50]

In 2009, Howie Lipstein was recognized by the Coney Island History Project for riding the Cyclone for fifty consecutive years.[51][52] Additionally, the aviator Charles Lindbergh was said to have ridden the Cyclone two years after it opened.[53] Lindbergh reportedly called the experience "greater than flying an airplane at top speed".[48][35]

Replications[edit]

ACE plaque

The popularity of the Cyclone has inspired seven replica coasters that share a similar layout, or a mirror version of it.[9][54] Four replicas of the Cyclone were erected at Six Flags parks: Viper at Six Flags Great America;[55][54] Psyclone at Six Flags Magic Mountain;[56][57][54] the Texas Cyclone at Six Flags AstroWorld;[58][59][54] and the Georgia Cyclone at Six Flags Over Georgia.[60][54] Of these, only Viper is still operational.[54] Replicas internationally include the Bandit at Movie Park Germany, the defunct White Canyon at Yomiuriland in Japan, and the defunct Aska at Nara Dreamland (also in Japan).[61][54]

Awards[edit]

The Cyclone is an ACE Coaster Classic and Coaster Landmark.[62][63] It is also the inspiration for the name of the Brooklyn Cyclones baseball team, which plays at nearby MCU Park.[64]

Golden Ticket Awards: Top wood Roller Coasters
Year 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018
Ranking 7[65] 8[66] 11[67] 11[68] 13[69] 16[70] 16[71] 14[72] 16[73] 14[74] 16[75] 14[76] 13[77] 15[78] 14[79] 19[80] 22[81] 16[82] 27[83] 22[84] 29[85]
Mitch Hawker's Best Roller Coaster Poll: Best Wooden-Tracked Roller Coaster[86]
Year 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011
Ranking 8 15 9 (tie) 12 14 15 23 21 21 21 26 26 36 36 41 41 48 49

References[edit]

