Confederate Memorial Day

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Not to be confused with Memorial Day.
Confederate Memorial Day
Beech-Grove-Confederate-Cemetery-grave-tn1.jpg
Standard government headstone for unknown Confederate soldier, Beech Grove, Tennessee
Also called Confederate Heroes Day
Observed by
Type Cultural
Frequency Annual
First time April 26, 1866; 150 years ago (1866-04-26)
Related to

Confederate Memorial Day, also called Confederate Heroes Day in Texas, is a public holiday observed by the U.S. states of Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas since end of the American Civil War to remember the estimated 258,000 members of the Confederate States Army, Navy, Marines, and militia who died in the line of duty.[1] The day is also marked by observances in many other states. It is observed on April 26 in most Southern states to recall the surrender of their last major field army at Bennett Place on that date in 1865.[2] The war officially ended with the signing of Presidential Proclamation 157 on August 20, 1866.[3]

Origins[edit]

The Monument to Confederate Dead, Hollywood, Richmond, Virginia, 1905.

In the spring of 1866 the Ladies Memorial Association of Columbus, Georgia, passed a resolution to set aside one day annually to memorialize the Confederate war dead. Mary Ann Williams, the association secretary, was directed to pen a letter inviting ladies associations in every Southern state to join them in the observance.[4]

Their invitation was written in March 1866 and sent to all of the principal cities in the South, including Atlanta, Macon, Montgomery, Memphis, Richmond, St. Louis, Alexandria, Columbia, and New Orleans. The actual date for the holiday was selected by Elizabeth Rutherford Ellis.[5] She chose April 26, the first anniversary of Confederate General Johnston's surrender to Major-General Sherman at Bennett Place. For many in the South, that date in 1865 marked the end of the civil war.[4]

In their book The Genesis of the Memorial Day Holiday in America, Bellware and Gardiner determine that the national Memorial Day holiday is a direct offshoot of the observance begun by the Ladies Memorial Association of Columbus, Georgia in 1866. In a few places, most notably Columbus, Mississippi[6] and Macon, Georgia,[7] Union graves were decorated during the first observance. The day was even referred to as Memorial Day by the Baltimore Sun on May 8, 1866 after the ladies organization that started it. The name Confederate Memorial Day was not used until the northern observance was initiated in 1868.

While initially cool to the idea of a northern version of the holiday, General John A. Logan was eventually won over as evidenced by his General Order No. 11 of May 5, 1868 wherein he commanded the posts of Grand Army of the Republic (GAR) to likewise strew flowers on the graves of Union soldiers. The GAR eventually adopted the name Memorial Day at their national encampment in 1882.

Many theories have been offered as to how Logan became aware of the southern tradition he imitated in 1868. In her autobiography, his wife claims she told him about it after a trip to Virginia in the spring of that year.[8] His secretary and his adjutant also claim they told him about it. John Murray of Waterloo, New York claims it was he who inspired Logan in 1868. Bellware and Gardiner, however, offer proof that Logan was aware of the southern tributes long before any of them had a chance to mention it to him. In a speech to veterans in Salem, Illinois on July 4, 1866, Logan referred to the various dates of observance adopted in the south for the practice saying “…traitors in the South have their gatherings day after day, to strew garlands of flowers upon the graves of Rebel soldiers...”[9]

Observances[edit]

Confederate Memorial Day observance in front of the Monument to Confederate Dead, Columbia, South Carolina, on May 10, 2012.

Alabama[edit]

In Alabama, Confederate Memorial Day is observed on the last Monday in April.[2] It is a public holiday and state offices are closed.[10]

Florida[edit]

In Florida, Confederate Memorial Day is observed on April 26.[2] When it falls upon a Sunday, the public holiday will be observed on the following Monday.[11]

Georgia[edit]

In Georgia, where Confederate Memorial Day originated, the holiday known as "Confederate Memorial Day" and designated as April 26 was observed on the Monday prior to or on April 26, as proclaimed by the Governor.[12] The state capitol and state agencies are closed, as on all state holidays. In 2016, the name "Confederate Memorial Day" was dropped and April 26 was observed on Monday April 25 and simply designated "State Holiday."[13]

Mississippi[edit]

In Mississippi, Confederate Memorial Day is observed on the last Monday in April.[2] It is a public holiday and state executives may close their respective offices.[14]

South Carolina[edit]

In South Carolina, Confederate Memorial Day is observed on May 10.[2] If on a Saturday, it shifts to Friday. If Sunday, it will be observed the following Monday.[15]

Texas[edit]

In Texas, Confederate Heroes Day (also called Confederate Memorial Day) is observed on January 19. It is a public holiday and some state agencies may operate on reduced staff.[16][17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Boyer, Paul S., ed. (2001). The Oxford Companion to United States History. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 132. ISBN 0-19-508209-5. 
  2. ^ a b c d e Woolf, Henry Bosley, ed. (1976). Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts: G. & C. Merriam Co. p. 236. ISBN 0-87779-338-7. OL 5207141M. 
  3. ^ Plante, Trevor K. (Spring 2015). "Ending the Bloodshed: The Last Surrenders of the Civil War". Prologue. Vol. 47 no. 1. Washington, D.C.: NARA. Retrieved December 18, 2016. 
  4. ^ a b Lucian Lamar Knight. "Georgia's Landmarks, Memorials, and Legends ...: Under the code duello ...". Books.google.com. p. 156. Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  5. ^ "Lizzie Rutherford (1833-1873) | New Georgia Encyclopedia". Georgiaencyclopedia.org. 2004. Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  6. ^ ""Confederate Soldiers' Dead," Louisiana Democrat, July 18, 1866 p.". Library of Congress. July 18, 1866. Retrieved February 23, 2017. 
  7. ^ ""Will They Notice This Touching Tribute," Daily Ohio Statesman, Columbus, OH, May 4, 1866 p.2.". Library of Congress. May 4, 1866. Retrieved February 23, 2017. 
  8. ^ "Logan, Mrs. John A., Reminiscences of a Soldier's Wife, C. Scribner sons, 1913, p. 243". Google Books. Retrieved February 23, 2017. 
  9. ^ ""The Right of Citizenship," Evansville Journal July 30, 1866 pg 4.". Library of Congress. July 30, 1866. Retrieved February 23, 2017. 
  10. ^ "Confederate Memorial Day still recognized in Alabama and across the South". Alabama Media Group. The Associated Press. April 27, 2015. 
  11. ^ "Statutes & Constitution :View Statutes : Online Sunshine". Leg.state.fl.us. Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  12. ^ "2015 Georgia State Holidays" (PDF). State of Georgia. Retrieved February 25, 2017. 
  13. ^ "Georgia State Holidays" (PDF). Website for State of Georgia. Retrieved February 25, 2017. 
  14. ^ "Confederate Memorial Day". Sos.ms.gov. April 27, 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  15. ^ "Division of State Human Resources | Department of Administration - State of South Carolina". Ohr.sc.gov. 2015. Retrieved December 17, 2016. 
  16. ^ "Memorial Day History - Office of Public Affairs". Va.gov. 2015. Retrieved January 15, 2016. 
  17. ^ http://www.hr.sao.texas.gov/Documents/Holidays/Holidays2017.pdf

Further reading[edit]