Confederate colonies were made up of refugees from the Confederate States of America who fled the United States after the latter won the American Civil War (1861–1865). They settled in many countries, especially Brazil, and to a lesser extent Mexico.
Many Southerners had lost their land during the war and were unwilling to live under the government of the United States of America. They did not expect an improvement in the South's economic position. Most of the emigrants were from the states of Alabama, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, South Carolina, and Missouri.
It is unknown how many American southerners emigrated to Latin America. As noted in unpublished research, Betty Antunes de Oliveira found in port records of Rio de Janeiro that some 20,000 Americans entered Brazil from 1865 to 1885. Other researchers have estimated the number at 10,000. An unknown number returned to the United States after the end of Reconstruction, but it is estimated that many of them returned to America. Many of the remaining immigrants who stayed adopted Brazilian citizenship.
In Mexico, Emperor Maximilian had encouraged and subsidized foreign colonization with land grants and appropriation of land. After the French withdrew their support of Maximilian and he was defeated in 1867, these colonies ceased to exist. The land titles were not recognized by the victorious Mexican republicans, who had spent years fighting an Imperial government that was imposed upon them.
- Americana, São Paulo
- Confederate settlements in British Honduras
- Knights of the Golden Circle
- New Virginia Colony
- New Texas
- John C. Breckinridge, escaped to Britain, then Canada, after the end of the Civil War
- Alan M. Tigay, "The Deepest South", American Heritage 49(2), April 1998, pp. 84–95, accessed 25 August 2008
- A Brief History of the Confederate Colonies of Brazil
- The Lost Cause: The Confederate Exodus to Mexico
- The Confederacy's Plan to Conqueror Latin America
- Os Confederados
- Michael L. Conniff and Cyrus B. Dawsey, editors, The Confederados: Old South Immigrants in Brazil Auburn: University of Alabama.|The Confederados: Old South Immigrants in Brazil, Auburn: University of Alabama.
- Eugene C. Harter, The Lost Colony of the Confederacy, Oxford: University Press of Mississippi.
- William Clark Griggs, The Elusive Eden: Frank McMullan's Confederate Colony in Brazil Austin: University of Texas, 1987, about the failed Iguape Colony.
- Riccardo Orizio (Avril Bardoni, translator), Lost White Tribes: The End of Privilege and the Last Colonials in Sri Lanka, Jamaica, Brazil, Haiti, Namibia & Guadeloupe.
- Alan M. Tigay, "The Deepest South", American Heritage 49(2), April 1998, pp. 84–95
- Judith McKnight Jones, a descendant, wrote about the immigration and family trees. Her book Soldado Descansa lists some 400 families and is in Portuguese.
- Alcides Fernando Gussi, Os Norte-Americanos Confederados do Brasil.
- Auburn University in Alabama maintains a special collection of material related to the Confederado immigration, including correspondence, memoirs, genealogies, and newspaper clippings, especially related to Colonel Norris.