  1. ^ National Park Service (April 15, 2008). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "THE CYCLONE, 834 Surf Avenue at West 10th Street, Brooklyn" (PDF). City of New York; New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission. July 12, 1988.
  3. ^ Judith N. DeSena; Timothy Shortell (2012). The World in Brooklyn: Gentrification, Immigration, and Ethnic Politics in a Global City. Lexington Books. pp. 147–176. ISBN 978-0-7391-6670-3.
  4. ^ Parascandola, L.J. (2014). A Coney Island Reader: Through Dizzy Gates of Illusion. Columbia University Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-231-53819-0. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
  5. ^ "Ride America's Most Historic Roller Coasters". www.smithsonianmag.com. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  6. ^ Marden, Duane. "Giant Racer  (Luna Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  7. ^ Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis Community Development Project. "Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–". Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
  8. ^ "Cyclone 101". The Washington Post. August 4, 2002. Retrieved September 5, 2008.
  9. ^ a b c d e OSTERHOUT, JACOB E. "8 questions for Coney Island's Cyclone roller coaster master, Jerry Menditto". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
  10. ^ "Coney Island Slump Grows Worse; Decline in Business Since the War Years Has Been Steady". The New York Times. July 2, 1964. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
  11. ^ Chan, Sewell (July 21, 2005). "Leaps of Imagination for the Parachute Jump". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
  12. ^ Immerso, Michael (2002). Coney Island: the people's playground (illustrated ed.). Rutgers University Press. ISBN 978-0-8135-3138-0.
  13. ^ a b c d "The Cyclone Highlights : NYC Parks". www.nycgovparks.org. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  14. ^ Salerno, Al (October 24, 1954). "Break Ground for World's Greatest Aquarium at Coney Island". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. pp. 1, 21 – via Brooklyn Public Library; newspapers.com.
  15. ^ a b c d Futrell, J. (2006). Amusement Parks of New York. Amusement Parks Series. Stackpole Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-8117-3262-8. Retrieved September 15, 2018.
  16. ^ John T. McQuiston (March 5, 1972). "Aquarium is Getting a Piece of Old Long Island". The New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2008.
  17. ^ "Aquarium Urges Razing Of Coney Island Cyclone". The New York Times. May 27, 1975. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  18. ^ Lichtenstein, Grace (December 20, 1974). "City Is Leaning to Keeping Steeplechase a Fun Place". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  19. ^ "Coney Showdown: Thriller vs. Killer". New York Daily News. July 30, 1974. p. 35. Retrieved July 9, 2019 – via newspapers.com open access.
  20. ^ "This Ride's Dips Are a Real Up". New York Daily News. June 27, 1977. p. 282. Retrieved July 9, 2019 – via newspapers.com open access.
  21. ^ Blau, Eleanor (July 11, 1986). "Cyclone at Coney Island Rolls Again at Last". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  22. ^ Kristen King (August 4, 1995). "Cyclone Honors to Roll". The Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009. Retrieved September 5, 2008.
  23. ^ Chatelain, Ryan (September 5, 2008). "End of an ara at Coney Island" (PDF). AM New York. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 15, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2008.
  24. ^ Calder, Rich (May 29, 2007). "B'klyn Big Top". The New York Post. Archived from the original on December 31, 2008. Retrieved September 5, 2008.
  25. ^ Kaminer, Ariel (April 2, 2010). "Thrilling Reminder of Old Coney Island". The New York Times.
  26. ^ "Brooklyn's Cyclone set to re-open". UPI.com. Retrieved August 23, 2012.
  27. ^ "Is this the most dangerous roller coaster in America?". New York Post. July 18, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  28. ^ "How Coaster Refurbishment Works with Great Coasters International". Coaster101. October 27, 2016. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  29. ^ McShane, DALE W. EISINGER, Larry. "Coney Island's refurbished Cyclone coaster debuts as spring rolls into Brooklyn". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  30. ^ "Elected Officials Christen Refurbished Cyclone At Luna Park Spring Opening - BKLYNER". bklyner.com. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  31. ^ a b Newman, Andy (May 29, 2007). "Beneath the Speeding Cyclone, a Look Back in Time". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  32. ^ "Coney Island History Project - Museums & Galleries". NYCgo.com. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  33. ^ a b "Park Prices". Luna Park Coney Island. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  34. ^ "Coney Island Cyclone". Luna Park Coney Island. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  35. ^ a b Diamonstein-Spielvogel, Barbaralee (2011), The Landmarks of New York, Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, p. 583, ISBN 978-1-4384-3769-9
  36. ^ a b c "Cyclone at Luna Park". COASTER-net. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  37. ^ a b "Cyclone front seat on-ride HD POV Luna Park, Coney Island". CoasterForce. June 4, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2019 – via YouTube.
  38. ^ a b Marden, Duane. "Cyclone  (Luna Park (Brooklyn, New York, United States))". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  39. ^ "Wood Coasters". Roller Coaster Records. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  40. ^ Phalen, W.J. (2016). Coney Island: 150 Years of Rides, Fires, Floods, the Rich, the Poor and Finally Robert Moses. McFarland, Incorporated, Publishers. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-4766-2373-3. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  41. ^ "Park Employee Dies in Roller-Coaster Fall". The New York Times. August 24, 1988. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  42. ^ McLaughlin, Mike. "Cyclone: Joy ride or death ride?". Brooklyn Paper. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  43. ^ Zambito, Thomas (October 29, 2008). "Family of Cyclone accident victim is suing New York City". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  44. ^ Marzulli, John. "EXCLUSIVE: Woman awarded $1.5 million over claim she was seriously injured riding Cyclone roller coaster in Coney Island". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  45. ^ Otterman, Sharon (March 29, 2015). "Cyclone Roller Coaster at Coney Island Gets Stuck at Top of Track". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  46. ^ "Coney Island's famed Cyclone strands riders on season's first run". www.cbsnews.com. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  47. ^ "Riders climb down Cyclone after it breaks mid-ride". New York Post. June 13, 2015. Retrieved July 20, 2019.
  48. ^ a b PRESS, THE ASSOCIATED. "Coney Island's iconic Cyclone roller coaster to celebrate its 85th anniversary with 25-cent rides on Saturday". nydailynews.com. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  49. ^ a b "Roller-Coaster Ride Brings Back Speech To Army Veteran Who Lost Voice in 1943". The New York Times. August 12, 1948. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  50. ^ a b Kilgannon, Corey (June 23, 2017). "Coney Island's Coaster King Takes Another Spin". The New York Times. Retrieved September 1, 2018.
  51. ^ Monahan, Rachel (April 6, 2009). "A 50-year constant in Coney Island". New York Daily News. Mortimer Zuckerman. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  52. ^ "Howie Lipstein: Devoted Cyclone Rider". Coney Island History Project. April 5, 2009. Retrieved July 26, 2016.
  53. ^ Clines, Francis X. (June 24, 1977). "50 Years of Ups and Downs for 'Cyclone'". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  54. ^ a b c d e f g Marden, Duane. "Roller Coaster Search Results". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
  55. ^ "Six Flags Great America to run Viper and American Eagle coasters backwards during 2013". Theme Park Tourist. May 27, 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  56. ^ Shuster, Fred (February 17, 1991). "RIDE A TRIBUTE TO ROLLER COASTER HISTORY". OrlandoSentinel.com. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  57. ^ "SIX FLAGS MAGIC MOUNTAIN". DeseretNews.com. April 30, 1995. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  58. ^ Callahan, Michael (January 15, 2016). "1976: Astroworld coaster construction under way". www.chron.com. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  59. ^ Communications, Emmis (June 1976). Texas Monthly. Emmis Communications.
  60. ^ Greg Bluestein, The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. "Six Flags shutters the Georgia Cyclone after one last hoorah". ajc. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  61. ^ Rutherford, Scott, 1961- (2004). The American roller coaster. St. Paul, MN: Motorbooks International. ISBN 0760319294. OCLC 56339670.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  62. ^ ACE Coaster Classic Awards Archived 2015-09-08 at the Wayback Machine
  63. ^ "Coaster Awards". www.aceonline.org. Archived from the original on December 12, 2010. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  64. ^ Lipton, Eric (November 28, 2000). "Plus: Baseball; Affiliate Named Brooklyn Cyclones". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved July 5, 2019.
  65. ^ "Top 25 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today: 6B. August 1998. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  66. ^ "Top 25 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today: 6B. August 1999. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  67. ^ "Top 25 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. August 2000. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  68. ^ "Top 25 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today: 6B. August 2001. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  69. ^ "Top 25 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today: 6B. September 2002. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  70. ^ "Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today: 10–11B. September 2003. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  71. ^ "Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today: 14–15B. September 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 3, 2007. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  72. ^ "Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today: 22–23B. September 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  73. ^ "Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today: 30–31B. September 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  74. ^ "Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 11 (6.2): 42–43. September 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  75. ^ "Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 12 (6.2): 42–43. September 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  76. ^ "Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 13 (6.2): 38–39. September 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  77. ^ "Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 14 (6.2): 38–39. September 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  78. ^ "Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 15 (6.2): 46–47. September 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  79. ^ "Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 16 (6.2): 46–47. September 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  80. ^ "2013 Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 17 (6.2): 40–41. September 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 19, 2013. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  81. ^ "2014 Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 18 (6.2): 38–39. September 2014. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  82. ^ "2015 Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 19 (6.2): 45–46. September 2015. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  83. ^ "2016 Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 20 (6.2): 46. September 2016. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  84. ^ "2017 Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 21 (6.2): 50. September 2017. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  85. ^ "2018 Top 50 wood Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. 22 (6.2): 48. September 2018. Retrieved September 8, 2013.
  86. ^ "Wooden Roller Coaster Poll 18 Year Results Table (1994 - 2011)". ushsho.com. Retrieved July 9, 2019.

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Giant Dipper
World's Fastest Roller Coaster
June 1927–April 1976
Succeeded by
Screamin' Eagle